Connect with us

Health

What social science says about convincing people to wear masks during the COVID-19 pandemic – CBC.ca

Published

on


Mandating, not just recommending, the use of non-medical masks will help convince more Canadians to wear them as the economy reopens, just as wearing seatbelts is now the norm, some social scientists and physicians say.

In Canada’s largest city, wearing non-medical masks is now mandatory for people riding with the Toronto Transit Commission, with certain exemptions, to prevent the spread of the novel coronavirus. A bylaw extending the rule to indoor public spaces goes into effect on July 7. Similarly, mayors in Peel Region, which includes Mississauga and Brampton, west of Toronto, and York Region to the north also plan to introduce such bylaws.

In Quebec, Premier François Legault announced that public transit users in the province will be required to wear masks starting on July 13.

Governments are passing laws that require the wearing of masks, but they’re difficult to enforce. That’s why behavioural scientists say it’s so important for the public to get on board with many health authorities who now consider face coverings a necessity.

Kim Lavoie, a professor of psychology in behavioural medicine at the University of Quebec at Montreal, is among the experts calling for governments in Canada to consult social scientists on preventive measures like wearing masks as lockdowns lift in the absence of vaccines or effective treatments for COVID-19.

“Wearing a mask is something we control. Washing our hands, staying home, skipping that party are all things we control,” Lavoie said.

“People forget that the virus isn’t more powerful than our collective will to get rid of it, and there are things we can do. But right now, they’re behavioural.”

Many aspects of the pandemic are beyond our control. Wearing a mask isn’t one of them, experts say. (Evan Mitsui/CBC)

Dr. David Fisman, an epidemiologist at the University of Toronto’s Dalla Lana School of Public Health, said masks could help more people get back to business and “regular life.”

“We think it’s sort of low-hanging fruit and a no-brainer,” Fisman said.

Why? Layering on masks on top of hand hygiene, avoiding touching your face and physical distancing helps reduce transmission in small case reports, observational studies and a preliminary model.

“Me wearing a mask protects you. If I have COVID, you wearing a mask also protects you from breathing in my virus,” Fisman said.

While Fisman called Canada “a country of rule followers,” there are people who oppose mandating masks, saying it impinges on individual rights and freedoms.

But with COVID-19, one person’s behaviour affects the next person — the basis for secondhand smoke laws.

“It’s no more [an infringement] than asking you to wear a seatbelt,” Lavoie said. “You’re not free to drink yourself under the table and then get behind the wheel. If you don’t have a PCR test at your house to test yourself negative, then you have to consider the possibility that you might be infected and not know it and be putting us all at risk.”

Protecting yourself a major motivator

Lavoie is one of the researchers behind a large study called iCARE (International assessment of COVID-19-related attitudes, concerns, responses and impacts). Together with collaborators from Johns Hopkins University’s project on cases and Oxford’s policy tracker, they’re regularly surveying Canadians and people around the world on how they feel about and adhere to policies.

The goal of the research is to disentangle what motivates people of different ages and socioeconomic backgrounds to change their behaviour to inform health-care policy and messaging.

Awareness, motivation and confidence are important to changing behaviour, says Kim Lavoie, a professor of psychology in behavioural medicine at the University of Quebec at Montreal. (Submitted by Kim Lavoie)

Based on 50,000 responses since the end of March, Lavoie said the findings to this point suggest that concern about getting infected with the virus is a major motivator.

“One thing people don’t realize is how contagious it is,” she said.

Most people recover at home, but people of all ages have also been severely sickened, some for months, says the Public Health Agency of Canada. Patients say long-term symptoms and consequences such as heart damage are coming to the fore.

An urgent need

While making mask wearing the norm would help prevent transmission, Fisman said mixed messaging and “dithering” by Ontario’s government have hindered mask use from becoming commonplace.

“Once the signal comes from our public health leaders that this is the expectation and this is how we’re going to move forward, I think people will fall in line pretty fast,” he said.

A woman wears a protective face mask as she waits to enter a bank in downtown Vancouver on June 2. (Jonathan Hayward/The Canadian Press)

Wearing masks could be considered a behaviour that needs to be adopted urgently and collectively, Lavoie said.

She pointed to how behavioural change boils down to three factors:

  • Awareness of the need to wear masks.
  • Motivation, such as protecting yourself, loved ones or neighbours who may be vulnerable to serious complications.
  • Confidence in the ability to execute the behaviour.

Cost can be a barrier. That’s why Alberta’s government is distributing 20 million non-medical masks at drive-thru restaurants.

Shift from self-consciousness to the norm

Mitsutoshi Horii, a professor of sociology at Chaucer College in Canterbury, England, studied the uptake of masks in Japan during the 1918 flu pandemic. The practice continues in Japan during flu and hay fever season, as well as during COVID-19.

Horii said when the 1918 flu pandemic hit, the Japanese government prohibited traditional folk rituals around health as part of its efforts to promote modernization and to avoid colonization.

“Then the mask came in and that gave people a sense of direction. When you’re facing uncertainty, you want to do something. By doing something, we establish a sense of control,” he said.

WATCH | Canada’s patchwork of mask measures:

Federal government and health officials are reluctant to make wearing a mask mandatory in Canada, citing a focus on education and issues with enforcement. 1:58

Horii contrasts that with his experience in the U.K. now, where wearing masks is not common.

“Personally, I still feel embarrassed to wear a mask” in the U.K., Horii said, even though they’re now compulsory on public transit in England and will soon be required in stores in Scotland.

He said he thinks changing the rules would encourage him and others to overcome self-consciousness.

“At the same time, I bought some masks and we’re ready to wear [them] at any time. We just need a bit of a push to do it.”

Let’s block ads! (Why?)



Source link

Continue Reading

Health

Living with face masks: How to stow them, reuse disposables and more – CBC.ca

Published

on


Now that wearing a mask to the mall, to the hairdresser and to school will be a regular occurrence for the next two years or more, a lot of questions have arisen about how it will fit into our busy lives.

Masks have recently become mandatory indoors in many cities across Canada and in the entire province of Quebec. The Public Health Agency of Canada is also recommending masks in schools for children over age 10, something that some provinces have already mandated.

Most of us have a handle on the basics, such as what types of masks there are and how to safely put them on and take them off.

We’ve also previously answered questions about:

  • The best materials.

  • Whether to use a filter.

  • How to sneeze or cough with a mask

  • How to stop your glasses from fogging up while wearing one.

  • Whether to wear goggles or face shields with your mask.

That said, now that we’re out and about while wearing masks a lot more than before, here are the answers to some more questions you might have.

Is it safe to pull down my mask and keep it under my chin?

You’ve probably seen lots of people doing this as they move back and forth between indoor spaces where masks are typically required and outdoors spaces where they’re not.

Is this safe? 

“No, that is probably the worst thing you could do with the mask,” Dr. Zain Chagla, a professor and infectious disease specialist at McMaster University in Hamilton, said in a recent interview with CBC News.

WATCH | What’s the safest way to wear a mask when not using it?

An infectious disease physician answers viewer questions about the COVID-19 pandemic including whether it’s safe to pull a mask around the chin when it’s not in use. 2:18

That’s because it risks getting droplets or germs on the outside of the mask onto your chin and lower lip, he says. “You’re basically putting all that stuff in your mouth and defeating the purpose of wearing a mask.”

And of course, pulling the mask down often involves touching the front of it, which is not recommended, as it could contaminate your hands. (Remember that you should only hold the mask by the ear loops and wash your hands before and after).

The virus that causes COVID-19 is thought to be transmitted when infectious droplets enter through the eyes, nose or mouth.

Can I hang a mask on my rearview mirror between uses?

Dr. Anand Kumar, a professor of medicine at the University of Manitoba, says that depends on the level of risk it’s been exposed to.

“As a physician, given the exposure I get in the hospital, I probably wouldn’t do it,” he says.

Dr. Lynora Saxinger, an associate professor at the University of Alberta’s Division of Infectious Diseases in Edmonton, has previously recommended against it, too.

But Kumar acknowledges that the risk of infection in most public places in Canada is currently low, and if you were wearing a mask in a low-risk environment, it’s probably OK to leave it hanging from the mirror overnight to wear the next day. That said, ideally you should change and wash your mask after each use.

What’s the best way to stow a mask while on the go?

Kumar says in a higher-risk environment, such as a community with outbreaks, it’s best to keep the mask on at all times, even when you’re outside between buildings.

“If you’re putting the mask on and off, it gives you more chances to contaminate yourself with it,” he says.

Technically, the proper way to carry a mask between uses would be to put it in a paper bag and carry it around with you, he suggests. Paper is better than plastic for mask storage because plastic keeps the moisture in, which could allow bacteria to grow in the mask, he says.

In places where the risk is low, Kumar says, it’s OK to put the mask in your pocket.

WATCH | Guidelines on how to wear a mask safely:

Glasses fog up? Not sure how often to wash the mask? CBC’s Tina Lovgreen demonstrates how to wear a mask safely. 1:51

Can you reuse a disposable mask? How many times?

While cloth masks are designed to be washed and reused, most medical-style disposable masks are officially designed for a single use — especially in higher-risk environments.

But Kumar says you can reuse them, especially if you’re just out and about in an area with a low prevalence of COVID-19. 

Between uses, he recommends leaving the mask in a paper bag for at least three days. During that time, any virus on the mask will gradually decrease.

He says it would be “perfectly reasonable” to have five to seven masks that are rotated into use on subsequent days.

How many times can you reuse a disposable medical-style mask?

Kumar says with this type of mask, what you see is what you get, so you can reuse it until it’s dirty, worn or damaged. 

“Obviously, you don’t want to reuse a mask that’s soiled,” he says.

N95 masks can also be reused, Kumar says. 

A disposable medical-style mask can be reused until it’s dirty, worn or damaged. (Andrew Lee/CBC)

Can you clean a disposable mask between uses?

Yes. Medical-style disposable masks can be steamed or exposed to sunlight to kill the virus more quickly, Kumar says.

Experts don’t recommend using cleaners or especially disinfectants on such masks, as you could end up breathing them in the next time you use it.

Kumar says N95 masks contain filters that can be damaged with improper cleaning, but they can be safely steamed.

Of course, for cloth masks, washing in the laundry is “the most effective, easiest thing to do.”

It is possible to reuse disposable face masks like this one. If you store it in a paper bag for at least three days between uses, any virus on it should be gone by then. (Andrew Kelly/Reuters)

What should I look for when choosing a reusable mask?

As masks become a bigger part of daily life, you’ll probably need more of them — like socks and underwear. Reusable cloth masks are generally recommended to maintain a supply of disposable, medical masks for essential workers who need them.

Given the huge variety of styles and prices, what should you look for?

Kumar suggests a mask:

  • With multiple layers, as additional layers add more protection.

  • Made of cotton, since viruses remain detectable in some synthetic materials for a longer time.

  • With a good fit — the shape doesn’t matter, just the fit, since a tighter fit forces air through the mask instead of around it.

A higher price doesn’t mean a mask is better, Kumar says. His favourite cloth mask cost $4.

Wearing a mask to prevent the spread of COVID-19, an elementary school student wipes her hands with sanitizer before entering school for classes in Godley, Texas, on Wednesday. An Ontario doctor recommends that students bring two clean masks to school each day. (LM Otero/The Associated Press)

How many masks should your child have for school?

Alberta, which will require teachers and students in Grade 4 and up to wear masks in schools,  is providing two cloth masks per student. But Dr. Jennifer Kwan, a Burlington, Ont., family physician who advocates wearing face masks in public places to curb COVID-19, thinks students will need more to allow time for some to go through the wash.

She recommends that a child go to school each day with two clean masks and switch to a new one after lunch.

Let’s block ads! (Why?)



Source link

Continue Reading

Health

Evening Brief: Drug trials and furry tribulations – iPolitics.ca

Published

on



Tonight’s Evening Brief is brought to you by Shelter Movers. The COVID-19 pandemic has put women at greater risk of experiencing violence at home than ever before. If someone was there for you when you needed it, pass it on — help us move women and children out of abusive households.

Good evening to you.

We begin with a welcome bit of news on the coronavirus front. The federal ministers responsible for the development and production of a vaccine against COVID-19 announced today that the government has reached a deal with American pharmaceutical giants Pfizer and Moderna to manufacture millions of doses of their in-trial vaccines.

The agreements with Pfizer and Moderna are the first the federal government has reached with potential producers of COVID-19 vaccines. At a news conference in Toronto, neither Procurement Minister Anita Anand nor Science and Industry Minister Navdeep Bains would say how many doses of vaccines each company has agreed to provide, nor how much the federal government has agreed to pay for them. They kept the details secret, citing ongoing negotiations with other vaccine providers. But Charlie Pinkerton has more on the details that are known.

Meanwhile, less than pleasant relations between Canada and China may be standing in the way of this country getting early access to a leading COVID-19 vaccine. It turns out Chinese officials are still holding up a shipment of the drug needed to carry out promised human trials here. Although the federal government signed an accord with CanSino Biologics in the spring to test its vaccine here, the trials have yet to start. Postmedia’s Tom Blackwell reports. (iPolitics had the scoop on this delay a month ago.)

And you might want to check the hand sanitizer you’re lathering yourself in. Health Canada is recalling more than 50 of them that contain ingredients “not acceptable for use” and that may pose health risks.

The Conservatives have asked Canada’s privacy commissioner to probe a “potential data breach of Canadians’ privacy” affecting those who applied for the Canada Student Service Grant.

Party industry critic Michelle Rempel Garner and ethics critic Michael Barrett sent a letter today to Privacy Commissioner Daniel Therrien regarding how WE Charity stores personal data collected through the program’s application process. It states that the I Want to Help platform that young Canadians used to apply appears to be built by American firm JazzHR, headquartered in Pittsburgh. The now-offline sign-up page was powered by the company. The terms-and-conditions page for the platform states that applicants’ data “may transfer and be stored on a number of servers and storage locations, including, but not limited to, the U.S., Canada and the U.K.” It also states the program may use third-party vendors for tasks such as hosting its website, analyzing data and processing payments. Entities sub-contracted by WE Charity become subject to privacy laws of their own jurisdiction. Jolson Lim has that story.

There seems to be more than a breeze’s worth of change blowing in Atlantic Canada. On the heels of Andrew Furey’s successful bid to replace Premier Dwight Ball in Newfoundland and Labrador earlier this week, there are rumblings New Brunswickers could be headed to the ballot box before long. Speculation that an election call is coming has been swirling for weeks, and Premier Blaine Higgs isn’t dismissing the rumours. But as the Canadian Press reports, he says if a call is coming, it’s not coming this week. It seems he’s trying to decide whether to send the entire province to the polls in a general election or to just hold byelections in at least three ridings this fall. The minority Progressive Conservative government has a caucus meeting this week, as well as Higgs’s nomination meeting, so stay tuned.

The Sprout: Trade deficit widens while imports, exports go up: StatCan

The Drilldown: Offshore wind could create 900,000 jobs in 10 years, global industry group says

In Other Headlines:

Internationally:

In Beirut, the Lebanese government has put port officials under house arrest in the wake of a blast that killed at least 135 people, injured thousands and flattened large swaths of the city.

The focus on the investigation is now on the potential negligence that allowed 2,750 tons of ammonium nitrate, a highly explosive chemical used in fertilizers, to be stored at the facility for six years. Reuters is reporting that documents show customs officials warned of its hazards after it was unloaded from a cargo ship in 2014. Satellite images obtained by CNN show a massive crater in the port, where nearly every building has either sustained significant damage or has been destroyed. As the world responds with aid and assistance, Foreign Affairs Minister François-Philippe Champagne said today that Canada is ready to assist Lebanon “however we can.”

As what might be the most unusual presidential campaign in American history rolls on, don’t expect to see presumptive Democratic nominee Joe Biden in Milwaukee accept his party’s nomination. Amid concerns over the surging coronavirus, he won’t accept it at the Democratic national convention, but rather at home in Delaware.

“From the very beginning of this pandemic, we put the health and safety of the American people first,” Democratic National Committee chairman Tom Perez said in a statement today. “We followed the science, listened to the doctors and public health experts, and we continued making adjustments to our plans in order to protect lives. That’s the kind of steady and responsible leadership America deserves,” he continued.

Former first lady Michelle Obama dove in deep on her new podcast today, telling listeners she’s “dealing with some form of low-grade depression” this year. “Not just because of the quarantine, but because of the racial strife, and just seeing this administration, watching the hypocrisy of it, day in and day out, is dispiriting,” Obama said, noting the Trump administration’s response to it all has not helped.

“I don’t think I’m unusual in that,” she said. “But I’d be remiss to say that part of this depression is also a result of what we’re seeing in terms of the protests, the continued racial unrest, that has plagued this country since its birth. I have to say that waking up to the news, waking up to how this administration has or has not responded, waking up to yet another story of a Black man or a Black person somehow being dehumanized, or hurt or killed, or falsely accused of something, it is exhausting. And it has led to a weight that I haven’t felt in my life, in a while.” That story from The Hill.

And as if he doesn’t have enough on his plate, between a pandemic and presidential shenanigans, it turns out Dr. Anthony Fauci and his family are getting death threats. That’s what you get, apparently, for trying to keep people safe.

In Opinion:

Seven deadly sins to avoid on the path to anti-racism

The Kicker:

Finally, today, we leave you with a happy “tail.”

Photo: Facebook

Coal, the last remaining alumnus of the Parliament Hill cat sanctuary, is on the mend after an unfortunate tangle with a piece of string last month. The 12-year-old feline spent three days in emergency under the watchful eye of vets after ingesting it. He’s now home with his humans and doing well. And updating his Facebook page, obviously.

Have a great night.

Let’s block ads! (Why?)



Source link

Continue Reading

Health

Canada signs deals with Pfizer, Moderna to get doses of COVID-19 vaccines – Salmon Arm Observer

Published

on


Canada is signing deals with pharmaceutical giant Pfizer and U.S.-based biotech firm Moderna to procure millions of doses of their experimental COVID-19 vaccines.

Procurement Minister Anita Anand is announcing the deals this morning in Toronto, which will see Canada get access to the vaccines if they prove to be both safe and effective.

Both companies began Phase 3 clinical trials of their vaccine candidates in the last week, large-scale tests to determine how well the vaccines work.

Earlier in July both Pfizer and Moderna reported positive results from smaller trials.

The Phase 3 trials will both test the vaccines on 30,000 people, and results are expected in the fall.

Canada’s chief public health officer Dr. Theresa Tam warned Tuesday about expecting a vaccine to provide a quick end to the pandemic, saying they provide hope but likely no silver bullet for the novel coronavirus.

READ MORE: COVID-19 vaccine efforts provide hope but no silver bullet to stop pandemic, Tam says

READ MORE: 30% of British Columbians would ‘wait and see’ before taking COVID vaccine, poll suggests

The Canadian Press


Like us on Facebook and follow us on Twitter.

Want to support local journalism during the pandemic? Make a donation here.

Coronavirusvaccines

Get local stories you won’t find anywhere else right to your inbox.
Sign up here

Let’s block ads! (Why?)



Source link

Continue Reading

Trending