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Where does outer space begin? – The Clare People – The Clare People

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Detailed chronology of events right after the Big Bang (Image : Reproduction/The Ohio State University)

Since then, it has continued to expand more and more, an expansion that lasts 11, 8 billion years. This means that you, me, the Earth, the Sun and the Milky Way are just in a space that already existed at the Big Bang, but that has expanded enough to fit all these cosmic objects that enchant us during a night clear of clouds and fog. This is why we cannot point to the direction where the Big Bang occurred. In a way, we are at the place where it happened.

It is also for these same reasons that the cosmic background radiation (the “fossil” of light left over from the Big Bang) is observed in any direction in space where we look—with large telescopes, of course. Thus, the most appropriate way to ask about the beginning of the universe is not “where” but “when”. This is also true for “where does space outside Earth begin?”, because the Earth is immersed in this space, which is the very expansion that resulted from the Big Bang.

The space where our little one The pale “dot” we call a planet already existed in the Big Bang. It makes no sense to ask where it starts, because we have no external reference to the cosmos. We are in the same universe, where the space between galaxies increases, and where energy and matter are changing all the time.

Where is the edge of the Earth’s atmosphere?

SpaceX’s Inspiration4 mission, which took civilians to space (Image: Reproduction/DrSianProctor/Twitter)

Well, if your question is where the domains of the Earth’s atmosphere end, perhaps the answer could be more objective — but it isn’t! The boundary between our atmosphere and outer space (from the English “outer space”, which literally means “outer space”) is also quite relative. It was not enough to know that the “external space” is nothing else where we are immersed, there is also no exact definition for this border.

There are some international treaties that define “space” as something free for exploration and use by all (as long as it is not used for military purposes), but this does not apply to sovereign airspace above nations, for example. Therefore, countries define their own limits and the laws that govern airspace and outer space are different. So where does a country’s airspace end and space begin? This is a political issue, and some countries, like the US, have resisted the idea of ​​delimiting borders.

It is also difficult to define these limits through the atmosphere, because it doesn’t end up “out of nowhere” , but gradually diminishes until it becomes a thin layer in space. If we take this definition literally, many satellites, and the International Space Station itself, would still be on Earth rather than in space. But things are more complicated than that.

Some experts might also say that space starts at the point where the atmosphere alone is not enough to support a spaceship at suborbital speeds. The opposite may also be true — there must be a limit where satellites can no longer orbit. If we observe the flight of all satellites with publicly available data, we realize that they can orbit the planet countless times below an altitude of approximately 80 km, but those who dipped below 100 km met a quick and fulminating end, most of the time.

I was once a child with a dream looking up to the stars. Now I’m an adult in a spaceship looking down to our beautiful Earth. To the next generation of dreamers: if we can do this, just imagine what you can do https://t.co/Wyzj0nOBgX #Unity13 @virgingalactic pic.twitter.com/03EJmKiH8V

— Richard Branson (@richardbranson) July 11, 470533

Apparently there are few atmospheric effects above 13 km of altitude. But maybe there is not much interest from companies, organizations and countries in establishing this limit. On the other hand, as space tourism becomes more and more real, the debate may be amplified. After all, if you pay a fortune to go into space, you’ll probably want to make sure you’re actually off planet Earth. a lot of confidence that our planet’s boundary with “outer space” is this or that altitude.

Source: National Geographic, Astronomy

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NASA Lucy Mission: Are Solar System Stem Cells Orbiting Jupiter? – The Press Stories

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  • Jonathan Amos
  • Science Reporter

17 October 2021, 13:13 IST

Photo source, Reuters

Photo caption,

Lucy Ning collided with the Atlas rocket

A spacecraft was sent from Cape Canaveral to explore the fossil record in the solar system.

Lucy is a spacecraft orbiting Jupiter (Jupiter-Jupiter) to study clusters of two asteroids. One of them is in front of Jupiter in the orbit of the campus. The other is in the back.

NASA scientists say the study of these asteroids could help understand the effects of the first phase of solar system formation.

The Lucy spacecraft was launched from the Cape Canaveral in Florida at 9.45am on Saturday on an Atlas-5 rocket.

NASA initially decided to spend $ 98.1 billion (approximately Rs. 7,360 crore) on the mission over a twelve-year period.

Lucy is a human fossil in Africa

Photo source, Jason Kaffer CC

Photo caption,

Lucy is a human skeleton fossil in Africa

There is a human fossil in Africa called Lucy. It was this fossil that helped us learn more about the existence of the human race.

Due to its inspiration, NASA carries out this mission under the same name.

“Trojan meteorites orbit Jupiter at 60 degrees,” said Hall Lewison of the Southwest Research Institute in Colorado. He was the leading researcher on the Lucy spacecraft.

“Under the influence of the gravitational pull of Jupiter and the Sun, these asteroids are constantly orbiting in that orbit. If any object falls there in the early days of the solar system, it will always be stable. So these fragments are fossils of what the planets are made of,” said Hall Louison.

Lucy in asteroids (fiction)

Photo source, NASA / SWRI

Photo caption,

Lucy in asteroids (fiction)

Lucy explores many factors such as the shape, texture, surface conditions and composition of the materials that make up their pieces that are the size of the city or larger.

Jupiter is examining whether these fragments are derived from objects found on satellites.

“For example, if they were made of the same materials as we call the Khyber belt, we would assume that they are made of the Khyber belt and then rotate,” said Dr. Carly Howet, a Southwest Mission scientist. Research Institute.

Carly said the task was the result of some unusual navigation calculations.

Lucy will travel a total of 600 million kilometers. It will explore the Trojan complex in 2027/28. Jupiter will then reach the clusters of pieces on the other side in 2033.

Asteroids

When and where did Lucy go

The group ahead of Jupiter in orbit:

* Eurobates, Queta (Natural Satellite) – August 2027

* Polymel – September 2027

Lucas – April 2028

* Oras – November 2028

The group behind Jupiter in orbit:

* Petroclus, Menosius – March 2033

Key Belt Asteroids:

* Donald Johnson – April 2025

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Astronauts capture stunning aurora from International Space Station – Space.com

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Astronauts got to see an amazing display of southern lights over New Zealand and Antarctica earlier this month.

Spectacular images and footage of the green-hued aurora flowed from the International Space Station, where the Expedition 66 crew got a view of the Indian Ocean show and shared it on social media.

“I caught this aurora just as orbital sunrise was beginning. Breathtaking!” wrote NASA astronaut Shane Kimbrough on Oct. 12, two days after the show took place. With his tweet came a sweeping view of auroras over the barely lit limb of the Earth.

Auroras take place when charged particles from the sun, known as the solar wind, flow along the magnetic field lines of Earth and interact with our atmosphere. As the particles are deflected by the magnetic field to our planet’s poles, their interactions with the atmosphere dumps in energy and causes the atmosphere to glow.

Amazing auroras: Stunning northern lights photos

A stunning aurora rips over the Indian Ocean on Oct. 10, 2021, as seen by International Space Station astronauts. Credit: NASA (Image credit: NASA)

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The sun is somewhat near the beginning of a solar cycle, which lasts about 11 years. Each cycle has a “maximum,” at which point there is more solar activity manifested as solar flares and coronal mass ejections, which can cause auroras if any particles flow in the right direction towards Earth.

While we’re not near that maximum phase right now, the astronauts had a great viewpoint from their orbit at approximately 250 miles (400 km) above Earth, with no interfering atmosphere in the way. That said, French astronaut Thomas Pesquet said eventually the sun stopped observations.

“The view in this #timelapse passes the #aurora to marvel at the stars and then be overwhelmed by a sunrise,” Pesquet wrote in a tweet posted on Sunday (Oct. 17).

Although the aurora is beautiful, it could accompany a real danger for astronauts: radiation. NASA has lifetime radiation protocols in place for its spaceflyers to protect against ill effects of radiation events in orbit, which can be associated with conditions such as cancer. The agency is also investigating the exposure for astronauts at future spaceflight destinations such as the moon and Mars.

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Follow Elizabeth Howell on Twitter @howellspace. Follow us on Twitter @Spacedotcom and on Facebook.  

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Australia must commit to carbon cuts to keep green energy advantage -Fortescue’s Forrest

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Australia risks losing its advantage in the green energy revolution if its leaders don’t promptly commit to cutting carbon emissions by 2050, the country’s richest man, Fortescue Metals Group founder Andrew Forrest said on Monday.

Forrest, who grew Fortescue from a minnow to rival the world’s biggest mining giants in less than two decades, has spearheaded his company’s global green energy drive, signing deals from Brazil to Indonesia to Democratic Republic of Congo.

The company aims to build a 250 megawatt hydrogen electrolyser at Bell Bay in Tasmania — 25 times the size of the biggest existing electrolysers in the world — for less than A$1 billion ($740 million), Forrest said, putting a price on the project for the first time.

Fortescue is ready to make a final investment decision this year, as promised, but is waiting for support from the state government before going ahead with the project.

While Forrest told Reuters that Australia is the best place to realise his green vision, the country’s failure to commit to a policy to cut emissions is risking that advantage.

“I would say 2050 neutrality is a certainty for Australia. If we support it by COP26 the dividend flow to regional Australia will be substantial. If we don’t support it by COP26, the future will remain uncertain,” Forrest said, referring to the COP 26 climate conference in Glasgow at the end of October.

“The renewable energy, green hydrogen, green ammonia, green electricity industry is very, very mobile,” he said.

“It is where the will is strongest – they will be the first to be developed.”

Australia’s energy policy is again in the spotlight as Prime Minister Scott Morrison prepares to attend the conference, where global leaders will meet to set further climate goals to follow on from the landmark 2015 Paris accord.

But Morrison is short on updated climate ambitions to bring to the table given his reliance on the junior partner in Australia’s coalition government which said it would not be rushed into a decision on whether to support a target of net zero emissions by 2050.

The Nationals who represent coal and farming heartlands worry that stronger emissions targets will cost jobs. Coal is the country’s second biggest export earner.

But Forrest, speaking to Reuters from London, said that rural Australians were set to be the biggest winners in the move to green energy – if agreements are made in time.

“I have demonstrated investment into the regions despite the fact Australia is dragging the chain,” Forrest told Reuters.

Fortescue is investigating the potential to convert top Australian fertiliser maker Incitec Pivot’s Brisbane ammonia plant to use green hydrogen as a feedstock instead of natural gas, with an on-site electrolysis plant that will produce up to 50,000 tonnes of hydrogen a year.

The plant’s future had been under threat due to soaring gas prices, however setting up a green hydrogen production site to feed the existing plant could save 400 jobs and create many more, Forrest said.

At the same time, the product from the plant will be cheaper for local farmers.

“So farmers in Australia long into the future can plan for the next season, or even for the next generation … knowing that fertilisers are coming from a hydrogen molecule that is infinite,” Forrest said.

(Reporting by Melanie Burton and Sonali Paul; Editing by Kirsten Donovan)

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