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Who is eligible for a 4th COVID-19 vaccine dose? A province-by-province breakdown –



As a seventh wave of COVID-19 begins sweeping across Canada, with the Omicron BA.5 subvariant driving transmission, some provinces are expanding eligibility for a fourth dose of the vaccine.

The National Advisory Committee on Immunization (NACI) released its guidance for a fall booster campaign late last month. The federal advisory body recommended that those with increased risk of severe illness from COVID-19 should be offered a shot in the fall, adding that anyone between the ages of 12 and 64 may also be eligible at that time.

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Although all provinces are offering a fourth dose to eligible groups, as of June 19, just over half of Canadians have yet to receive their third dose, according to the Public Health Agency of Canada (PHAC).

“I would really double down on those efforts, in terms of getting fourth doses into the most vulnerable, and third doses into a lot of people who are still eligible but have not yet received them,” said Dr. Isaac Bogoch, an infectious disease specialist and physician with the University Health Network in Toronto.

While most provinces are already offering a fourth shot (or, for the general population, a second booster, as some immunocompromised individuals receive a third shot during their primary series) to their most vulnerable residents, some — such as Quebec and P.E.I. — have expanded eligibility substantially.

WATCH | Specialist says 3rd, 4th shots are important:

3rd and 4th COVID-19 shots both important right now, says expert

1 day ago

Duration 3:59

Infectious disease specialist Dr. Isaac Bogoch explains who benefits most from a fourth dose of COVID-19, but also stresses the need for many people to simply get a third shot.

“Those who would most benefit from a fourth dose are people on the older end of the spectrum and people with underlying medical conditions that put them at greater risk for severe infection,” Bogoch said, speaking specifically to the eligibility guidelines in July 2022.

“That’s what the data suggests,” he said. “So even if it’s opened up, just remember, that’s who would most benefit from a fourth dose.”

Below, CBC News has gathered eligibility guidelines from every province and territory.

The North and West Coast

Agnes Mills, 85, was the first person in the Yukon to receive the COVID-19 vaccine. Last week, the territorial government expanded eligibility for a fourth shot to those aged 18 and up. (Mark Kelly Photography/Government of Yukon)

Last week, the Yukon government expanded eligibility for a fourth shot.

All individuals 18 and older can now book a fourth shot if six months have passed since their third shot. Appointments begin on July 13. For those who have recently had COVID-19, a fourth shot (or second booster) is not recommended until three months have passed.

In the Northwest Territories, all individuals aged 50 and older and all immunocompromised people aged 12 and older are eligible to receive a fourth dose. In accordance with NACI’s guidelines, the territory recommends that individuals wait at least six months after their third dose before booking another shot.

Residents of Nunavut aged 18 and older are eligible for a fourth dose if it has been 4½ months since their last dose. Some jurisdictions are prioritizing specific age groups. 

In British Columbia, everyone aged 12 and up can receive a booster shot if six months have passed since their last dose, though those eligible are advised to wait until fall.

The province currently recommends a fourth dose for individuals aged 70 and older; people in long-term care or awaiting placement in long-term care; Indigenous people aged 55 and older; and all immunocompromised people.

The Prairies

A scene from a COVID-19 vaccination clinic in Thompson, Man. on Feb. 1, 2021. Among other groups, all Manitobans aged 50 and up are eligible for a fourth dose. (Tyson Koschik/CBC)

In Alberta, those 70 and up are eligible for a fourth dose; First Nations, Métis and Inuit people aged 65 and older; and all seniors living in congregate-care settings, regardless of age. 

According to the most recently available data from PHAC, 38 per cent of Alberta’s population has received a third dose. 

In Saskatchewan, all individuals 50 and over are eligible for a fourth dose if it’s been at least four months since they received their last shot.

Groups eligible for a fourth dose of the vaccine in Manitoba are individuals aged 50 and older; First Nations, Métis and Inuit people aged 30 and up; residents of personal care homes and elderly people living in congregate settings; and moderately to severely immunocompromised individuals aged 18 to 49.

Central Canada

The Vaccibus mobile clinic makes a stop at the University of Quebec in Outaouais in the first week of September 2021. Quebec has expanded eligibility for a fourth dose of the vaccine to all residents aged 18 and older. (Hugo Belanger/Radio-Canada)

As of July 14 in Ontario, all adults aged 18 to 59 who had a third shot at least five months ago (or three months since a COVID-19 infection) will be eligible for a fourth. Previously, the eligible groups were those aged 60 and older and First Nations, Métis and Inuit people who are 18 and older. 

According to public health officials, Quebec and Ontario entered the seventh wave of the pandemic last week, with the Omicron BA.5 subvariant dominating in both provinces.

Meanwhile, Quebec has expanded fourth-dose eligibility to all residents aged 18 and older, though a provincial spokesperson confirmed to CBC News that the province is prioritizing people 60 years and up, all individuals with underlying medical conditions, and anyone at a higher risk of complications from COVID-19. 

Atlantic Canada

A walk-in clinic is held at the Halifax Convention Centre. Nova Scotia’s current guidelines allow fourth doses for those aged 50 and older, if 168 days have passed since their last dose. (Robert Short/CBC)

The chief public health officer of Prince Edward Island announced last week that the province has expanded eligibility for a fourth shot to every resident aged 12 and up, as COVID-19 case numbers rise among Islanders.

Starting July 20 in Newfoundland and Labrador, anyone over 50 will be eligible for a fourth dose of the vaccine. Until then, those eligible are people aged 70 and older; all individuals living in a congregate setting for seniors; and Indigenous people or individuals living in a remote or isolated Indigenous community aged 18 and up.

WATCH | People over 50 eligible in N.L.:

N.L. offers 2nd COVID-19 booster to those over 50

4 hours ago

Duration 0:49

Newfoundland and Labrador is opening up eligibility for a second COVID-19 booster shot to anyone over 50, but the chief medical officer of health says there are many things to consider before getting another dose.

As of July 12, all residents of New Brunswick aged 18 and up are eligible for a fourth dose of the vaccine if it has been five months since their last shot. Chief medical officer of health, Dr. Jennifer Russell, announced the decision as hospitalizations rise across the province.

Nova Scotia’s current guidelines allow fourth doses for people aged 50 and older if 168 days have passed since their last dose.

For all residents of long-term care and senior congregate settings, members of First Nations communities who are 55 and older, and immunocompromised people aged 50 and older, the recommended interval between doses is 120 days.

  • Book here for an mRNA vaccine (Moderna, Pfizer). Book here for a non-mRNA vaccine (Janssen, Novavax). mRNA vaccines are recommended for most people in Canada.

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Its a Jungle out there: Microscopic Threats abound



COVID-19 and its many variants, Monkeypox and several sexually transmitted diseases that have been with us for many decades looking for hosts. Yup, these viruses have been with us for a long time and infection rates are continually increasing. Protection from these invaders is legion and often have some familiarity with each other. HIV infections have increased globally by 23% since 2018. There seems to be a new Sexual Transmitted disease(STD) announced every few months. Viruses have regional pandemic control, but with the ease of travel the spread of threatening viruses continues and our health systems are often not ready for this spread. Our medical professionals are at their wits ends, burnt out and often migrating to a newer, less stressful profession, leaving us with staff shortages globally.

How to stay safe and healthy during this time? Well, don’t laugh folks. Really. Here goes.

1. Get your vaccinations for Covid-19 and Monkeypox(where available).

2. Masks are still a barrier between you and what can harm you in the air around you.

3. Know who you’re having intimate relations and contact. Meaning who you are getting close to, hugging, kissing and yes having sex with. Monkeypox passes onto others through contact with clothing, fabric items, intimate touching etc. Do you remember the old 6-9 feet rule(2-3 meters)? That will work. Monkeypox spreads through the contact period. Sexual contact too, even if you are using protection like a condom(good for you if you’re trying to ward off STDs). Know the activities of family members, and keep in mind that your family and communities overall health is dependent upon what we all do. If there is a person who goes to bars, sporting activities and the like, who gets into large groups of people where there is a chance of infection? I guess what I am trying to say is that a person who walks into a very dark alley late at night should not be surprised if a bad thing could happen to them. Victim shaming? No way. Being realistic and using commonsense to plan my activities. Take yourself away from places and persons who could possibly infect you.

4. Educate yourself, family and friends. Knowledge will help you stay away from the viral crouching tigers out there, waiting to pounce upon you. True medical professionals can and will help you, educate and direct you towards a healthy outcome. So-called fake news needs to be ignored.

These last two years have been difficult for sure. I know of 17 individuals who have died because of Covid-19, several people who have been struggling with various STDs for years, and no one who has been infected by Monkeypox. All the illnesses that surround us have one thing in common. The host allows them in, either through ignorance or mishap(unintentionally). So far my family and I have been safe from these viruses. Fingers crossed eh?

Folks, what do you tell your children when they need to cross the street? Look both ways before crossing. Good advice folks. Observe your surroundings and think carefully before you act.

Steven Kaszab
Bradford, Ontario

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Did I make a mistake by not investing in a house? –



This First Person column is the experience of Lise Watson who lives in Toronto. For more information about CBC’s First Person stories, please see the FAQ

My family and I live down the hall from my 90-year-old mother in a co-op building in the heart of Toronto. She’s fiercely independent, and even after my dad died, she insisted on living alone. 

So instead of trying to find her a new home close to me, I packed up my bags and moved into her building. 

The co-op has been our home for over 20 years. We live in an attractive, well-maintained red brick building. We are blessed with two lovely rooftop gardens, a central location close to all amenities and public transit, and a membership that cares deeply about social justice and environmental sustainability. We know and care about all of our neighbours and have a diverse membership of seniors, young children, and differently abled people. Everyone is welcome.

Most importantly, our home is affordable.

A rainbow forms in the distance over green spaces from an apartment overlooking the city.
The view from Lise Watson’s apartment in downtown Toronto. (Lise Watson)

As members all pitch in and work together to maintain our building, the co-op can keep rent levels lower than market rates. 

We pay $1,160 monthly for a two-bedroom apartment, and that means we can continue living in a city which is becoming increasingly expensive. Just across the street, a two-bedroom apartment that is not in a co-op building is renting for almost $2,500 per month with heat and hydro on top. And that’s the norm. 

I’m grateful to live where I do, but the long-term future for co-ops like ours is uncertain. Established in the 1980s, our co-op is in need of new kitchens, bathrooms and heat pumps. 

While my co-op has savings for capital projects such as this for now, it’s built on leased property and its future isn’t secure. I’m also constantly reminded of the pressures that many co-ops face in the media. Many are struggling with repair costs; some have been forced to raise rents to factor these expenses into their housing charges. Others need to go to banks to secure new financing or are applying for government assistance

If my co-op is unable to maintain its sustainable rent, my family will be forced to look outside the city for affordable housing. 

Two women smile at the camera. One of them holds a glass.
Lise Watson, right, and her mom have a close relationship. (Lise Watson)

I am 65 years old. I’m proud and happy with all that I have accomplished in my life, but in these troubled economic and social times, I have some doubts about my life decisions and investments.   

Growing up, I never wanted to be a homeowner. 

My father was the son of a fish and chip shop owner in northern England. He immigrated to Canada with high hopes and dreams in the 1950s. Dad was a self-taught copywriter and layout man. He met and fell in love with my mom at a Toronto ad agency. My parents scrimped and saved to buy a newly built home in Oakville, Ont., in the mid-1960s. It was a dream come true for them at the time. 

A black and white photo of a man and woman holding champagne glasses.
Lise Watson’s parents got married in 1954. (Submitted by Lise Watson)

Farmer’s fields, ravines, and forests surrounded our family home. After finding local cows one day trampling our neighbour’s patio, my parents realized that good fencing was a necessity. I still vividly remember my dad digging post holes himself with a crowbar and it seemed to take forever. 

Their budget was severely stretched. My parents couldn’t lay down grass in our backyard until a few years later, so we kids trailed into the house with red clay muck on our shoes regularly, much to my mom’s dismay. As children we spent hours each summer climbing trees and jumping into piles of yellowed grass and leaves, checking out the tadpoles and frogs in the creeks, and picking and eating sour apples from abandoned orchards. 

It sounds idyllic now, but it lacked a sense of community. There was little infrastructure, no school, churches, community organizations, public transit, or even nearby grocery stores for many years.

There was a sense of isolation and it was emotionally detrimental to a city gal like my mom who became a homemaker after her marriage. We were a one-car family and my dad drove to Hamilton every day for work. We were bussed several miles to school each day. 

A smiling woman with long hair stands on the stairs.
Lise Watson, age 22, grew up in Oakville, Ont. (Submitted by Lise Watson)

I wanted a different kind of life. I dreamed of going to university and travelling. So I struck out on my own after high school and funded my own part-time university education at the University of Toronto at the downtown campus. The city was an oasis for me, and I never left except to travel. 

My quest to find a vibrant and welcoming community led me to Toronto’s African music scene, and later to West Africa where I married my husband. Six years ago, I brought him and his son to Canada. I have happily supported them as they adjusted to a vastly different culture and now make remarkable contributions to our community. For decades, I have complemented my career in university student service by volunteering at music festivals and a community radio station and in 1997, I started my own community arts publication.

I have had a rich and rewarding life.  But the financial consequences are beginning to take a toll as Toronto becomes unaffordable.

A woman cuts a cake while a man and child look on.
Lise Watson, right, got married in Gambia in 2013. In this wedding photo, Watson cuts a cake with her husband and his son from a previous relationship. (Submitted by Lise Watson)

Today I wonder if I made the right decision by investing in education and life experiences rather than housing security and material possessions. I admit that I have been privileged to make this kind of a choice. Home ownership was low on my priority list. If I had a safe, clean home, that was good enough for me. I never dreamed that some day affordable housing would become scarce. 

Some of my oldest friends made different decisions than me. They focused on home ownership, paying off the mortgage and raising families. Today they are retired, sit in their gardens — some even have pools —  and enjoy the grandkids and travel to all-inclusive Caribbean resorts. They appear relatively content and clearly not worried about housing security. 

I envy the peace of mind they have but still contend that this was not the life for me. I know I did the right thing for me — and my mom — at the time. But now I fear for our housing future.

Do you have a similar experience to this First Person column? We want to hear from you. Write to us at

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Why does Cruelty Happen? #1 of a three part series (what is, animals rights today, Building Life’s process)




” The fidelity of a dog is a precious gift demanding no less binding moral responsibilities than the friendship of a human being”(Konrad Lorenz)

For many of us, the above statement expresses our tender and emotional attachment to our pets, domesticated creatures that at times become members of the family. The West has placed “pets” onto a platform, a pedestal that separates them from the so-called “wildlife” many of us hear about but do not experience. With a sound approach, we will need to explore why cruelty is imposed upon others, whether they be humans or animals.

Scientists have ventured to acknowledge that most animals show no visible forms of cruelty towards their offspring or prey. The same goes for most of your neighbours too. Most people of sound mind show no or little tendencies towards cruelty. What does cruelty mean? Webster’s Dictionary says it is ” the callous indifference towards or pleasure in causing pain and suffering of others”.

Why do scoundrels, villains, reprobates, knaves, rogues and bullies hurt others? If cruelty happens all over the place, in your neighbourhood, community and even your family what causes it?

Situation: A number of chaps see a mild-mannered dog, and proceeded to taunt, kick and torture the creature. They had no reason to harm the animal, and yet they did so with relish. The dog was no threat, just minding its own business and these men assaulted the animal. Crazy actions right? Unsolicited violence. Violence for its own sake.

Cruelty and violence are partnered in this mental health issue. To hit someone is one thing, but to cruelly beat someone, is totally different. How can someone look into the eyes of a dog, a child, a woman or an innocent animal and basically terrorize it? Fear, emotions, personal loss, an adrenaline rush, superiority complex and so much more are involved. The men who tortured the dog are mentally ill and need assistance immediately. If allowed to get away with it, they may evolve to a different kind of victimization. Medical professionals may say that cruelty is a response to some personal past or present negative experience. Perhaps. Cruelty to animals is one way that a person can express his/her multi-psychological needs.

1. People can get a high(adrenaline rush) from inflicting pain. Dopamine is a neurotransmitter that gives your brain the ability to think and plan. Too little or too much can lead to vast mental health issues. Cruel people are affected by dopamine levels.

2. In our pursuit to become, humanity has produced some people who require power and reinforce this need by harming, torturing and scaring others. A victim-prey mentality develops. It starts in a person’s youth, often experimenting through animal harm and torture. If you know of a child that harms animals let the authorities know. Do something about it.

There are many myths out there prescribing reasons for cruelty. Dehumanization is one. Cruel people often dehumanize others and many medical professionals believe that simply pointing out that victimizers are not evil, but just like others. Reeducate and reform. Another myth is that those who are evil victimizers are psychopaths, sadists driven to experience other people’s pain. Complicated. A white Supremacist knows that blacks and Jews are human beings. Their fright hinges on their belief that one race is trying to replace another. They cannot tell the public this, so they dehumanize their perceived victims. Ever hear someone call a Police Officer a “PIG”? Dehumanization at its best don’t you think?

Some British Psychologists and Sociologists believe that Cruelty is born out of a normal and natural appreciation of the humanity of others, which then connects with certain important appetites we have, like an appetite to punish someone you believe did you wrong. People who are cruel are just like us, but under the right conditions, anyone can do horrible things. Feelings and needs to be noticed, and appreciated and if that cannot happen then bring on fear and violence. One way or another some people need to be noticed. People can be manipulated by others, individuals, crowds or even movements-governments, to do terrible things.

Why are animals tortured, harmed and killed horribly? Many societies in the past viewed animals as possessions of humanity. Things to be used. A cultural thing. I knew a fellow who owned a farm. His dog went mad, so it was uncontrollable. This man killed the dog in a most horrible way. Many people watched the event with hardly a protest voiced. I called the Cops. Various portions of the society you live in may have different ways of viewing animals. whether they in fact have rights. No matter how you view this, the victimization, torture and assault upon an animal just to cause fear and pain is wrong. To do so shows us a person who is mentally ill, and in need of mental health assistance immediately.

Did you know that 88% of American Serial Killers started off their careers as young people who tortured animals? But let’s forget about serial killers. Know that ordinary people, like your neighbours, family members or those who you work with can become mentally ill, or so enraged by something that they may lose it, and commit what should not happen, violence upon another.

Modern-day societies have shown a reluctance in getting involved in animal rights, allowing individuals the freedom to treat animals as they see fit. Only through exerted pressure from the public will these governmental authorities protect animals, most of the time after they have been assaulted.

According to Buddha “The root of suffering is desire”. The cause of suffering is desires, so could we choose to transform our unhealthy social desires into desires that create, nourish life and respect the other?

Steven Kaszab
bradford, ontario

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