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Why an Omicron infection alone might not offer the immune boost you'd expect – CBC News



In the span of just weeks, millions of Canadians became infected with SARS-CoV-2. Globally, more cases were reported in the first 10 weeks after the Omicron variant was identified than in all of 2020.

It was a mass infection event quite unlike anything we’d seen in the pandemic to date, hitting both the unvaccinated and vaccinated — but not in the same way.

While vaccinated and boosted individuals largely avoid dire outcomes from COVID-19, data continues to show that unvaccinated individuals remain at a far higher risk of serious illness, hospitalization, and death.

Emerging evidence also suggests high infection rates won’t necessarily translate into widespread protection against re-infections down the line — unless you’re layering Omicron exposure onto the broader immunity provided by vaccines.

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“In people who are not vaccinated, they’re not making a good response to Omicron,” said immunologist and University of Toronto professor Jennifer Gommerman.

“It’s very different than for people who are fully vaccinated against SARS-CoV-2; those people seem to make a good response to Omicron, which is good news.”

‘Wimpy’ immunity signal from just Omicron in lab 

It’s clear leading vaccines, designed to combat the original SARS-CoV-2 strain, struggle more against this latest variant. Its constellation of mutations — dozens of them, including many in the virus’s spike protein — allow it to break through that immunity, though two vaccine doses still cut your chance of getting seriously ill.

Boosters, meanwhile, seem to ramp up the level of protection even more, both studies and government data show.

A study shared online in January, which isn’t yet published or peer-reviewed, offered an early look at where Omicron fits into the ever-evolving immunity puzzle that scientists have been striving to piece together since SARS-CoV-2 first burst into global consciousness in early 2020.

Was there, perhaps, an upside to such widespread Omicron infection at once?

“The question that everybody raised is … is that really going to lead to immunity — herd immunity, mass immunity — so that we, at least for a while, are safe from other variants?” said researcher Melanie Ott, director of the Gladstone Institute of Virology and a professor of medicine at the University of California San Francisco. 

In hopes of finding an answer, Ott and other researchers exposed lab mice to different variants and found being infected with the previously-dominant Delta variant induced broad immunity against both Delta and Omicron. Catching Omicron, the team found, didn’t have the same effect, only shielding mice from an Omicron reinfection.

A close-up look at the Omicron variant of SARS-CoV-2, with low magnification showing a cell (left) after infection and high magnification (right) of an infected cell featuring viral particles with corona-shaped spikes on their surface. (HKUMed and Electron Microscope Unit/HKU)

Gommerman, who was not affiliated with the study, said the use of mice offered the researchers a blank slate, assuring the subjects didn’t have previous exposure to this virus, but was also a key limitation — more research is needed to confirm the early findings in humans.

The team did also analyze human samples from Omicron and Delta breakthrough cases in vaccinated individuals, and in this case, both variants appeared to offer an immune boost to protect against getting reinfected with the other.

Together, the results indicate that having an Omicron infection “enhances pre-existing immunity elicited by vaccines,” but might not induce broad immunity in unvaccinated individuals, the researchers wrote.

In an interview with CBC News, Ott put it this way: “In the unvaccinated people, I think this response is very narrow and limited, and might not have the anticipated result of broad herd immunity for protection against future variants.”

Vaccines, meanwhile, offer a “fantastic background for immunity to build up if you have a breakthrough infection,” she added.

Gommerman agreed the results signal there’s likely a “wimpy immune response” post-Omicron in people who get infected without previously being vaccinated.

“People who are unvaccinated and got Omicron might think they’re good to go,” she said. “And that’s likely not the case based on this preprint.”

WATCH | COVID-19 deaths, hospitalizations hit record highs:

COVID-19 deaths, hospitalizations hit record highs in Canada

5 days ago

Duration 3:43

Across Canada, the number of COVID-19 deaths and hospitalizations have climbed to record highs. But it appears the Omicron wave is waning with fewer overall infections, giving some experts optimism for the coming months. 3:43

Immunity like building up an army

The apparent differences in how our bodies tackle this evolving virus, depending on whether the exposures happen post-vaccination or without that extra protection, aligns with the basic science behind how vaccines work.

When your body first encounters a virus or a vaccine, vaccine researcher Alyson Kelvin explains, your immune system builds up an army to attack different parts of that threat.

“If you see the same virus or vaccine again, then you go back to that same army — and you pick out the strongest members of that army,” she continued. “If you encounter a completely different virus or vaccine, then you will no longer go back and recall that old army. You’ll have to make a new one.”

As this virus keeps evolving, that could mean a need for more fresh armies, building up and broadening our immune system’s defence network one infection at a time.

Kelvin, who works at the University of Saskatchewan’s Vaccine and Infectious Disease Organization, is among those hopeful that through a combination of vaccination and infections, that population-level immunity will continue to rise, while instances of severe disease continue to drop. 

“That’s an optimistic point of view,” she admitted. “But we can always have a brand new, antigenically-different coronavirus that might change all that, and we’re not able to lean back on our pre-existing immunity.”

WATCH | Pfizer testing Omicron-based vaccine:

Pfizer testing Omicron-based vaccine amid concerns about twin variant

9 days ago

Duration 2:02

Pfizer has started testing an Omicron-based COVID-19 vaccine to see if it can prevent infection and not only severe illness. The testing comes as researchers investigate an emerging variant described as Omicron’s twin. 2:02

The weeks and months ahead will provide researchers with a better sense of how robust and long-lasting post-Omicron immunity may be, and how it differs between the vaccinated and unvaccinated.

There’s also ongoing research to adapt existing Pfizer-BioNTech and Moderna vaccines to this variant, while other global teams are exploring universal coronavirus vaccines that could tackle any future variants, or intranasal options which may prevent more mild, breakthrough infections from happening in the first place.

All those efforts offer hope that regardless of how our bodies handle infections, vaccines will continue providing a way out of this pandemic — but that requires people actually getting the shots.

“We got kind of lucky with Omicron in that it causes more mild illness, but there’s no guarantee that a subsequent variant will likewise be mild,” Gommerman said. 

“So for those Canadians who have yet to be vaccinated, if they’ve had Omicron, that shouldn’t stop them; they should still go out and get the vaccine.”

Have questions about this story? We’re answering as many as we can in the comments or email us at

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Toronto Public Health hosting pop-up COVID-19 vaccination clinics throughout Canada Day weekend –



Toronto Public Health continues to host summer pop-up vaccination clinics across the city in partnership with Toronto’s Canada Day festivals and special events. This is part of Team Toronto’s continued efforts to bring COVID-19 vaccination opportunities to places residents live, work and play.

“As people gather to celebrate Canada Day across the city, Team Toronto will be out helping residents get vaccinated against COVID-19 and keep their vaccinations up to date,” said Mayor John Tory. “We have made such progress thanks to our world-leading vaccination efforts, and that’s why we’re continuing to work throughout this holiday and into the summer to help deliver vaccine doses.”

TPH will host the following vaccination clinics in early July:

• High Park Canada Day Festival at High Park, 1873 Bloor St. W., Friday, July 1, 10 a.m. to 2 p.m.

• East York Canada Day Festival at Stan Wadlow Park. 373 Cedarvale Ave., Friday, July 1, 11 a.m. to 5 p.m.

• Canada Day event at Mel Lastman Square, 5100 Yonge St. Friday, July 1, 2 to 7 p.m.

• CIMA Mayor’s Cricket Trophy event at Sunnybrook Park, 1132 Leslie St. Saturday, July 2, 9 a.m. to 4 p.m.

• Lakeshore Ribfest at 1 Colonel Samuel Smith Park Dr. Saturday July 2 and Sunday, July 3, 11 a.m. to 6 p.m.

• Afrofest at Woodbine Park, 1695 Queen St. E. Saturday, July 9 and Sunday, July 10, 1 to 7:30 p.m.

• Dragon Boat Challenge (GWN Sport Regatta) at Marilyn Bell Park, 1095 Lakeshore Blvd. W. Saturday July 9, 8:30 a.m. to 3:30 p.m.

These family-friendly and youth-friendly clinics will provide first, second, third, fourth and children’s COVID-19 doses to eligible residents age five and up on a walk-in basis, with no appointment or health card required. Pfizer and Moderna vaccines will be offered by TPH nurses, who will also answer COVID-19 and vaccine-related questions.

Residents can continue to get vaccinated at city-run immunization clinics, primary care offices and more than 525 pharmacies. A full list of clinic locations and hours is available on the City’s COVID-19: Where to Get Vaccinated webpage.

As of Monday, July 4, the city-run immunization clinic at Metro Hall will operate Monday to Friday noon to 6 p.m. and Saturday and Sunday 10 a.m. to 4 p.m. Residents can find a pharmacy offering COVID-19 vaccination by using the Government of Ontario’s COVID-19 pharmacy vaccine locations webpage.

All eligible residents are encouraged to get their third and fourth dose as soon as possible. As with vaccines for other diseases, people are protected best when they stay up to date. COVID-19 vaccines have been scientifically proven to lower the risk of illness, hospitalization and death while protecting oneself, loved ones and the community, and residents with three doses had the lowest rates of hospitalization, ICU and death over any other level of vaccination.

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Style File: Smart sunscreens – Montreal Gazette



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Sunscreen is always a good idea.

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Skin cancers are the most common forms of cancer in Canada, according to Statistics Canada. And severe sunburns are noted as “an important risk factor for melanoma and non-melanoma skin cancers,” according to the agency.

With this in mind, it’s important to slather, smooth, spray — or whatever your chosen format of sun protection may be — this summer.

Here are four smart sunscreen options to consider adding to your daily sun-protection plan:

Tint time

From the French brand La Roche-Posay, this “ultralight” sunscreen formula features a universal tint to match most skin tones. See you later, face makeup. The Anthelios Mineral Tinted Ultra Fluid boasts a sun protection factor (that’s the SPF) of 50, thanks to 100 per cent mineral filters. Suitable for sensitive skin, the broad-spectrum sunscreen — it blocks both UVA and UVB rays, is sweat resistant and water resistant for up to 40 minutes.

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$35.95 | Shoppers Drug Mart,

Double duty

This advanced sunscreen formula from Shiseido acts as a moisturizer, sunscreen and face primer all-in-one formula. The Urban Environment Oil-Free Sunscreen has an SPF of 42 and features skin-loving ingredients such as spirulina and hyaluronic acid to hydrate and smooth skin while broad-spectrum UV filters protect against ultraviolet rays.

$45 | Sephora,

Smooth operator

Perfect for those who struggle with acne, this Clear as Day SPF 46 from the brand Starface is vegan and cruelty-free, while also being oil-free and non-comedogenic. The fragrance-free formula features a unique gel texture and is completely clear so there’s no fear of a white cast on skin. Water resistant for up to 80 minutes, so you can spend a little extra time splish-splashing about.

$32 |

All-over option

Sun protection doesn’t stop at the face, neck and décolletage. Introduce head-to-toe coverage to your summer routine with the Garnier Ombrelle Sensitive Expert Body Lotion SPF 60. The hypoallergenic sunscreen formula features broad-spectrum coverage, is fragrance-free, dermatologist-tested, non-comedogenic and water resistant for up to 80 minutes. Plus, the lotion formula is easy to apply, and absorbs quickly.

$24.99 | London Drugs,

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Mysterious staggering disease in cats down to previously unknown virus – New Scientist



A previously unknown rustrela virus might be the cause of a staggering disease that affects cats in some parts of Europe


1 July 2022

Pet cats in some parts of Europe can sometimes develop a mysterious disease

Laurie 4593/Shutterstock

The cause of a brain disease in cats that makes them develop symptoms such as staggering is a previously unknown virus, a study suggests. The pathogen is a rustrela virus and is probably carried by wood mice.

The findings show that rustrela viruses are more diverse and widespread than previously thought, according to Kaspar Matiasek at the Ludwig Maximilian University of Munich and his colleagues. They write that the viruses might cause neurological diseases in other mammals …

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