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15,000 Ottawa children missed measles vaccine during pandemic, says OPH

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Thousands of children lack protection against measles and other diseases in Ottawa because they didn’t receive routine vaccinations during the pandemic, according to new data from Ottawa Public Health (OPH).

OPH gauges vaccine uptake by tracking the number of vaccine supply orders it receives from health-care providers who administer shots.

The latest data available suggest orders for the MMR vaccine that protects against measles, mumps and rubella, along with the MMR-V vaccine that protects those three diseases plus varicella (chickenpox), decreased by 30 per cent in 2020 compared to the typical number of orders in pre-pandemic years.

Orders for the measles-containing vaccine continued to slump in 2022 compared years prior to 2020 — down between 10 and 20 per cent, said OPH.

Vaccines given to babies under one year of age remained relatively stable whereas vaccines that include boosters given to older children and youth, like the measles-containing vaccines MMR and MMR-V, saw marked declines during the pandemic. (Ottawa Public Health )

“Based on this distribution data, we estimate approximately 15,000 kids in Ottawa missed receiving a dose of MMR or MMR-V between 2020 and 2022,” said an OPH spokesperson in an email to CBC.

Measles is a highly contagious infectious disease that used to infect most children until a vaccine was introduced in the 1960s.

According to Public Health Ontario measles remains the leading global cause of death in children by a vaccine-preventable disease — an average of one to two children die for every 1,000 cases.

Two shots of the MMR vaccine provide nearly 100 per cent protection from getting measles for life.

A child gets a needle while holding a bumblebee toy and sitting with an adult.
The measles-containing vaccine is normally administered at age one and again between the ages of four and six. This child in Vancouver is receiving a COVID-19 vaccine. (Ben Nelms/CBC)

“It’s always concerning to hear that some children may not be up to date because it means that they’re not adequately protected against disease that we have vaccines to protect them for,” said Marie-Claude Turcotte, manager of immunization at OPH.

Public health officials previously warned the drop in vaccine coverage heightens the risk of a measles outbreak in the city because measles is so contagious.

Efforts to catch up

Data for last year shows the volume of orders for all routine vaccines is still 10 per cent behind where it was before 2020, said Turcotte, though the number is better than 2020 and 2021.

According to OPH, the five-in-one vaccine (diphtheria, tetanus, pertussis, polio and haemophilus influenzae type b), usually given at a baby’s six month appointment, saw little to no changes in volumes ordered during the pandemic.

Ottawa also suspended its participation in the province’s school-age vaccine tracking program for two school years, 2020-2021 and 2021-2022.

The Panorama program prompts parents to notify OPH what vaccines their child has received as required by Ontario law. Late in 2022, the public health agency resumed the program and sent notices to more than 12,000 students who were born in 2005 and 2015.

“That’s a reminder to parents to go and get the child vaccinated,” she said.

Even ‘small’ drop makes difference: researcher

When it comes to measles and whooping cough, every new child vaccinated makes a difference, said Dr. Kumanan Wilson. He’s a professor of medicine at the University of Ottawa and the chief science officer at CANImmunize.

“These are some of our most infectious viruses so we need to have high vaccine coverage,” he said. “Even a small drop in coverage for measles can result in outbreaks.”

A doctor in scrubs talks into a microphone at a rally.
Dr. Kumanan Wilson, a physician at The Ottawa Hospital and CEO of immunization tracking software company CANImmunize, said a new online system will be available to parents in Ottawa and some surrounding health units that will allow them to book routine vaccines for their children. (Justin Tang/The Canadian Press)

Wilson said CANImmunize, which runs a free app that allows parents to track their children’s vaccinations, reported a drop in new registrations during the pandemic.

“We’re still lagging somewhat,” he said earlier this week.

While Ottawa sees one to two per cent of children go without vaccines due to conscientious or religious objections, Wilson believes confusion is a large driver behind the vaccine lag.

“We like to talk a lot about vaccine hesitancy and the anti-vaccine movement but really, logistics is often at the root of a lot of these problems,” he said.

The company is currently working with CHEO to design software that will allow parents in Ottawa and four neighbouring counties to book vaccine appointments for their children online and for health units to track vaccinations if parents give consent.

It is expected to be available to parents in May, the company said. Wilson said he hopes new tools will help streamline and improve the booking process, increasing vaccine coverage.

OPH has also expanded routine vaccinations available at its family and community vaccination clinics and wellness hubs. Parents who do not have a family doctor, or another health-care provider, can book a vaccine appointment through its website at one of the clinics.

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Helping people living with dementia ‘flourish’ through dance

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Dr. Pia Kontos, a Senior Scientist at UHN’s KITE Research Institute, is co-leading an initiative to help people living with dementia flourish. (Photo: Tim Fraser/UHN KITE Studio)

Dr. Pia Kontos believes in the power of the arts to support people to live well with dementia.

The Senior Scientist at UHN’s KITE Research Institute focuses on challenging policies and practices that discriminate against those living with dementia and developing and evaluating arts-based and digital knowledge translation initiatives to reduce stigma, improve social inclusion and quality of care for them.

“The predominant assumption is people living with dementia don’t have the capacity to be creative,” says Dr. Kontos, who is also a professor in the Dalla Lana School of Public Health at the University of Toronto. “However, we know through extensive research that dance…powerfully supports people living with dementia to be creative and to flourish.

“And flourishing should be a goal that we all have.”

Dr. Kontos co-produced in 2023 Dancer Not Dementia, a short documentary film. It captured the power of a dance program for seniors – Sharing Dance Older Adults (SDOA) – to challenge the stigma associated with dementia, support social inclusion and enrich lives. It’s told through the eyes of residents and staff at Alexis Lodge Dementia Care Residence and Cedarhurst Dementia Care Home in Toronto.

SDOA was jointly developed by Canada’s National Ballet School (NBS) and Baycrest Centre in 2013 for older adults with a range of physical and cognitive abilities, including dementia.

Typically, dance programs in dementia care settings are provided as a therapeutic intervention for older adults. However, SDOA’s goal is to provide a creative outlet for participants and opportunities for social interaction with other people living with dementia, staff and loved ones.

Now, Dr. Kontos will look to incorporate traditions from marginalized communities into SDOA through a $750,000 Canadian Institutes of Health Research (CIHR) Institute of Aging Implementation Science Team Grant. Dr. Rachel Bar, Director of Research and Health at NBS is co-principal applicant for the grant.

This CIHR funding supports projects that evaluate the effectiveness of existing programs, services and models of care that show promise for those impacted by cognitive impairment and dementia. An important focus is improving equitable and inclusive access to care and support.

The three-year grant to Drs. Kontos and Bar will support SDOA efforts to partner with organizations in Black, Chinese and South Asian communities to integrate their cultural practices into its programming.

Training dancers from these communities to teach the adapted program is central to these partnerships.

“People living with dementia from marginalized communities rarely have their traditions honoured with art and leisure programming,” says Dr. Kontos.

“It’s important to align dance programs with the cultural traditions of these communities. Otherwise, the music and movements wouldn’t reflect the experiences of ethno-culturally diverse populations, and the programs wouldn’t be inclusive.

“We wouldn’t be supporting their capacity to be creative or to be in relationships with others through dance. We would be falling short.”

SDOA has already partnered with Alexis Lodge, Alzheimer Society of Canada, Baycrest, NBS, Indus Community Services, Social Planning Council of Ottawa, and Yee Hong for this initiative.

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CDC: Heat may have contributed to four human cases of bird flu in Colorado

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Credit: Alexas Fotos from Pexels

Heat probably played a role in at least four cases of bird flu in poultry workers confirmed by U.S. health officials Sunday—the first cases in poultry workers in two years.

Sweltering temperatures in Colorado rose to at least 104 degrees, which is suspected to have contributed to the human cases, according to Dr. Nirav Shah, principal deputy director at the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. The barns where poultry workers were culling chickens were “no doubt even hotter,” Shah said during a press conference on the most recent outbreak of bird flu in humans.

The new cases bring the U.S. total to at least nine cases since the first human case of the current outbreak was detected in 2022, also in a Colorado poultry worker. Eight of the nine were reported this year.

The workers were separating chickens that were going to be killed to stop the spread of the virus. The fans may also have contributed to the human infections because, while helping to keep the environment cooler, they “also spread things like feathers around which are known to carry the virus,” Shah added.

The large and strong fans also make it difficult for protective goggles and face masks to stay in place, he said.

About 60 workers at the poultry farm showed symptoms of illness and were tested for bird flu. Four tested positive for bird flu and one additional presumptive case is awaiting confirmation.

The illnesses were relatively mild, with symptoms including conjunctivitis and common respiratory infection symptoms like fever, chills, coughing, and runny nose, according to the CDC. None were hospitalized, officials said. The other U.S. cases have also been mild.

Officials said they are bracing for more cases.

The CDC says the risk to the general public remains low and the health agency is not recommending livestock workers be vaccinated against bird flu given the “mild symptoms noted thus far,” Shah said.

An initial analysis of virus samples from an infected poultry worker does not show any changes in the virus that would make it easier to spread among people and there is no evidence of person-to-person spread in the U.S.

“It’s important to note that this assessment is based on what we know today and may change,” Shah said. “CDC is constantly looking for key changes that may alter our risk assessment of the virus, such as the severity of illness that it causes, the ease with which it can transmit to humans or changes to its genetic fingerprint.”

At the request of Colorado’s officials, the CDC sent a 10-person team to Colorado to help the state manage the bird flu outbreak in humans and poultry. The team included epidemiologists, veterinarians, clinicians and industrial hygienists.

Shah also noted it was a bilingual team. Overall in the U.S., it is estimated about half of farm workers are Latino.

An analysis of the virus from an infected worker indicates that the infections at the chicken farm are “largely the same” as the strain detected in dairy herds in Colorado and other states, according to Shah. But an investigation is ongoing to determine exactly how the outbreak is spreading between wild birds, chicken and cattle.

Since 2022, a highly contagious strain of bird flu has spread across the U.S. at an unprecedented rate.

Georgia’s powerhouse poultry industry, which produces more broiler chickens than any other in the country, has mostly dodged the kinds of major outbreaks that have resulted in the deaths of more 90 million birds in commercial and backyard poultry flocks in the U.S.

About 1.8 million chickens will be killed at the Colorado poultry farm after these latest bird flu cases were detected.

In late 2023, ducks at a commercial breeding farm in Sumter County, Georgia, tested positive for H5N1. This year, in March, the virus made a jump to a mammal species that surprised many scientists: cows.

With a significant dairy industry, plus even larger beef and poultry interests, the potential arrival of the virus here threatens Georgia’s economy and the health of residents.

As of Monday, the H5N1 virus has been confirmed in 158 dairy herds in 13 states, according U.S. Agriculture Department.

So far in Georgia, there have been no bird flu cases in cattle, and there have been no human cases.

Since the unprecedented spread of H5N1 in poultry in 2022, the Georgia Department of Public Health has quietly monitored 132 people for signs of the virus, according to DPH spokeswoman Nancy Nydam. Those tracked were either first responders to one of the state’s few virus outbreaks in backyard and commercial poultry flocks or farmworkers where the infections occurred. Of those monitored, fewer than 10 people were tested for H5N1 and none came back positive.

Since the virus was discovered in cattle, a small number of first responders from Georgia who went to other states to help with investigations—fewer than 15—have also been monitored for signs of illness.

Federal officials said Tuesday they still believe they can eliminate the bird flu virus from , even as the number of herds infected continues to grow. The latest state to recently report infected dairy cattle was Oklahoma. North Carolina is the only state adjacent to Georgia to report an infected dairy herd.

Eric Deeble, acting senior adviser for the H5N1 response at the USDA, said investigations show the is spreading among cattle through cattle moved from one herd to another and the shared use of milking equipment. It can be contained through enhanced biosecurity measures such as thoroughly cleaning milking “parlors” and equipment, separating sick cows, and having dairy workers wear protective equipment.

Deeble also noted USDA scientists are also working with partners to develop a cattle-specific H5N1 vaccine—a process requires many steps and will take time.

The USDA is also exploring the possibility of developing a poultry vaccine as the number of cases soar, and outbreaks lead to the slaughter of millions of farmed birds. But USDA and industry stakeholders point to challenges that would hinder a vaccination program.

The biggest sticking point is around trade.

Mike Giles, president of the Georgia Poultry Federation, said mass vaccination would be impractical for several reasons, including the fact that the industry would lose its lucrative export market: The United States and many of its trade partners restrict the import of products or eggs from countries affected by the highly pathogenic strain or flocks that have been vaccinated against it.

“(Bird flu) has been, from an animal health standpoint, our top concern,” Giles said. “The challenge, and I think the industry has responded to it well, has been maintaining the state of preparedness and urgency and focus on biosecurity, and I think that has been accomplished.”

2024 The Atlanta Journal-Constitution. Distributed by Tribune Content Agency, LLC.

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Here is the new guidance for RSV vaccines

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Health officials recently changed the guidelines for respiratory syncytial virus vaccines. Here’s what Canadians need to know about the guidance and the virus itself.

New guidance on vaccines

As of July 12, the National Advisory Committee on Immunization (NACI) now recommends RSV vaccines for individuals who are 75 years old and older, especially those who have a greater risk of developing severe RSV.

Based on current evidence and expert opinion, NACI said in a news release, it also strongly recommends vaccines for those aged 60 and older who live in nursing homes and other chronic care facilities.

What is RSV?

RSV is a common contagious virus that often causes bronchiolitis, a lung infection, and pneumonia.

Infants face the highest risk of developing severe RSV disease, however, this risk also increases with age and with certain medical conditions, according to the Public Health Agency of Canada (PHAC). It can lead to serious complications for older people, including hospitalization and death.

What are the symptoms?

RSV typically causes mild, cold-like symptoms that usually begin two to eight days after exposure to the virus, according to PHAC.

Those with RSV may experience a runny nose, coughing, sneezing, wheezing, fever and less appetite and energy. Infants may be irritable, have trouble breathing and have less appetite and energy.

What is the treatment?

RSV infections are usually mild and last about one to two weeks. If you are infected, health officials recommend you stay home and limit contact with others.

They also recommend lots of rest and drinking plenty of fluids. Take over-the-counter products, such as acetaminophen or ibuprofen, if you have a fever. Seek immediate care or go to the hospital if you’re having trouble breathing or become dehydrated, PHAC adds.

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