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6 Principles To Getting An Early Start To Investing Wisely – Forbes



It can be difficult to start investing at a young age. Your pay packet has to accommodate rent, mortgages, bills, and other numerous expenses, leaving you with barely enough. To add to the difficulty of eking out enough savings, the bewildering array of choices can make it even more intimidating. But when it comes to investments, the earlier you start, the more benefits you can accrue. 

While the amount you can put aside each month may seem too small, the trick lies in investing it wisely. Starting early allows you to expand your money into a corpus that you can use to meet your financial goals, be it buying a car or an early retirement. It teaches you financial discipline and helps you to gain financial independence. 

If you still find it a difficult journey to start on, here are six principles of financial planning to help you get an early start.

Decide on How You Want Your Style of Investing

As an investor, you can take either an active or passive approach. Active investing is a hands-on approach where you buy or sell stocks as per market fluctuations. It allows you to minimise risk, go for profitable trades, and create wealth in a short timespan. On the other hand, it requires constant monitoring of the markets, a good understanding of its functioning, and the knack to make prudent and quick decisions. It can also be more expensive since you’ll be paying a trading fee with each transaction. 

In contrast, passive investing takes a more hands-off approach and focuses on long-term gains. The goal here isn’t to beat the market fluctuations, but to focus on allowing your portfolio to earn money through careful risk diversification across different assets. While a passive approach may be slower at generating wealth and may not allow for any dramatic returns, it is typically safer. It lets your money slowly grow towards a desired goal. 

Ultimately, your preference will depend on how much time you can devote to your portfolio and your risk tolerance. If you have the time to devote to active trading and aren’t apprehensive of taking a few risks, an active investing approach may suit you perfectly. On the other hand, if you have other commitments, like a job, a passive approach may be more suitable for you. 

Set Up Your Budget

The first thing you have to decide is the amount you can set aside each month towards your investment plan. There is no minimum amount here and you can start with as little as INR 100. The aim here is to pre-determine the minimum amount that you can earmark from your savings and then stick to the commitment. Setting a budget requires you to exercise financial discipline and minimize your spending. 

But before you start looking at investment options, you must build your emergency fund. Depending on your expenses, an emergency fund should ideally be three to six months of your income. The purpose of an emergency fund is to ensure that you have enough money in the bank to tide over an unexpected expense without breaking your investment. Keep your emergency fund in a saving deposit which you can quickly access.

It also works in some cases to pay off your high interest debts, such as credit card debt. Alternatively, see if these can be transferred to lower interest plans. Remember, the interest is just an additional expense on your account with no returns. 

Carry Out Risk Assessment

Understanding your own risk tolerance is the key to investment. Risk tolerance is the amount of risk you can withstand. It can be highly subjective, depending on your income, expenses, commitments, and mindset. People with a high number of dependents, debts, or expenses will have a lower risk tolerance. On the other hand, someone with generational wealth may be willing to take more risk. 

Your risk tolerance will decide the makeup of your portfolio. Those with higher risk tolerance can go for high-risk, but high-return stocks. On the other hand, investors with low risk tolerance can go for low risk, but low return bonds. Even within these categories, there can be different risk profiles. For instance, blue-chip stocks will carry lower risk than lesser known stocks.

Stop-loss order: Whatever your risk profile, it is always a good idea to define the amount of loss you can bear. This is where a stop-loss order comes into play. It is an order placed with your broker to buy or sell a stock when it reaches a certain value. So, if you have set your stop-loss order at 15% your broker will sell a stock if it falls below 15% of its value. 

Define Your Time Horizon

Time horizon is the length of time you expect to hold the investment to reach your financial goal. Your time horizon will typically be decided on the basis of your financial goal. For instance, investing to buy a car will have a far shorter time horizon than building a retirement corpus. Time horizon can be short-term (up to five years), intermediate-term (five to 10 years), or long-term (more than 10 years). 

For a short time horizon, you can go for growth stocks with high returns. However, this may not be advisable in the intermediate or long-term where such stocks may mean higher risk. A mixed portfolio of stocks and bonds can provide an optimal balance for an intermediate portfolio. In comparison, a long-term time horizon allows for higher investment in stocks as you have the time to recover from a loss, letting the stock mature. 

When starting young, you have the freedom to ensure a diversified time profile for your investments. Plan your investment for short, intermediate, and long-term with assets that mature at different times. Short and intermediate investments allow a periodic flow of cash which you can then reinvest or spend as per requirement. At the same time, a long-term investment ensures that a part of your portfolio is safe from any unnecessary spending. 

Understanding Investment Options

The mind-boggling array of investment choices can seem bewildering and intimidating. But essentially there are three ways you can invest and see your money grow. The first is to lend someone money and earn interest on it. The second is to buy an asset that will appreciate in the future, such as gold or real estate. The third is to buy part ownership in a business and then earn a share in the profits. 

All assets fall widely within these categories. When you put your money in a fixed deposit, you stand to earn through interest. However, these earnings are fairly limited. Earning through an appreciating asset can also depend on its performance. In addition, assets like real estate can take time to liquidate. You can opt for part ownership through equity. In this case, you have a chance to make a healthy profit if the overall stock performs well. 

Each of these assets have their pros and cons and it is essential to understand each asset class. The most common of these are stocks, bonds, derivatives, cash or cash equivalent, gold, real estate, and commodities. While you should understand each asset class, it is also important to study the business, commodity, or property that you are investing in. Whether it’s a blue-chip company or gold, every asset is subject to market mechanisms. 

Pro tip: If you are wondering about your asset allocation, that is, the proportion of stock to bonds in your portfolio, try this easy trick: Subtract your age from 100 to get the percentage of stocks in your portfolio. So, if you are 30 years-old, you might consider investing 70% of your wealth in stock funds. For a more aggressive approach, subtract your age from 110. In this case, your stock allocation goes up by 80%. 

However, keep in mind that is just one of the many ways of stock allocation. You can choose to be more cautious by reversing the equation or deciding on a more equitable allocation. 

Risk Diversification and Periodic Rebalancing 

One of the golden rules of investment is to diversify your risk. Risk diversification of a portfolio means investing in assets with varying degrees of risk. The aim of risk diversification is to offset the potential losses from one investment across different assets. You can balance a high-return, high-risk stock with more stable investments like government bonds.  

A well-balanced portfolio is spread across different asset classes with different risk profiles. Even within an asset class such as equities, you need to diversify by including stocks from different industries even if you are tempted to park your money in an industry or stock that seems to be zooming up. Remember what goes up can also fall with equal speed!

The size of the portfolio can also be a factor here. A large diversified portfolio can absorb most risks. A small portfolio may be wiped out if one asset performs extremely poorly. However, if it is balanced, you can still recover some of the losses. 

Rebalancing portfolio: Another aspect of risk diversification is the changing nature of your own risk profile. Your risk tolerance can change with age and circumstances. For instance, your willingness to take risks can lower when you start a family or it may increase with a higher income. Age can also play a role as some people tend to get more cautious as they get older.

To allow for your changing priorities, you must rebalance your portfolio periodically. You should rebalance your portfolio at predetermined intervals, such as three to five months, or when your asset allocation has deviated significantly from your desired portfolio mix. 

Bottom Line

There are many reasons an early start to your portfolio is highly advisable. What may seem like a meagre amount now will slowly grow and mature into a sizable corpus as you grow older. You can also enjoy lower premiums on assets like insurance policies. It also teaches you financial discipline. You learn the importance of money and why it should be invested properly. More importantly, it provides you with the freedom to make your choices. 

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VCs eye investment in Polygon – Yahoo Movies Canada



A number of investors including Sequoia Capital India and Steadview Capital are in talks to back Polygon, which operates a framework for building and connecting Ethereum-compatible blockchain networks, by way of tokens purchase, three sources familiar with the matter told me.

The investors are looking to purchase tokens worth $50 million to $150 million, sources said, requesting anonymity as the talks are private. As is common with these token transactions, investors will be able to buy the coins at a slight discount. (20% discount on the average price of MATIC in the past one month, from what I have heard.)

Deliberations are ongoing, so the terms may change. Nobody had a comment early last week.

Polygon, formerly known as Matic, has established itself as one of the most popular layer two solutions. The firm, whose market cap has exceeded $14 billion, processes over 7.5 million transactions a day and allows thousands of decentralized apps to continue to use Ethereum as the settling layer but avoid the increasingly pricey gas fee.

Aave, Sushi Swap, and Curve Finance are among some of the largest bluechip projects that have deployed on Polygon, which has amassed one of the largest developer ecosystems (even when compared to some layer 1 blockchains).

Image credits: Polygon

An investment will mark a shift in the investors’ perception of India-based Polygon, which until recent years struggled to receive backing from most prominent venture firms in the South Asian market. (Most VCs in India, it’s worth noting, were also not actively tracking the web3 space until a few quarters ago.) Furthermore, Polygon has had to confront at least one episode where some of its early investors requested their money back during a bear cycle, according to two people familiar with the matter.

The firm returned money to some of those investors and survived. “It’s one of the themes with the Polygon team. Their perseverance is next level,” said a former employee.

Polygon, which received backing from entrepreneur and investor Mark Cuban this year, is among dozens of side-chains and roll-up networks that is hopeful that Ethereum will continue its dominance even as a handful of other layer one projects such as Polkadot, and Solana, which is backed by Multicoin Capital and A16z, are attempting to court the nascent but fast-growing developer ecosystem.

On Bankless podcast earlier this year, Polygon co-founder Sandeep Nailwal (pictured above) said the web3 developer ecosystem today is centred around Ethereum and he is hopeful that the network effect won’t dissipate. On the same podcast, Nailwal and Mihailo Bjelic, another co-founder of Polygon, said Polygon is increasingly expanding its offerings to build a blockchain infrastructure.

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Britain needs a 'booster for growth' as tax hikes threaten investment – CNN



London (CNN Business)Britain’s economy needs much more investment. Business says it’s unlikely to get it any time soon.

The Confederation of British Industry said in its latest forecast that a “short-lived recovery” in capital spending would end in 2023 because of tax hikes on companies.
Investment in the United Kingdom has lagged that of other advanced economies for decades, and the business lobby group’s forecast will deal a blow to Prime Minister Boris Johnson’s aspirations for building a high-wage and high-productivity economy.
Business investment would briefly rise above pre-pandemic levels by the end of next year, before slumping as companies are hit by a corporate tax hike and the end to a tax break on some investments in plant and machinery, the CBI said.
The corporate tax rate will rise from 19% to 25% in April 2023. UK finance minister Rishi Sunak announced the hike in March this year to help pay for the costs of the pandemic and reduce government borrowing. The tax break on plant and machinery, introduced earlier this year, will also expire in April 2023.
Investment stagnated following the Brexit referendum in 2016 as companies were deterred by the uncertainty over Britain’s future trading relationship with the European Union. It has dropped further since the start of the Covid-19 pandemic.
Capital spending by UK companies fell by 11.6% between the third quarters of 2019 and 2020, the CBI said.
By the government’s own admission, business investment was already low by the standards of other advanced economies. A UK Treasury factsheet published in April said: “Much of the UK’s productivity gap with competitors is attributable to our historically low levels of business investment compared to our peers. Weak business investment has played a significant role in the slowdown of productivity growth since 2008.”
Investment in technology, skilled workers and innovation are key to raising productivity, and boosting growth and incomes without pushing prices higher. The CBI’s warning comes as inflation continues to rise. It hit a 10-year high of 4.2% in October, and the Bank of England’s chief economist has warned it could exceed 5% in early 2022.
“I know from speaking with firms of all sizes that they have an ambitious investment mindset, and are anxious to implement growth plans. But while intentions have thawed, we’re coming up to a cliff edge in 2023,” CBI director-general Tony Danker said in a statement.
He said the tax break had been successful but industry needed targeted measures to encourage “the scale of investment we need, particularly in green technologies. A booster for growth is needed to protect and build on our recovery.”
Britain’s economy should grow by 6.5% in 2021 according to the UK government’s own Office for Budget Responsibility’s projections. But the economy won’t recover its pre-pandemic size until the first quarter of next year, the Bank of England forecasts.
The recovery has been hobbled by Brexit, which the OBR believes will cause more long-term damage to the economy than the pandemic.

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China's Special Bonds Can't Halt Property-Led Investment Slump – BNN



(Bloomberg) — China is betting that a pickup in infrastructure spending can spur investment and cushion a property-led slowdown which has dragged economic growth down to almost its lowest pace in more than three decades. 

But because the property curbs are hitting government revenue from selling land, Beijing will need to ease its tough campaign to crack down on “hidden” local government debt if it wants a long-lasting revival in infrastructure spending.

Premier Li Keqiang last month urged local governments to make better use of the proceeds from the sale of 3.65 trillion yuan ($573 billion) in “special” bonds to counteract “downward pressure” on the economy. The bonds are used to fund specific projects rather than general expenditures and regional authorities have almost completed the sale of this year’s quota.

The quota could be expanded to 4 trillion yuan next year, according to state media reports, but even that amount of funding would be small relative to China’s total infrastructure spending needs. Bloomberg Economics estimates infrastructure investment will reach about 23 trillion yuan in 2021, which implies special bonds can only around 16% of that expenditure.

The remainder is mainly paid for with money from land sales and local government financing vehicles, which are companies set up by local governments to raise debt from loans and bond sales and then keep that borrowing off of government balance sheets. Both those sources of financing are under strain from property sector curbs and a campaign against “financial risks.”

Those financing vehicles raised less money in 2021 as Beijing ordered local governments to cut their “hidden” off-balance sheet debt. LGFV’s net local bond issuance — the excess of newly sold bonds over repayments — in the first 11 months of the year was 1.95 trillion yuan, down from 2.19 trillion yuan in the same period last year, according to Bloomberg estimates. 

The platforms have found it harder than in the past to obtain loans from banks and from non-bank “shadow” financing because Beijing has been shrinking the shadow finance sector as part of its financial de-risking effort. They have also raised less from foreign investors: LGFV’s net issuance of dollar-denominated bonds through the end of last month more than halved to $5.7 billion.

The property crackdown is also reducing local government’s sales of land to property developers, a major source of funds for local government investment. Infrastructure spending growth has moved almost exactly in line with land sales revenue growth in recent years, according to analysis from Goldman Sachs Group Inc., while the correlation with special bond and LGFV bond issuance is less significant.

Beijing’s efforts to slow the real estate market began cutting into land sales volumes and prices this summer. Local government income from land sales shrank by more than 10% year-on-year in August, September and October, the largest and most sustained decline since 2015, according to Wei He, an analyst at Gavekal Dragonomics.

In the first 10 months of the year, infrastructure investment rose just 1% compared with the same period a year earlier, leaving local governments with unspent funds. 

“The positive factors such as money that hasn’t been spent this year will be countered by the negative impact from land sales,” He said. “Therefore I do not expect a significant acceleration in infrastructure spending to materialize next year.”

To be sure, “special” bond issuance has been concentrated at the end of this year, which could translate into a slight pick-up in infrastructure spending in the first half of 2022 if the funds are quickly put to use. But local governments have been struggling to find suitable projects to fund with special bonds whose conditions stipulate that investments must generate enough income to repay the bond principal and interest.

Local governments’ land sale revenue could fall 10% year-on-year in 2022, according to Gavekal’s He. That means if Beijing really wants infrastructure investment to increase, it will need to loosen the constraints on LGFVs, compromising on its goal to control debt-levels in the economy.

“If the economy softens in 2022 and the government needs to increase infrastructure spending to support economic growth, there would be easing in financing for LGFVs,” said Ivan Chung, associate managing director at Moody’s Investors Service in Hong Kong.

©2021 Bloomberg L.P.

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