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Astronomers Discover Bizarre “Forbidden” Planet That Should Not Exist – SciTechDaily

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Artist’s conception of a large gas giant planet orbiting a small red dwarf star called TOI-5205. Credit: Image by Katherine Cain, courtesy of the Carnegie Institution for Science

“Forbidden” Planet Orbiting Small Star Challenges Gas Giant Formation Theories

Based on our current understanding of planet formation, TOI-5205b should not exist; it is a “forbidden” planet.

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A team of astronomers has discovered an unusual planetary system in which a large gas giant planet orbits a small red dwarf star called TOI-5205. Their findings challenge long-held ideas about planet formation. Led by Shubham Kanodia from the Carnegie Institution for Science, the researchers published their findings in The Astronomical Journal.

Smaller and cooler than our Sun, M dwarfs are the most common stars in our <span class="glossaryLink" aria-describedby="tt" data-cmtooltip="

Milky Way
The Milky Way is the galaxy that contains our Solar System and is part of the Local Group of galaxies. It is a barred spiral galaxy that contains an estimated 100-400 billion stars and has a diameter between 150,000 and 200,000 light-years. The name &quot;Milky Way&quot; comes from the appearance of the galaxy from Earth as a faint band of light that stretches across the night sky, resembling spilled milk.

” data-gt-translate-attributes=”["attribute":"data-cmtooltip", "format":"html"]”>Milky Way galaxy. Due to their small size, these stars tend to be about half as hot as the Sun and much redder. They have very low luminosities, but extremely long lifespans. Although red dwarfs host more planets, on average, than other, more massive types of stars, their formation histories make them unlikely candidates to host gas giants.

TOI-5205 Hosts Gas Giant Planet

Artist’s conception of a large gas giant planet orbiting a small red dwarf star called TOI-5205. Until now no gas giant has been found in a planetary system around a low-mass M dwarf like TOI-5205. Credit: Image by Katherine Cain, courtesy of the Carnegie Institution for Science

The newly discovered planet—TOI 5205b—was first identified as a potential candidate by NASA’s Transiting Exoplanet Survey Satellite (<span class="glossaryLink" aria-describedby="tt" data-cmtooltip="

TESS
Launched on April 18, 2018, aboard a SpaceX Falcon 9 rocket, NASA’s Transiting Exoplanet Survey Satellite (TESS) is a space telescope mission to search nearby stars for undiscovered worlds with a goal of discovering thousands of exoplanets around nearby bright stars.

” data-gt-translate-attributes=”["attribute":"data-cmtooltip", "format":"html"]”>TESS). Kanodia’s team, which included Carnegie’s Anjali Piette, Alan Boss, Johanna Teske, and John Chambers, then confirmed its planetary nature and characterized it using a variety of ground-based instruments and facilities.

“The host star, TOI-5205, is just about four times the size of <span class="glossaryLink" aria-describedby="tt" data-cmtooltip="

Jupiter
Jupiter is the largest planet in the solar system and the fifth planet from the sun. It is a gas giant with a mass greater then all of the other planets combined. Its name comes from the Roman god Jupiter.

” data-gt-translate-attributes=”["attribute":"data-cmtooltip", "format":"html"]”>Jupiter, yet it has somehow managed to form a Jupiter-sized planet, which is quite surprising!” exclaimed Kanodia, who specializes in studying these stars, which comprise nearly three-quarters of our galaxy yet can’t be seen with the naked eye. He also wrote a blog post about the discovery.

A small number of gas giants have been discovered orbiting older M dwarf stars. But until now no gas giant has been found in a planetary system around a low-mass M dwarf like TOI-5205. To grasp the size comparison here, a Jupiter-like planet orbiting a Sun-like star could be compared to a pea going around a grapefruit; for TOI-5205b, because the host star is so much smaller, it is more like a pea going around a lemon. In fact, when the Jupiter-mass TOI 5205b crosses in front of its host, it blocks about seven percent of its light—one of the largest known exoplanet transits.

TOI-5205 Size Comparison

A Jupiter-like planet orbiting a Sun-like star could be compared to a pea going around a grapefruit; for TOI-5205b, because the host star is so much smaller, it is more like a pea going around a lemon, said lead author Shubham Kanodia. Credit: Artwork by Katherine Cain is courtesy of the Carnegie Institution for Science

Planets are born in the rotating disk of gas and dust that surrounds young stars. The most commonly used theory of gas planet formation requires about 10 Earth masses of this rocky material to accumulate and form a massive rocky core, after which it rapidly sweeps up large amounts of gas from the neighboring regions of the disk to form the giant planet we see today.

The time frame in which this happens is crucial.

“TOI-5205b’s existence stretches what we know about the disks in which these planets are born,” Kanodia explained. “In the beginning, if there isn’t enough rocky material in the disk to form the initial core, then one cannot form a gas giant planet. And at the end, if the disk evaporates away before the massive core is formed, then one cannot form a gas giant planet. And yet TOI-5205b formed despite these guardrails. Based on our nominal current understanding of planet formation, TOI-5205b should not exist; it is a “forbidden” planet.”

The team demonstrated that the planet’s very large transit depth makes it extremely conducive for future observations with the recently launched JWST, which could shed some light on its atmosphere and offer some additional clues about the mystery of its formation.

Reference: “TOI-5205b: A Short-period Jovian Planet Transiting a Mid-M Dwarf” by Shubham Kanodia, Suvrath Mahadevan, Jessica Libby-Roberts, Gudmundur Stefansson, Caleb I. Cañas, Anjali A. A. Piette, Alan Boss, Johanna Teske, John Chambers, Greg Zeimann, Andrew Monson, Paul Robertson, Joe P. Ninan, Andrea S. J. Lin, Chad F. Bender, William D. Cochran, Scott A. Diddams, Arvind F. Gupta, Samuel Halverson, Suzanne Hawley, Henry A. Kobulnicky, Andrew J. Metcalf, Brock A. Parker, Luke Powers, Lawrence W. Ramsey, Arpita Roy, Christian Schwab, Tera N. Swaby, Ryan C. Terrien and John Wisniewski, 21 February 2023, The Astronomical Journal.
DOI: 10.3847/1538-3881/acabce

The TESS follow-up research was conducted using the Habitable-zone Planet Finder (HPF; Texas, US) and Low Resolution Spectrograph (LRS2; Texas, US) on the 10-m Hobby Eberly Telescope, the ARCTIC camera on the 3.5-m Apache Point Observatory (APO; New Mexico, US), the NN-Explore Exoplanet Stellar Speckle Imager (NESSI, Arizona, US) at the 3.5-m WIYN telescope, the 0.6-m Red Buttes Observatory (RBO, Wyoming, US), and the 0.3 m Three Hundred Millimeter Telescope (TMMT, Chile).

Other members of the research team were: Penn State University’s Suvrath Mahadevan, Jessica Libby-Roberts, Caleb Cañas (also of <span class="glossaryLink" aria-describedby="tt" data-cmtooltip="

NASA
Established in 1958, the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) is an independent agency of the United States Federal Government that succeeded the National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics (NACA). It is responsible for the civilian space program, as well as aeronautics and aerospace research. Its vision is &quot;To discover and expand knowledge for the benefit of humanity.&quot; Its core values are &quot;safety, integrity, teamwork, excellence, and inclusion.&quot; NASA conducts research, develops technology and launches missions to explore and study Earth, the solar system, and the universe beyond. It also works to advance the state of knowledge in a wide range of scientific fields, including Earth and space science, planetary science, astrophysics, and heliophysics, and it collaborates with private companies and international partners to achieve its goals.

” data-gt-translate-attributes=”["attribute":"data-cmtooltip", "format":"html"]”>NASA Goddard Space Flight Center), Andrea Lin, Arvind Gupta, Luke Powers, and Lawrence Ramsey; <span class="glossaryLink" aria-describedby="tt" data-cmtooltip="

Princeton University
Founded in 1746, Princeton University is a private Ivy League research university in Princeton, New Jersey and the fourth-oldest institution of higher education in the United States. It provides undergraduate and graduate instruction in the humanities, social sciences, natural sciences, and engineering.

” data-gt-translate-attributes=”["attribute":"data-cmtooltip", "format":"html"]”>Princeton University’s Gudmundur Stefansson; University of Texas Austin’s Greg Zeimann and William Cochran; University of Arizona’s Andrew Monson and Chad Bender; UC Irvine’s Paul Robertson; the Tata Institute of Fundamental Research’s Joe Ninan; University of Colorado Boulder’s Scott Diddams; the Jet Propulsion Laboratory’s Samuel Halverson; <span class="glossaryLink" aria-describedby="tt" data-cmtooltip="

University of Washington
Founded in 1861, the University of Washington (UW, simply Washington, or informally U-Dub) is a public research university in Seattle, Washington, with additional campuses in Tacoma and Bothell. Classified as an R1 Doctoral Research University classification under the Carnegie Classification of Institutions of Higher Education, UW is a member of the Association of American Universities.

” data-gt-translate-attributes=”["attribute":"data-cmtooltip", "format":"html"]”>University of Washington’s Suzanne Hawley; University of Wyoming’s Henry Kobulnicky, Brock Parker, and Tera Swaby; the Air Force Research Laboratory’s Andrew Metcalf; the Space Telescope Science Institute’s Arpita Roy (also of Johns Hopkins University); Macquarie University’s Christian Schwab; Carleton College’s Ryan Terrien; and George Mason University’s John Wisniewski.

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Ice Age Squirrel Found in Canada! » Expat Guide Turkey – Expat Guide Turkey

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The remains of an Ice Age squirrel that was mummified to death during hibernation some 30,000 years ago have been found in Canada.

The 30,000-year-old animal found in the Klondike goldfields in 2018 will soon be on display in Whitehorse, Northern Canada.

Yukon paleontologists this week unveiled another unusual find from the gold fields near Dawson City: an Arctic squirrel that curled up and mummified as if it died during hibernation during the Ice Age.

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A Squirrel Mummy Found by Yukon Paleontologists at the Gold Field near Dawson City

The Ice Age squirrel was actually found a few years ago, but its announcement is now being made as the government is preparing the dead rodent for display at the Yukon in Whitehorse.

At first glance, this mummified animal looks like nothing more than a dried up pile of brown fur and skin.

Intact Bone Structure Detected Inside the Remains

Yukon government paleontologist Grant Zazula says, “It’s hardly recognizable until you see the tiny hands and claws, a little tail, and then the ears.” says.

“I’m always examining bones and these are very exciting. But when you see a perfectly preserved animal, especially if it’s 30,000 years old and you can see its face, its skin, its fur, it’s really special.”

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Apr 1: Tyrannosaur lips, bald eagles dine on beef, saving the orbital environment and more… – CBC.ca

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Quirks and Quarks54:02Tyrannosaur lips, bald eagles dine on beef, saving the orbital environment, how your fingerprints are built and how humans run on electricity


On this week’s episode of Quirks & Quarks with Bob McDonald:

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Tyrannosaurus rex had lips covering its terrifying teeth

Quirks and Quarks8:33Tyrannosaurus rex had lips covering its terrifying teeth

Many depictions of the iconic Tyrannosaurus rex show the dinosaur’s huge teeth as constantly exposed in a crocodilian smile. But a new study published in the journal Science concludes that theropod dinosaurs like the T. rex likely had scaly, lizard-like lips that covered their teeth completely when the dinosaur’s mouth was closed. Canadian paleontologist Dr. Thomas Cullen, a professor at Auburn University, and his co-authors analyzed wear patterns on tooth enamel of the dinosaurs, as well as jaw sizes, and compared them to modern-day animals. He said the T. rex mouth would have likely been most similar to that of a Komodo dragon.

Scientists and artists have developed two principal models of predatory dinosaur facial appearances: crocodylian-like lipless jaws or a lizard-like lipped mouth. New data suggests that the latter model, lizard-like lips, applies to most, or all, predatory dinosaur species. (Mark P. Witton)

Eagles are eating cows instead of salmon – and farmers are happy

Quirks and Quarks7:59Eagles are eating cows instead of salmon – and farmers are happy

In the Pacific Northwest of the U.S., bald eagles, which have historically fed on the carcasses of spawning chum salmon, have run short of their traditional food due to climate change and other factors. But a new study in the journal Ecosphere by Ethan Duvall, a PhD student in ecology at Cornell University, indicates the eagles have moved inland and are now scavenging cattle who have died on dairy farms. Farmers, it turns out, are happy with this, as it solves a troubling disposal problem, and because the eagles also displace rodents and other birds that do harm to the farms.

A bald eagle in flight against clouds in the blue sky
Bald eagles have shifted their diet from chum salmon carcasses to the carcasses of dairy cows in the northwestern U.S. (NICK BALACHANOFFF)

Inspired by the High Seas treaty, scientists are calling for the protection of space

Quirks and Quarks7:47Inspired by the High Seas treaty, scientists are calling for the protection of space

In early March, nearly 200 United Nations member countries agreed to the first-ever treaty to protect the world’s oceans. Imogen Napper, a marine biologist at the University of Plymouth in England, and a group of colleagues are calling for a similar legally binding treaty to protect the Earth’s orbit from exploitation by the ever-growing global space industry. Their concerns were put forward in a letter in the journal Science.

A woman looks up into a starry sky with a beam of light coming from her headband light
Marine biologist Imogen Napper has turned her attention from ocean plastic pollution to protecting the Earth’s orbit from space debris. (Eleanor Burfit)

Arches, loops and whorls — how your unique fingerprints are made

Quirks and Quarks7:40Arches, loops and whorls — how your unique fingerprints are made

There are eight billion people in the world, each with a unique pattern of ridges on our fingertips. Now, scientists have discovered that the process by which these intricate and complex patterns arise is similar to how animals get their spots or stripes. Duelling genetic and chemical signals during fetal development give rise to changes in the ridges and spaces between them that cover our fingertips. Denis Headon, a geneticist from the University of Edinburgh, traced how this interplay results in the complex whorls, loops and arches that make up our fingerprints. His research was published in the journal Cell.

A computer monitor on a black desk in an ambiently lit room has a giant fingerprint blown up on it taking up the entire screen.
A fingerprint is enlarged for examination at the US Homeland Security Investigation Forensic Laboratory in Tyson Corner, Virginia. A new study describes how our fingerprints get their unique patterns. (Paul J. Richards/AFP/Getty Images)

Humans are fueled by food — but we run on electricity

Quirks and Quarks19:31Humans are fueled by food — but we run on electricity

Every living cell works as a battery, with the ability to respond to and send out electrical signals. Science and technology journalist, Sally Adee, became fascinated with this realization after participating in an experiment in which a gentle electrical current, delivered to her brain, gave her the abilities of an expert sharpshooter. Bob McDonald speaks with her about her new book, We Are Electric: Inside the 200-Year Hunt for Our Body’s Bioelectric Code, and What the Future Holds. In it, she explores how much our biology — from our bodies’ ability to heal to the higher order processes of human thought — works through electricity.

Someone's hand can be seen holding a multitude of colourful wires emanating from the electrodes in a cap that he's wearing as he sits inside a makeshift cockpit.
A man holds electrodes set up on the head of Swiss scientist-adventurer and pilot Bertrand Piccard that will monitor his electrical brain waves prior to a non-stop 72 hours simulation test flight in 2013. (Fabrice Coffrini/AFP/Getty Images)

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Meet the Canadian astronauts up for a seat on the Artemis II mission to the moon

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This Sunday, NASA and the Canadian Space Agency (CSA) will announce the four astronauts that will be blasting off to fly around the moon for the Artemis II mission, one of whom will be a Canadian astronaut.

The Artemis II mission will be the first crewed mission to orbit the moon in half a century, and the inclusion of a Canadian astronaut on the mission will make Canada the second country to have an astronaut fly around the moon.

In November 2024, NASA’s Kennedy Space Center in Florida will launch the four astronauts into space for the Artemis II mission. They will pilot the Orion spacecraft around the Earth and then around the moon before returning home.

It’s the second step of a project that started last year with the unmanned Artemis I mission. The Artemis missions help to test the launch system and the spacecraft itself. The end goal is for scientists to construct a Lunar Gateway at the moon — a space station that could serve as a jumping off point for further deep space exploration.

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A trailer for the crew announcement was posted by NASA on Wednesday.

There are currently four active Canadian astronauts, but we won’t know until Sunday who will be the first Canadian astronaut to fly around the moon.

THE CANDIDATES

Joshua Kutryk

Kutryk was born in Fort Saskatchewan, Alberta and grew up on a cattle farm in eastern Alberta. He is a member of the Canadian Armed Forces, and has been deployed in Libya and Afghanistan in the past.

He worked as an experimental test pilot and fighter pilot in Cold Lake, Alberta before he was recruited by the CSA. He worked on numerous test flight projects as well as on improving the safety of fighter jets such as the CF-18.

Kutryk made it to the top 16 candidates for the CSA in 2009, but wasn’t selected until CSA’s 2017 recruitment campaign.

He obtained the official title of astronaut in January 2020.

Jennifer Sidey-Gibbons

Sidey-Gibbons comes from Calgary, Alberta, and first worked with the CSA while studying mechanical engineering at McGill University, where she conducted research on flame propagation in microgravity in collaboration with the agency.

Before joining CSA, she lived and worked in the U.K. as an assistant professor in the Department of Engineering at the University of Cambridge. Her research there focused on how to develop low-emission combusted for gas turbine engines.

She was selected by the CSA in 2017 as a recruit along with Kutryk, and obtained the official title of astronaut in January 2020.

Jeremy Hansen

Hansen was born in London, Ontario and spent his childhood first on a farm near Ailsa Craig, Ontario, and then Ingersoll, Ontario. He is married with three children.

By age 17, he had already obtained glider and private pilot licences through the Air Cadet Program. He is a member of the Canadian Armed Forces and served as a CF-18 fighter pilot before becoming an astronaut.

Hansen graduated as an astronaut in 2011, after being selected as one of two recruits for the CSA in 2009. He currently represents the CSA at NASA and works at the Mission Control Center, serving as the point of connection between the ground and the International Space Station (ISS). He also helps to train astronauts at NASA, the first Canadian to do so.

David Saint-Jacques

Saint-Jacques grew up in Saint-Lambert, Quebec, near Montreal, and is married with three children.

Before joining the CSA, he worked as a medical doctor in Puvirnituq, Nunavik, an Inuit community in northern Quebec. He also works as an adjunct professor of family medicine at McGill University. As a biomedical engineer, he has worked in France and Hungary, and helped to develop optics systems for telescopes and arrays used at observatories in Japan, Hawaii and the Canary Islands.

He was selected as a recruit in 2009 by the CSA and graduated in 2011 from the NASA astronaut program. He has since worked with the Robotics Branch of the NASA Astronaut Office, as a support astronaut for various ISS missions and as the mission control radio operator for a number of resupply missions for the ISS.

In December 2018, Saint-Jacques flew to the ISS to complete a 204-day mission, which is the longest mission any Canadian astronaut has carried out in space to date. During this time, he became the fourth CSA astronaut to conduct a spacewalk and the first CSA astronaut to catch a visiting spacecraft using the Canadarm2.

 

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