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Canada is ‘weaving’ Indigenous science into environmental policy-making



Canada is ‘weaving’ Indigenous science into environmental policy-making

(University of Manitoba)

Research shows that Indigenous communities in Canada are at higher risk from climate-related disasters such as flooding. Myrle Ballard is setting out to make sure Indigenous people are also part of the solution to climate change.

Ballard is the first director of Environment and Climate Change Canada’s new division of Indigenous Science, a role in which she’s tasked with raising awareness of Indigenous science within the department and helping the government find ways to integrate it into its policies.

“Indigenous science is … a science of the way of knowing the land. It’s a way of knowing the water, the air, everything about the Earth. Their knowledge of the weather patterns, their knowledge of how species migrate,” Ballard said in an interview with What On Earth. “It’s this knowledge that has enabled them to survive.”

Ballard, an assistant professor in the faculty of science at the University of Manitoba, is Anishinaabe from Lake St. Martin First Nation. Some of her own research looks at what Indigenous languages reveal about local ecosystems. She said her own first language, Anishinaabemowin, has a scientific management tool embedded within it.

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“We have words for various spaces and places right across the country that are very significant to the natural state of the ecosystem,” she said.

The names of streams, for example, reveal details about the natural way water flows. Other words contain information about when fish start to spawn, said Ballard.

“We have words like that that are very significant as a biological monitor throughout our language,” said Ballard. “They’re the indicators of the state of the ecosystem and the way it was before, to the present.”

Ballard, who was hired in July to lead the new permanent division, is using a process she calls “bridging, braiding and weaving.” Bridging means raising awareness about Indigenous science within the government, while braiding is when Western scientists work together on research with Indigenous peoples on the land.

“The weaving process will be when the government, when the department ECCC, starts weaving Indigenous and Western science for better-informed decision-making,” she said.

This concept is not new for Dominique Henri, a wildlife researcher with the ministry. She’s been collaborating for about 15 years on research with Indigenous partners in the Arctic and subarctic. Most recently, she worked with Inuit partners to study the impact of climate change on polar bears.

“The bear biologists within our team learned tremendously from listening to elders’ stories and narratives,” she said. “It’s just been beautiful to see how it’s just different parts of a puzzle. [Western] science doesn’t know it all; Inuit don’t know it all, either. And by putting those pieces together, then you just have such a more rich, fuller picture of what’s going on.”

Henri said these partnerships aren’t easy to forge. It’s important to use a process that’s reciprocal, mutually beneficial and ethical, she said. And engaging properly with communities takes time. But Henri said having Ballard in this role will help.

“This team has a crucial role to play moving forward. And I hope that we can learn from this, and that other departments can then also create similar structures and that other initiatives can spread across the country,” she said.

“I think this is the future. This approach of mobilizing multiple ways of knowing in environmental conservation is really needed, I would say, to address the ecological crisis we are facing now.”

During her first few weeks in the role, Myrle Ballard has been organizing a speaker series, inviting government scientists to learn from Indigenous scholars and experts on environmental issues. A spokesperson from the department said via email that the series has so far had three speakers and more than 800 participants.

Ballard is confident the work is already making a difference.

“We’re creating change, I know we are, because we’re getting a lot of interest from within the government,” she said. “We’re not quite there yet, there’s a lot of work to be done, [but] we’ll get there eventually. It just takes time.”

— Rachel Sanders

Reader feedback

Our interview with Todd Smith, a former pilot who is warning people to fly less for the sake of the planet, generated a lot of responses.

Jay McKean:

“At last! A former pilot telling us to cut back on our air flights. I think our government must legislate how many flights a year a person can take. What government wants to do that? Such legislation will be like reinstating the temperance movement when alcohol was banned.”

Karen Hertz:

“Stop wasting your time telling regular people who rarely use airplanes for travel. GO TO THE MAIN SOURCE OF AIRPLANE TRAVEL — THAT IS, THE UBER RICH!!!”

Rodney Harle:

“Todd Smith, the retired pilot, is wrong. Flying is not the problem. The problem is the fuel that is used, not only for flying, but also for all forms of transportation. The whole world must cease using ALL fossil fuels within the next 10 years. If we do not intend to do it, and do not do it, then the climate will continue to get hotter and wetter and stormier.”

Jeff Hawker:

“The recent article on the need for us to jet less mirrored what I have been thinking for some time. We humans are great at rationalizing things to suit our wants. Three per cent of CO2 from flying gets rationalized as it’s only a small part of the problem, and MY flight is only a piece of that, so it’s OK for me to jet around. Sadly, the CUMULATIVE EFFECT of everyone doing that is why we’re in so much trouble.”

Old issues of What on Earth? are right here.

The Big Picture: The nature of climate protest

One of the most heated debates on the environmental beat in recent weeks concerns “the soup action” — namely, the incident at the National Gallery in London last Friday in which two demonstrators tossed tomato soup at the Vincent van Gogh painting Sunflowers to protest Big Oil’s patronage of the arts. The immediate response from most observers was alarm and disgust — they saw it as a pointless act of resistance that unnecessarily targeted a prized work of art and would likely sour people on climate action.

After the initial shock of the stunt wore off, the conversation around it began to evolve, with commentators providing more context. One of them was NASA climate scientist Peter Kalmus, who launched a Twitter thread by calling it “a visionary and inspired action.” As Kalmus pointed out, many people — especially young people — are frustrated by the relative inaction on reducing carbon emissions, and, in some cases, the expansion of fossil fuel projects. The two protesters from the group Just Stop Oil decided to do something that would command the world’s attention, which they did. The twist is that van Gogh’s work is behind glass and was thus unaffected. “The painting is *perfectly fine,*” Kalmus wrote. “What they DID damage? Crazy social norms that hold an object of art to be worth more than billions of people’s lives and life on Earth. Their action holds a mirror to a sick society.”

Scottish eco activist Craig Murray was one of many whose minds were changed. After originally calling the stunt “stupid vandalism, and counterproductive,” Murray later said, “I was wrong about this. The painting is behind glass and unharmed. In which case, this is a very effective bit of campaigning for publicity.”

A few days later, one of the young women who took part in the stunt explained her rationale in clear terms: “I recognize that it looks like a slightly ridiculous action…. What we’re doing is getting the conversation going so we can ask the questions that matter: Is it OK that [now-former U.K. prime minister] Liz Truss is licensing over 100 new fossil fuel [projects]? Is it OK that fossil fuels are subsidized 30 times more than renewables, when currently offshore wind [power] is nine times cheaper?… This is the conversation we need to be having now, because we don’t have time to waste.”

(Just Stop Oil/The Associated Press)

Hot and bothered: Provocative ideas from around the web

Canada still hasn’t met its 2020 biodiversity targets. Here are 3 possible solutions

(The Canadian Press)

In less than two months, Canada will host delegates from around the world for a United Nations summit on biodiversity. But as a host country, it is struggling to solve its own biodiversity problem.

The 15th Conference of the Parties (COP15) to the Convention on Biological Diversity will meet in Montreal to address accelerating species decline globally and negotiate a new framework for protecting nature, with a key commitment of conserving at least 30 per cent of land and oceans by 2030.

Canada, a member of the High Ambition Coalition, has already committed to the 30 by 30 pledge. Yet the federal government has failed to meet its biodiversity commitments for 2020, casting doubt on how likely it is to achieve those 2030 goals.

The most recent data shows land and freshwater conservation in Canada is falling short of the 17 per cent target for 2020, with 13.5 per cent of terrestrial area currently protected. In terms of protecting marine life, the country has made more progress — 13.9 per cent of marine and coastal areas is conserved, surpassing the 2020 goal of 10 per cent.

As COP15 in Montreal draws near, here are some solutions that could change the status quo.

Grassroots stewardship

A Canadian initiative launched in October hopes to help spur grassroots action by making it easier for the public at large to understand where crucial habitats are located.

The Key Biodiversity Areas program has an interactive map that visualizes biodiversity hotspots in Canada, where rare species and ecosystems are concentrated.

Areas identified on the map aren’t guaranteed to be protected or conserved. Instead, the idea is that by sharing the information publicly, the program can be used as a springboard for conservation efforts by citizens, community organizations and Indigenous-led stewardship.

“We’ve already had people in all sorts of sectors saying, ‘OK, if this is identified as a key biodiversity area, we might be able to get more funding for this, to be able to steward it better,'” said Ciara Raudsepp-Hearne, director of Key Biodiversity Areas at Wildlife Conservation Society Canada.

Until now, Raudsepp-Hearne said that information didn’t exist in a standardized, national format.

Accounting for forests and wetlands — literally

Another idea being pitched is adding biodiversity to the balance sheet, so to speak, to ensure natural assets are factored into government decision-making.

A recent paper, from the University of Waterloo’s Intact Centre on Climate Adaptation, calls for the establishment of national guidelines to value green infrastructure (wetlands, forests and lakes) in the same way that is standard practice for “grey” infrastructure (roads, dams and water treatment plants).

“Every day, people benefit from services that nature provides, be that flood protection or protection from extreme heat or purifying our water or air. But we take those services for granted,” said Joanna Eyquem, managing director of climate resilient infrastructure at the Centre on Climate Adaptation.

While some have pushed back against this approach, arguing nature can’t be limited to a financial value, Eyquem said it’s not about slapping a price tag on nature as a whole, but on the services it provides.

“If we say nature is worth so much that we’re not going to put a price tag on it, we’re actually putting a price tag of zero [on it],” she said.

A stronger federal biodiversity law

Some activists say what’s needed is a federal law to guarantee the protection of flora and fauna in the country.

Salomé Sané, a Greenpeace Canada climate campaigner who worked on a paper calling for biodiversity legislation, said a law would hold Ottawa accountable on translating biodiversity promises into concrete action.

“We want an act that sets clear biodiversity targets, clear implementation mechanisms and clear legal recourses in the case of a failed target.”

While Canada does have some biodiversity protections in place, such as the Species At Risk Act (SARA), the government has long been criticized for its reticence in using the powers enshrined in the act.

Sané is hopeful the COP15 summit will be a turning point.

“We really want it to be like the Paris [agreement] moment —  if not more — for biodiversity,” she said. “It’s that once in a decade opportunity for governments around the world.”

Jaela Bernstien

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Afghan refugees: Government delays increasing financial pressure – CTV News



Refugee advocates are raising concerns that Afghan refugees granted asylum in Canada are being burdened by escalating costs stemming from the government’s delay in processing their claims.

Before they board their flight to Canada, all refugees are required to sign a loan agreement to pay back the cost of their transportation and pre-arrival expenses which can include hotel stays.

Some Afghans identified by Immigration, Refugees and Citizenship Canada as eligible for resettlement have been waiting months for exit permits while living in hotels arranged by the government. The hotel bills can add thousands of dollars to their debt.

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The Canadian Council for Refugees says Afghans are being forced to pay for an inefficient bureaucracy.

“It seems like the Canadian government is taking advantage of the vulnerability of people,” says Janet Dench, executive director of the Canadian Council of Refugees. Hotel bills can add thousands of dollars to their government debt.

Dench says refugees have no choice but to accept a “legally dubious” contract that doesn’t stipulate a precise loan amount.

“If they want a permanent home they have to sign on to whatever the terms of the agreement are. There’s no negotiation room, so people are forced into this situation.”


Because Canada doesn’t recognize the Taliban government Afghans must get to a third country with consular support to complete their refugee applications. Many flee to neighboring Pakistan where Canada has a High Commission in the capital of Islamabad.

Nearly all Afghan refugees deemed eligible for resettlement are placed in the care of the International Organization for Migration while they are overseas.

The IOM organizes both charter and commercial flights to Canada and coordinates hotel stays for refugees as they wait for their exit permits. IOM doesn’t book flights until after IRCC has completed security and medical checks of its applicants. The organization bills the Canadian government approximately $150 per day to house and provide three meals a day for one family.

Of the 25,400 Afghans who have arrived in Canada since August 2021, IOM spokesperson Paul Dillon told CTV News in an emailed statement Friday the organizations has arranged travel for more than 22,000 of those refugees.

The claims of another 15,000 Afghans Canada committed to accepting after the Taliban took over the country have been delayed.

Irfanullah Noori, 28 and his family of five stepped off a plane at Pearson International Airport less than two months ago at the end of October. Before the Taliban took over his homeland in Noori worked as a logistics coordinator at the Kabul International Airport. He qualified for asylum because his brother served as an interpreter for Canadian soldiers.

Before being issued travel documents to Canada, Nouri, his wife and their three children, all under the age of five – stayed in an Islamabad hotel arranged by IOM for three months.

Irfanullah Noori poses with his youngest daughter on October 25, 2022 at the Pakistan International Airport before he boarded plane bound for Canada.

Before boarding his flight he signed a loan agreement. Nouri says IOM staff told him he would need to repay hotel expenses that added up to more than $13,000. That amount does not factor in the cost of flights for his family that he will also have to repay.


IRCC says 96 per cent of refugees are able to pay back the loans. Monthly payments on the interest free loans are scheduled to begin one year after refugees arrive in Canada and costs can be spread out over nine years.

The federal government puts a cap of $15,000 on each loan per family, but the Canadian Council for Refugees says this is a misleading number.

Refugee families who have older dependents may have to pay back more than the cap. That’s because dependents over the age of 22 years old, can be considered a separate family unit and required to take on a new loan. Dench says this policy puts refugees in a precarious economic position. She’s seen families fight over finances and hopes and dreams put on hold.

“You have young people who should normally be going to university and pursuing their education but they feel that they’re morally obliged to get down to work, even at a minimum wage job in order to pay off the family debt,” said Dench. She argues the Canadian government should stop requiring refugees to repay the costs of getting them to safety, no matter where they come from.


Since the fall of Kabul in August 2021, the Veterans Transition Network has helped raise funds to get interpreters and others out of Afghanistan. Oliver Thorne, VTN’s executive director says he’s frustrated that there are huge variations how long it takes for claims to be approved between applicants with similar profiles

“Some migrants are left in the dark. They don’t know why it’s taking them an additional two, four or six months compared to another interpreter who worked with the Canadian armed forces.” Thorne says IRCC needs to hire and train more staff to speed up the processing of claims.

He’s also calling for the removal of loan requirements, especially for Afghans who assisted the Canadian armed forces.

“They protected our men and women in uniform at great risk to themselves and their families. And secondly, these are going to be Canadians. They’re going to live here in our society down the street from us, and we have nothing to gain by making their transition more difficult,” Thorne said in an interview from Vancouver.


CTV News asked the Immigration Minister if it was fair that the Canadian government was burdening Afghans with additional costs due to the government backlog.

On Friday, Sean Fraser blamed a complicated process, but acknowledged that some refugees had been stuck “for a significant period of time.’ But the minister offered few solutions other than a vague reassurance that his department was “working with Pakistani officials to make sure we’re facilitating the smooth transportation of people to Canada.”

Meanwhile Noori is struggling to make ends meet in his new Ontario home, despite finding a job a few weeks ago at the General Motors plant in Oshawa.

Hired as a data-entry clerk, Noori earns $19/hour and is trying to pick up extra shifts on the weekend so he can make his $2,000 monthly rent on a one bedroom apartment.

Even though he won’t have to start paying back his refugee loan until next year, he’s daunted by the impending bill.

“It’s expensive (here.) I work 8 hours a day and six days a week. It will be very hard for me to pay back.”

After surviving the Taliban, Noori now faces subsistence in Canada.

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Children’s hospital in Newfoundland and Labrador is cancelling some surgeries



A children’s hospital in the capital of Newfoundland and Labrador is cancelling some surgeries and appointments starting Monday.

Health officials say it’s due to a high level of respiratory illness.

It is unclear how many surgeries and appointments at Janeway Children’s Health and Rehabilitation Centre in St. John‘s will be affected.

Residents who are not experiencing a medical emergency are being asked to avoid visiting an emergency department.

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Slain RCMP Const. Yang cleared of wrongdoing in shooting: B.C. police watchdog



Slain RCMP Const. Yang cleared of wrongdoing in shooting: B.C. police watchdog

British Columbia‘s police watchdog has cleared a slain Burnaby RCMP constable of wrongdoing after she shot a man in the altercation that led to her death.

The Independent Investigations Office says after a review of all available evidence its chief civilian director determined that there are no reasonable grounds to believe Const. Shaelyn Yang committed an offence.

It says the matter will not be referred to the Crown for consideration of charges.

Yang, a 31-year-old mental health and homeless outreach officer, was stabbed to death on Oct. 18 while she and a City of Burnaby employee attempted to issue an eviction notice to a man who had been living in a tent at a local park.

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Yang shot the suspect before she died, and the IIO later said Jongwon Ham underwent surgery for his injuries.

Ham has since been charged with first-degree murder in Yang’s death.

“Due to concurrent court proceedings related to the incident, the IIO’s public report will not be released on the IIO website until that process has concluded,” the IIO said in a news release.

This report by The Canadian Press was first published Dec. 3, 2022.

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