SpaceX CEO Elon Musk vowed to bring a million humans to Mars by 2050, which means he would need to bring 300 people daily to build his Martian colony.
However, Musk said he would need to have a fleet of 1,000 ships to sustain a city. As The Sun reported, the Hawthorne, California-based company is seeking for various safety and engine tests to get the rocket ready for the orbital Starship test flights in 2021.
While the interior and cabin are not yet significantly developed for passengers, Musk said they need to make the Starship work first before they go into the details.
(Photo : REUTERS/Joe Skipper – RC2DZG96N2DL)
A SpaceX Falcon 9 rocket and Crew Dragon spacecraft carrying NASA astronauts Douglas Hurley and Robert Behnken lifts off during NASA’s SpaceX Demo-2 mission to the International Space Station from NASA’s Kennedy Space Center in Cape Canaveral, Florida, U.S., May 30, 2020.
The Starship rocket he is currently testing will be used to carry humans to Mars soon .it is fully reusable and allows long-distance journeys through space. Although SpaceX has not yet built a completely functioning Starship, Musk said they aim to build 1,000 rockets within 10 years or 100 rockets every year at the company’s South Texas facility.
The CEO continued saying that SpaceX will launch 1,000 Starship flights to Mars every year or about three flights per day to reach its target of 1 million. Each trip will have 100 humans or 300 in total for three trips who will eventually become citizens of the Martian city they will eventually build.
Meanwhile, aside from the 100 passengers, Musk did not specify what each rocket would carry, although it is assumed that fuel, water, food, and life support systems are included.
Also, it is still unsure what humans would do in the Martian city, but Musk tweeted: “There will be a lot of jobs on Mars!”
Human to Mars: Carrying humans to Red Planet is not the hardest part
Musk noted that bringing people to the Red Planet is not the difficult part, but building a self-sustaining Martian city. “The fundamental issue is building a base, building a city on Mars that is self-sustaining,” Musk said during the Humans to Mars summit. He then went into details of assembling a propellant plant and building Mars Base Alpha, the initial Mars base, which would help reach a “point where it’s self-sustaining.”
(Photo : Kevork Djansezian/Getty Images)
HAWTHORNE-CA-MAY 29: SpaceX CEO Elon Musk unveils the company’s new manned spacecraft, The Dragon V2, designed to carry astronauts into space during a news conference on May 29, 2014, in Hawthorne, California. The private spaceflight company has been flying unmanned capsules to the Space Station delivering cargo for the past two years. The Dragon V2 manned spacecraft will ferry up to seven astronauts to low-Earth orbit.
However, Musk warned that the trips to Mars will be highly risky, particularly with the early stage, as there is a “good chance” for people to die in the process.
“I want to emphasize that this is a very hard and dangerous difficult thing. Not for the faint of heart,” Musk noted. He added that while it will be tough, “it will be pretty glorious if it works out.”
As an orbital flight means the trip is only viable once every two years, SpaceX must be able to provide all the needs of the colonizers during their stay in the megacity.
Nevertheless, Musk said that SpaceX is currently making good progress, compared in 2019 when there was nothing. Musk said that Starship’s progress is delayed by the production system, but since the company already got a lot of production capability, they are making more ships at a really fast pace.
The fear that action to combat climate change has been too slow has led some scientists to test unconventional methods to stem the loss of Arctic sea ice.
One of the most important, yet underappreciated, features of the Arctic sea ice is the ability of its blindingly white surfaces to reflect sunlight. For at least as long as our species has existed, the frozen seas at the top of our world have acted as a massive parasol that helps keep the planet cool and its climate stable.
Yet now, much of that ice is rapidly vanishing. Rising temperatures have locked the Arctic in a self-destructive feedback loop: the warmer it gets, the reflective white ice dissolves into darker, blue water, which absorbs more of the Sun’s warmth rather than reflecting it back into space. Warmer water accelerates melting, which means yet more absorption of heat, which drives further melting – and so on in a vicious cycle that is part of the reason why the Arctic is warming around twice as fast as the rest of the planet. This July, ice cover was as low as it had ever been at that time of the year.
As planet-warming greenhouse gas emissions continue to rise, some have been driven to explore desperate measures. One proposal put forward by the California-based non-profit Arctic Ice Project appears as daring as it is bizarre: to scatter a thin layer of reflective glass powder over parts of the Arctic, in an effort to protect it from the Sun’s rays and help ice grow back. “We’re trying to break [that] feedback loop and start rebuilding,” says engineer Leslie Field, an adjunct lecturer at Stanford University and chief technical officer of the organisation.
Tiny powder-like beads could increase the reflectivity of Arctic ice, to reflect more of the Sun’s warmth back into space (Credit: Susan Kramer/Arctic Ice Project)
Many scientists frown upon such technological interventions in Earth’s planetary system, known broadly as “geoengineering”, arguing that fiddling with nature might cause further damage. However, “the utter lack of progress on climate mitigation is really opening up a space for all of these [geoengineering] things to be discussed,” says Emily Cox, who studies climate policy and public attitudes towards geoengineering at the University of Cardiff. That said, the urgency does not erase the uncertainty. “What do you do if something goes wrong… especially in the Arctic, which is already a fairly fragile ecosystem?”
Field launched the Arctic Ice Project — formerly known as ICE911 — in 2008, soon after watching the climate change documentary An Inconvenient Truth, which convinced her of the urgency of doing something about the melting sea ice. In particular, it’s the fate of old, thick sea ice that worries her the most – the kind that lasts multiple years. This mature ice, dazzlingly white, has a high albedo, meaning it’s extremely good at reflecting sunlight – much more so than the thinner and darker young ice that forms each polar winter only to melt again during the summer. Yet over the past 33 years, that ice has dwindled by a staggering 95%.
What if, Field asked, she could layer a reflective material on top of the young ice to protect it during the summer months? If it had that extra protection, could it rebuild into sturdy multi-year ice, and kick-start a local process of ice regrowth? She settled on silica – or silicon dioxide – which occurs naturally in most sand and is often used to make glass, as the material of choice. She found a manufacturer that turns it into tiny, brightly reflective beads, each one 65 micrometers in diameter – thinner than a human hair, but too large for them to be inhaled and cause lung problems, Field says. The beads are also hollow inside, so they’ll float on water and continue to reflect away sunlight even if the ice begins to melt.
Over the past decade, she and her team have scattered the silica spheres over several lakes and ponds in Canada and the United States, so far with encouraging results. For instance, in a pond in Minnesota, just a few layers of glass powder made young ice 20% more reflective – enough to delay the melting of the ice. By spring, when the ice in an uncovered area of the pond had completely vanished, there was still nearly a foot of ice in the section treated with the glass beads.
Dark blue water absorbs more of the Sun’s rays, accelerating the process of global warming – but bright white ice reflects that radiation away (Credit: Getty Images)
Field doesn’t want to carpet the Arctic in glass. Instead, she plans on distributing it strategically to protect some particularly fast-melting, vulnerable areas, like the Fram Strait, a thin passage between Greenland and Svalbard. According to results of a climate model she presented last December at the annual meeting of the American Geophysical Union, treating the Fram Strait could lead to large-scale ice regrowth across parts of the Arctic.
Scientists agree that the beads are well-intentioned, but worry about their potential effects on the Arctic ecosystem. If they float around there indefinitely, “it’s just going to clog up the ocean and mess with the ecosystem,” says Cecilia Bitz, an atmospheric scientist at the University of Washington who specialises in Arctic sea ice.
Field argues that the balls are safe because silica is so abundant in nature – indeed, it routinely washes from weathered rocks via rivers into the sea. And according to some safety testing as part of her 2018 study, the beads, when ingested, cause no ill effects in at least two species – sheepshead minnow fish and northern bobwhite birds.
However, some biologists are concerned about the potential effects on the creatures at the base of the Arctic food chain. Depending on how much light the silica beads reflect, they could block sunlight from photosynthesising plankton, such as diatoms, algae that live under the sea ice and around it. Any change in plankton abundance could cascade up the food web and have unpredictable effects on organisms from fish to seals and polar bears, notes Karina Giesbrecht, an ocean chemist and ecologist at Canada’s University of Victoria who has studied the role of silica in Arctic ecosystems.
On top of that, the silica balls are similar in size to diatoms, which are eaten by zooplankton known as copepods, Giesbrecht notes. If the beads sank into the water column, copepods might consume them thinking they are diatoms, without gaining any nutrition. In the worst case, the copepods could starve, with knock-on effects for other members of the Arctic ecosystem.
So far, Field has been using beads that mostly stay afloat (though some inevitably sink each season), and she is planning to test their impact on plankton ecosystems. If there are any harmful effects, she’ll explore ways of tailoring the beads to make them ecologically safer, she says. One option she is considering is whether to tweak their composition such that they dissolve after a period of time. There are many other questions that her team, which is about to undertake further testing in seawater-filled pools in Alaska, will have to answer to convince the world that the approach is safe and effective.
The young, thin Arctic ice is darker and less reflective than the thick, white, old ice – pushing the Arctic into a feedback cycle of warming (Credit: Martha Henriques)
For one, Mark Serreze, a climate scientist who directs the US National Snow and Ice Data Center at the University of Colorado, Boulder, wonders whether they’ll work as intended. “If you put down the silica beads in an area of fast-moving ocean currents, notably the Fram Strait, they will be quickly dispersed,” rendering them ineffective, he says.
The proposal also raises financial questions, like who would foot the approximately $1-5bn (£800m to £4bn) annual bill for making, shipping, testing and distributing the necessary silica beads in the Fram Strait. It may be an eye-watering figure, but it starts to look small next to the estimated $460bn (£360bn) that the United States incurred in extreme weather and climate disasters between 2017 and 2019 alone, Field notes.
Field agrees that geoengineering is in no way a replacement for reducing carbon emissions. Rather, she sees it as a chance to buy the time needed for world economies to decarbonise and stave off the worst impacts of climate change. The silica beads, she says, are “the backup plan I hoped we’d never need”.
During the evening of Tuesday, Sept. 22, a Huntsville parent posted a letter they received from the board confirming a positive COVID-19 case at Spruce Glen Public School in Huntsville.
“We have been notified by the Simcoe Muskoka District Health Unit (SMDHU) that a student or staff member at Spruce Glen Public School has tested positive for COVID-19. Our school is working closely with Trillium Lakelands District School Board and SMDHU and is taking necessary steps to prevent the further spread of the virus both in the school and in the community.”
Follow-up communications confirmed that the person is a female student from Huntsville between the ages of 0 and 17. A parent forwarded this newspaper the letter they received from the school on Wednesday, Sept. 23. Their child is in the same class as the siblings of the student who tested positive for COVID-19.
“The students have all taken their role to keep everyone safe, including themselves safe, very seriously. It is a real blessing! This is such a kind, caring, and amazing group of students. I am deeply moved by their considerate actions,” wrote a teacher at the school.
NASA quickly shifted the position of the International Space Station to avoid a potentially catastrophic encounter with debris that would have passed within less than a mile of the orbital laboratory — a close shave in space terms.
The three-member crew was moved into a Soyuz spacecraft until the station was considered out of danger from the object, which was expected to pass by at about 5:21 p.m. Central time on Tuesday, the National Aeronautics and Space Administration said in a statement.
The agency didn’t reveal the size of the debris, which would have passed within 1.39 km (0.86 mile), forcing the 150-second “avoidance maneuver” burn by Mission Control in Houston. Colliding with orbital debris, or space junk, of even a few centimeters in diameter would be potentially catastrophic to the space station given that objects in low-earth orbit can travel at speeds of roughly 17,500 miles per hour (28,000 kilometers an hour) and higher.
The space station’s move occurred about an hour before the closest approach using thrust from the Russian Progress resupply craft that is docked on the ISS Zvezda service module.
Adjustments of the station’s orbit are fairly routine, although having the crew take shelter in the Soyuz spacecraft isn’t.
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