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How Canada Makes Its Money



Economic diversity is the key to Canada’s success at making money—when one part of the country is suffering economically, another is booming. Canada is the second-largest country in the world with a surface area of over 3.8 million square miles.1 There are about 38 million people living in Canada, and with a gross domestic product (GDP) of over $1.73 trillion, it’s the tenth largest economy in the world.2

3 Four industries that bring in a good portion of the revenue for Canada are 1) oil and gas, 2) energy, 3) manufacturing, and 4) tourism.

Oil & Gas

The oil and gas industry is a large part of the Canadian economy, and it suffered immensely when the price of oil fell in late 2014. While the price-per-barrel has rebounded somewhat since hitting a low in early 2016, the myriad of factors that impact the price of oil (and can cause it to fluctuate dramatically) have given Canada the incentive to diversify into other energy revenue sources.7

Canada’s Oil Provinces

Canada currently has the third-largest oil patch in the world, most of it in oil sands and crude. Oil is found throughout Canada, with the largest onshore reserves being in the western provinces of Alberta, and Saskatchewan. There is also oil offshore near the provinces of Newfoundland and Nova Scotia.8

Alberta is an oil province. The Athabasca Oil Sands are still far from their peak production, yet, with the province collecting royalties on each barrel sold, almost 30% of the province’s revenue comes from oil.9 10 This figure is alarming to some, and, as can be expected, a fall in the price of oil can lead to a budgetary crisis.

Other Oil Industries

In addition to oil production, the western provinces are also home to oil-related industries. From exploration to petrochemicals to plastics, Canada earns a lot of money from oil. The two largest cities in Alberta—Edmonton and Calgary—are home to hundreds of oil headquarters and laboratories. In the north, cities have been built for the sole purpose of supporting the oil and gas industry.

Canada exports about 3.7 million of the 4.6 million barrels of crude oil it produces a day. Most of these exports go to the United States through various pipelines. Canadian oil companies are hoping to begin exporting oil to new markets—provided they can get pipelines built to ferry the oil away from the landlocked, northern oil patches.


Oil and gas aren’t the only energy revenue sources in Canada. The country has huge coal deposits in the western provinces of British Columbia an Alberta that are exported to Asian countries.11 The province of Quebec has uranium and other mineral mines, and Alberta, Quebec, Nova Scotia, and Prince Edward Island are home to many wind farms.12 13

The big energy earner, though, comes from a mostly renewable, alternative energy source: hydroelectricity. Hydro plants are found in every province except Prince Edward Island, and while a lot of it is cheaply sold to and used by Canadians, several provinces export a much larger percentage than they consume.14 Quebec, for example, exports hydro-electricity to Vermont, Massachusetts, and New York, in addition to selling it to other provinces. The Pacific Northwest and northern Midwest also import Canadian hydro-electricity.15


The Canadian dollar has been declining at a rapid pace: $1 USD could buy $1.07 CAD in July 2014; it can fetch $1.33 CAD as of Feb. 2020.16 While Canadians now have to pay more for imports, the weak dollar is great news for the Canadian manufacturing sector, which produces food, machinery, motor vehicles, and aerospace manufacturing.

The central province of Ontario has been building cars for General Motors (GM), Ford (F), and Chrysler for at least 50 years, and the Ambassador Bridge, which connects Detroit to the Canadian automotive city of Windsor, carries 30% of Canada’s exports by road.17 18 Quebec is home to Bombardier, a company that designs and builds snowmobiles, buses, aircraft, and trains that are sold internationally.19


Canada is the second-largest country in the world and has a very diverse geography, history, and culture, making it a prime tourist destination.1 The country’s diversity, as well as hosting three Olympic Games and having 20 UNESCO World Heritage Sites, means there is something for everyone in Canada.20 21 In the northern territories, visitors can see the Northern Lights and explore the polar ice fields. They can check out Vancouver, the Rocky Mountains, dinosaur parks, festivals, and museums in the western provinces.

In the central and eastern provinces, tourists can visit historical sites, Niagara Falls, Montreal, Quebec City, and Ottawa, as well as hundreds of museums and festivals. There are national parks throughout the country that are worth a trip for the nature-loving traveler.

The tourism industry in Canada employs 1.7 million people and is supported by 22.1 million international visitors each year.22 5 With $92 billion in annual revenue, tourism accounts for a $34 billion increase to the Canadian GDP.22

About 70% of the overseas tourists to Canada came from the United States in 2019, spending $10.6 billion during their stay according to the most recent estimates from 2018.23 5

Other Revenue Sources


Farms cover the Canadian countryside with the obvious exception of the northern territories. Canadian farms grow grain, fruits, and vegetables, along with raising cattle for dairy and meat. Crops are also transformed into a variety of products, not limited to wine, beer, candy, and whiskey. Canada is also a big producer of honey and of maple syrup, and large percentages of the country’s agricultural products and by-products are exported.24 25 26


Despite fishing being the sole economic resource for many coastal communities, the fishery industry is not well-known to most Canadians. The fishing industry employs approximately 75,000 people and adds about $6 billion to the economy.27 28


Lastly, the government is the main provider of education and health care in the country. Education until high school is, more or less, free, and post-secondary education is relatively low, and often subsidized.29 Medically necessary health care is provided free of charge by the government.30 As a major employer in each province, the federal government ensures a steady income for about 288,000 Canadians.6

The Bottom Line

If visitors were to come to Canada to view the ways that Canada makes money, they would be overwhelmed with the stops on the tour. However, despite a diversified economy and strong economic plans for the future, the Canadian economy has shown modest growth. Real GDP gained only 1.65% in 2019 and is forecasted to grow by 1.8% in 2020.31

For Canada to continue to make money and improve its prospects, experts say more money will need to be spent on business investment.32 The Canadian government, on the other hand, is under pressure to maintain fiscal responsibility, which could put a damper on efforts to grow the economy through various business sectors.

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UK Economy Faces $6.3 Billion Hit From Pingdemic, CEBR Says – BNN



(Bloomberg) —

The U.K.’s economy could face a loss of more than 4.6 billion pounds ($6.3 billions) in just four weeks if rules on self-isolation following a “ping” from the NHS app aren’t relaxed, according to data from Centre for Economics and Business Research.

Since July 19 “freedom day,” the surge of Covid cases in the U.K. implies has caused increasing number of people will need self-isolate after being contacted by the NHS app, triggering disruption in supply chains. Figures released this week from the NHS track-and-trace app, covering the period from July 8-14, show a record 607,486 self-isolation pings were sent within a week in England.

The government may need to speed up its overhaul of the NHS App, as exemptions introduced for key workers would reduce the overall cost by only 300 million pounds over the period, CEBR said, whereas more than half could be saved by relaxing isolation for those who have had their second vaccination by at least two weeks, they added.

Britain’s economy already showed signs of slowing in July as euphoria following the easing of coronavirus restrictions eased and a resurgence of the coronavirus caused widespread staff shortages. An index based on a survey of purchasing managers by IHS Markit fell unexpectedly to its lowest since March.

Meanwhile, London Mayor Sadiq Khan urged Boris Johnson’s government to relax isolation rules for vaccinated people who come into contact with a Covid-19 case, with the U.K. capital facing major disruption.

Politicians and scientists are now concerned that people are deleting the official Covid-19 mobile phone app, or at least switching off its tracing function, to avoid having to self-isolate.

©2021 Bloomberg L.P.

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Virus resurgence menaces economy just as rescue programs unravel – POLITICO




The resurgence of the coronavirus is threatening to undercut the U.S. economic recovery and upend Americans’ plans to return to work just as the sweeping social safety net that Congress built during the pandemic is unraveling.

That one-two punch — a new wave of cases followed by the looming expiration of enhanced jobless benefits, a ban on evictions and other rescue programs — is sparking concern among lawmakers and economists who say that while widespread business shutdowns are unlikely, renewed fears of the virus alone can slow the economy just as it’s getting back on track.

That could dampen hiring and keep some workers on the sidelines of the job market — stalling or even reversing the labor recovery, the centerpiece of President Joe Biden’s economic agenda. New unemployment claims jumped last week to 419,000, well above expectations and the highest since mid-May, the Labor Department reported on Thursday.

Biden — whose Gallup approval rating dropped to 50 percent this week, its lowest yet — is already drawing attacks from Republicans over the issue. Rep. Kevin Brady of Texas, the top GOP tax writer in Congress, said the president has focused too much on pushing his “$4 trillion spending binge” and not enough on the virus.

Jason Furman, a former top economic adviser to President Barack Obama who is close to the current White House economic team, said the West Wing is very aware of the risks to the economy from the spike in Covid cases.

“Any problem that has a 5 to 10 percent chance to derail the economic recovery you are looking at very closely and are worried about,” Furman said.

He said that concern isn’t especially high, however, because even under “the most plausible worst-case scenario,” the risk is that the Delta variant “takes what was a very fast recovery and turns it into just a fast recovery.”

Another person familiar with the economic team’s discussions confirmed that the White House is paying close attention but doesn’t consider the virus a significant threat. Biden has been calling on Americans to get vaccinated, mainly out of concern for people’s safety but also with an eye out for the economy, the person said.

Biden, speaking on Monday after the stock market tumbled as investors braced for a potential rebound of the virus, said, “We can’t let up, especially because of the Delta variant, which is more transmissible and more dangerous.”

Coronavirus cases have been rising nationwide and are back to their highest level since early May as the highly contagious variant spreads across the country. The sharp uptick has reignited fears of the pandemic, particularly as cases rise among young children who are unable to get a vaccine and even among those who have been fully vaccinated.

“If people don’t feel safe, they’re going to close schools. If people don’t feel safe, they’re not going to go back to work,” said Claudia Sahm, a former Federal Reserve economist. “The recovery — it’s going, but it’s still vulnerable.”

While it’s far too early to gauge the fallout from the increase in cases, any Delta-driven jobs slowdown is likely to be most pronounced in blue states, where higher percentages of residents are vaccinated but where people are also less willing to take risks as coronavirus cases rise. A CBS News poll this week showed that nearly 3 in 4 fully vaccinated Americans are worried about the Delta variant, compared to less than half of those who are not fully vaccinated or who have not received any shots at all.

Those same Democratic-led states also have the most jobs left to recover since they had stricter shutdown orders in place initially and then reopened more slowly. Roughly 8 million of the 10 million jobs that are still missing in the economy from before the pandemic are in blue states, said Arindrajit Dube, a labor economist at the University of Massachusetts at Amherst.

The slowdown in jobs growth, then, is likely to be most acute in the states where the need is greatest. And given how much economic activity those states generate, the ripple effects on the macroeconomy will be more severe.

“If you have highly populous parts of the country who have taken Covid seriously the entire time, and those people get afraid, then you have at least a noticeable slowing in the recovery,” said Sahm, now a senior fellow at the Jain Family Institute.

If Delta continues to spread, the economic shock would come as huge swaths of Americans are still struggling to get back on their feet.

While wages have been rising, particularly for low-income workers in leisure and hospitality, those gains have been outpaced by inflation. And more than 1 in 3 American adults have less in emergency savings now than before the pandemic, despite the more than $5 trillion Congress has pumped into the economy since March 2020 in stimulus and relief funds, according to a survey released on Wednesday.

“That really underscores how much we need to restore jobs,” said Diane Swonk, chief economist at Grant Thornton. “All of those issues that really plague low-income households have not gone away. We bought some time, but the clock is expiring.”

The end of various social safety net programs will affect tens of millions of Americans. Survey data from the Census Bureau shows 3.6 million households say they are somewhat or very likely to face eviction in the next two months as the nationwide moratorium expires at the end of July. More than 12 million Americans continue to receive some form of jobless benefits, which will be slashed or cut entirely by Labor Day.

And some 42 million student loan borrowers will need to resume payments in October unless the Biden administration acts — and 2 in 3 say it will be difficult for them to pay the bill, according to a Pew Charitable Trusts survey this month.

The ultimate risk is if those and other programs run out at the same time that a major coronavirus outbreak leads to a pullback in economic spending, a slowdown in hiring or an increased hesitancy to find work for fear of catching the virus.

“If we are to see a significant wave in the end of summer, early fall, then we are likely to see an environment where the economic impact will be much greater if there isn’t additional fiscal support,” said Gregory Daco, the chief U.S. economist at Oxford Economics.

Congress has been preoccupied in recent months not with short-term stimulus but longer-term initiatives, namely a bipartisan infrastructure plan and a multitrillion-dollar spending package for child care, health care, education and climate, Daco said. In short order, too, lawmakers will also have to take action on urgent items including the budget and the debt ceiling.

“Those are likely to be the key focus,” he said. “So there might be a significant disconnect between the potential need for additional fiscal stimulus and Congress’ focus on more medium-term plans.”

In the meantime, the Delta variant is giving Republicans fresh ammunition to rail against the multitrillion spending package they have long slammed as an expensive Democratic wishlist. Brady, the ranking Republican on the House Ways and Means Committee, said Tuesday he’s hopeful the president will now “turn away from his distraction on another $4 trillion spending binge” to focus on coronavirus and the economy.

“I’m worried that almost since Day One, six months ago, [Biden] took his eye off defeating the virus and rebuilding the economy,” Brady said. “The president is scrambling now to make up for that lack of attention, but I worry that it’s too late.”

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A 'delta' chill in the air? The economy is still booming, but it faces new uncertainty – MarketWatch



The U.S. economy caught fire in the spring and it’s still running pretty hot this summer, but a new strain of the coronavirus is threatening to cast a chill over the recovery.

Worries about the so-called delta strain sent a shiver through investors last week after the number of people catching the virus quickly climbed from a pandemic low. The stock market

posted its biggest decline in almost 10 months before recovering and bond yields also fell.

Although the U.S. Covid caseload is still quite low, the delta variant has introduced new uncertainty into the economic outlook and forced households, businesses and government to consider how to respond.

The reaction so far? Not much. Los Angeles County recommended that residents wear masks again, but it’s one of the few governments to do so.

By and large, the delta variant has drawn a wait-and-see reaction. Just look at the stock market. The Dow Jones Industrial Average recovered all of its losses in just a few days and was back at an all-time high.

A chief reason for the optimism, it seems, is that the White House and Federal Reserve will do whatever it takes to keep the economy propped up.

“As long as the government and the Fed keep pumping things up, it is hard to see how the markets can stay down for an extended period,” said chief economist Joel Naroff of Naroff Economic Advisors.

Massive government financial stimulus played a huge role in what’s expected to be a very strong U.S. economic performance in the second quarter. Economists polled by The Wall Street Journal estimate that gross domestic product soared at a 9.1% annual rate in the period stretching from April to June.

See: MarketWatch Economic Calendar

That would be one of the strongest American growth rates ever and help compensate for the devastating economic losses early in the pandemic. GDP, the official scorecard for the U.S. economy, will be released on Thursday.

More important, of course, is what happens next. GDP is mostly a look in the rearview mirror.

Other reports next week are likely to show the U.S. sustaining its recent momentum. Consumer spending data and orders for manufactured goods in June are also expected to point to underlying strength in the economic recovery.

Read: Takeout and dining out has never been so popular – how U.S. restaurants survived and even thrive

Households are spending freely and businesses just can’t keep up with demand. One of their biggest problems is finding enough workers.

What about the delta strain?

So far most people who are catching it are unvaccinated. So-called break-though cases among the vaccinated, meanwhile, are not inducing many severe reactions or deaths.

So it seems the prognosis for broader economy — not to mention the health of the public — is still pretty good with more than 68% of the adult U.S. population having received at least one shot.

Yet if there’s one thing that’s been learned during the pandemic, nothing can be taken for granted. The virus could mutate again, for instance, or individuals, businesses and government could adopt defensive measures that take some steam out of the recovery.

Perhaps the most realistic danger for now is that the delta variant will spread more rapidly around the world and further disrupt global suppy chains that have been strained by the pandemic.

These supply-chain problems — a notable example is a shortage of computer chips — could exacerbate the surge in U.S. inflation this year and further raise costs for consumers and businesses alike.

Already higher inflation is hurting Americans financially and undermining confidence in the recovery. A key inflation report next week, known as the PCE price index, due on Friday, is expected to show another large increase.

The Fed, for its part, is likely to try to reassure consumers and investors next week that the spike in inflation is just temporary after its latest big meeting on the economy. That’s been the Fed’s mantra for months.

Read: Prices are soaring and Americans aren’t happy about it

Also: The cost of living posts biggest surge since 2008 as inflation spreads

Yet the central bank badly underestimated how much prices would rise this year and even some top Fed officials are starting to get worried.

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