How Flight PS752's black boxes may piece together details around the downed plane – CBC.ca
While Iran continues to deny evidence cited by Canada and the U.S. that a surface-to-air missile downed Flight PS752, the Ukrainian aircraft’s black boxes could still provide some crucial clues around the cause of the crash.
An aircraft’s black boxes includes two components: the flight data recorder and cockpit voice recorder.
Iranian state television showed footage on Friday purportedly of the two black boxes recovered from the crashed Ukrainian airliner, Reuters reported.
The footage, posted online by state TV, showed two devices inside a wooden crate which commentary said were the cockpit voice recorder and the flight data recorder.
Both black boxes are damaged but their memory can be downloaded and examined, the commentary said.
The wooden crate was opened at the Iran Civil Aviation Organization, the commentary said.
WATCH: Iran TV purportedly shows Ukraine airliner’s black boxes
The flight data recorder tracks measurements like air speed, altitude, heading (bearing) and engine thrust, while the cockpit voice recorder records all the communication between crew members, as well as between the crew and air traffic control, and the ambient sound in the cockpit.
“If it’s an operational-type accident — operational meaning pilot issues and so on, nothing wrong with the aircraft — then the flight recorders are very, very good at telling you exactly what happened,” said Mike Poole, a former investigator with the Transportation Safety Board of Canada and an expert on flight recorders.
“If it’s a technical problem with the aircraft, then the flight recorder is [also] very good at telling you there’s a technical problem,” he said. “But pinpointing it usually requires the physical wreckage.”
And when it comes to figuring out whether a plane was downed by an outside force, such as a projectile, the recorders can further offer some indirect evidence.
Signature of a perfectly functioning airplane
“If you’re shot down, the signature is typically a perfectly functioning airplane and perfectly normal operations that all of a sudden stops,” Poole said. “That doesn’t necessarily [mean] it was shot down, but it says whatever happened was instantaneous.”
Of the 176 victims killed on board the Ukraine International Airlines flight after it crashed Wednesday shortly after takeoff from Tehran, 63 were Canadian citizens and a total of 138 were ultimately bound for Canada.
On Thursday, Prime Minister Justin Trudeau announced that intelligence from multiple sources, including Canada, has indicated Flight PS752 was shot down by an Iranian surface-to-air-missile, perhaps unintentionally.
Iran has denied the allegations.
If true, it would mean the plane met the same fate as Malaysia Airlines Flight MH17, which was shot down over territory held by pro-Russian separatists in Eastern Ukraine in July 2014, killing 296 people, including one Canadian.
In its report into that crash, the Dutch Safety Board concluded the plane was downed by the detonation of a warhead launched by a surface-to-air missile system. While forensic chemical analysis on the wreckage helped make that determination, investigators also used some of the evidence gathered from the flight data recorder and cockpit voice recorder.
One piece of evidence that came from the cockpit voice recorder was a 2.3 millisecond sound peak — a noise, it was concluded, that originated from outside the airplane.
“Normally when an aircraft is hit by a projectile like that … it can even be heard, because there’s a sudden decompression, and most of that is captured in the cockpit voice recorder,” said Daniel Adjekum, an assistant professor of aviation at the University of North Dakota.
No alerts or warnings
Investigators also found the MH17 data recorders had stopped abruptly — and they confirmed the normal functioning of the airplane’s engines and systems before the crash; no warning failures or discrepancies were recorded.
Nor were there any alerts or warnings of system malfunction heard in MH17’s cockpit voice recorders; communication between flight crew members gave no indication of any malfunction or emergency prior to the crash.
“This will be clues to the investigators that whatever happened was sudden — it was instantaneous in a way that their recordings were abruptly stopped,” Adjekum said. “Those are clues that, most likely, it was hit by a projectile.”
Questions have already been raised over potential access to the black boxes of Flight PS752.
Based on international aviation regulations, Iran has authority over the crash probe since it occurred in their territory.
While representatives of the plane’s manufacturer are often involved in the investigation of the crash and analysis of the flight recorders, in this case, the plane was manufactured by U.S.-based Boeing. But with the ongoing standoff between the U.S. and Iran, the country’s aviation authority has said it would not send the black boxes to the American company.
(Iran has said that Ukranian officials can be present, however, as well as Canadians, albeit in a limited capacity.)
It is unlikely that Iran has the technology needed to access the information from the black boxes, with officials already saying they may need to outsource the recorders to outside experts.
Adjekum believes the best way forward is to get a third-party country involved — one that has relations with Iran and the U.S., as well as the technical capability to retrieve the data.
“France might be my best bet,” he said. “Send it out to France. [American] NTSB investigators can also travel to France, a third-party country, and they can all be there when the data … is read out.
“And it will satisfy everybody in terms of transparency and openness.”
WATCH: Ukraine mourns, sends investigators to Iran
Inside the fundamentalist Christian movement that wants to remake Canadian politics – CBC.ca
Warning: This story contains anti-trans comments and deals with suicide.
On a recent Sunday morning in Waterloo, Ont., pastor Jacob Reaume gripped a lectern and issued a warning to his congregation.
“A Christless existence leads to the dark, hopeless abyss of death,” he told around 200 people at Trinity Bible Chapel, an evangelical church on the outskirts of the city.
Much of the sermon, delivered last December, was devoted to a trans student at a Christian university in nearby Hamilton who had died by suicide a few weeks earlier.
“If you’re going to live a lie to the point where you’re willing to mutilate your own body, it’s going to send you into dark despair,” Reaume said.
He then used a slur to refer to trans people.
Trinity Bible is one of the most prominent churches in a fundamentalist Christian movement that has gained momentum in Canada, initially by challenging pandemic public health restrictions.
This movement is now increasingly involved in electoral politics, advocating for conservative social and political policies based on literal interpretations of the Bible.
Liberty Coalition Canada, a conservative Christian advocacy group, is trying to raise $1.3 million to recruit hundreds of Christian politicians and campaign staff to run at all levels of government.
In a document marked “please keep classified” that was obtained by CBC News, the group says its ultimate goal is “the most powerful political disruption in Canadian history.”
Working alongside Liberty Coalition Canada are dozens of churches across the country, a number of small media outlets and at least one well-funded think-tank.
While theological and political differences exist among them, many supporters of this movement share a vocal opposition to LGBTQ rights and other social justice causes.
Several Canadian pastors in the movement also have ties to a controversial branch of evangelical Christianity in the U.S. known as reconstructionism.
Scholars say reconstructionist ideals — often linked to Christian nationalism, the idea that the United States is a Christian country — are influencing how some Canadian evangelicals are responding to issues like legalized abortion, same-sex marriage and added protections for gender minorities.
“Some Christians in Canada over the last 10 years have begun to push back,” said John Stackhouse, a professor of religious studies at Crandall University in Moncton, N.B.
Pastors defying pandemic rules
Liberty Coalition Canada was formed in early 2021 by Michael Thiessen, a pastor at Grace Baptist Church in Alliston, Ont., who broke with that church over his public opposition to public health measures in place at the time.
Thiessen helped draft a statement — known as the Niagara Declaration — that argued limits on religious gatherings were a violation of church sovereignty.
Nearly 300 mostly Protestant churches and organizations across Canada, including Trinity Bible, signed the declaration. Liberty Coalition emerged as an effort to consolidate that wave of opposition and defend the rights of Christians.
“One of our concerns over the past couple years is the apparent power grab by the state to exercise absolute authority over all of life,” said Aaron Rock, one of the authors of the petition and pastor at Harvest Bible Church in Windsor, Ont.
Rock declined to be interviewed in person or over the phone. He spoke to CBC News by exchanging voice memos with a journalist.
“Where the state crossed the line for us was in their attempt to control the ministry and worship of the Christian church,” he added in a voice memo.
Thiessen, Rock and Reaume were among several pastors in Canada who were charged with defying public health rules by holding large gatherings at their churches in 2020 and 2021 (some of the charges against Rock were later withdrawn).
Reaume’s church celebrated these pastors at an event in Waterloo, Ont., last fall called the Church at War conference, where governments were labelled as the “anti-Christ.”
As governments began to remove pandemic restrictions, Liberty Coalition Canada shifted its focus to controversies that pit progressive and conservative values against each other on issues ranging from gender and sexuality to racism and the environment.
In recent months, the organization has emphasized its opposition to LGBTQ rights.
It is raising money to support legal action brought by an Ontario high school student who was suspended for organizing a protest against his school’s gender-neutral bathroom policy and who has since appeared at several anti-trans demonstrations.
During a recent Liberty Coalition podcast episode, for example, a host referred to the LGBTQ “world view” as “satanic” and a “godless death cult.”
The host, Kingston, Ont., pastor Andrew DeBartolo, said the “rainbow mafia” was seeking to “brainwash children.” His co-host, Matthew Hallick, described queerness as “sexual perversion.”
Training for candidates
Liberty Coalition Canada claims to have helped 110 Christian candidates in municipal and school board elections last year in Ontario, Manitoba, Saskatchewan and British Columbia.
It says 16 of those 110 candidates were elected in 2022, but this number is difficult to verify because the group did not respond to a request to see a full list of names.
Of the candidates who are known to have had Liberty Coalition’s support, many campaigned against efforts to deal with systemic racism and opposed teaching students about gender minorities.
CBC News previously revealed Liberty Coalition Canada supplied training in August for several dozen of these candidates.
The two-day event in Mississauga, Ont., included a talk by Bridget Ziegler, a conservative education activist from Florida.
Ziegler co-founded Moms for Liberty, a lobby group that drove support for state legislation — dubbed by critics as “Don’t Say Gay — that bars schools from teaching about sexual orientation and gender identity in younger grades.
The internal Liberty Coalition document obtained by CBC News suggests it is entertaining even grander ambitions for the future.
“Over the next few years, I want to systematically manufacture 10,000 new Christian political candidates across Canada,” says the document, which was written by Michael Clark, director of advocacy for the Liberty Coalition.
Clark also writes that he wants to align Canada’s laws with “biblical principles.”
The document was available to the roughly 500 participants of a religious conference at Harvest Bible Church in Windsor, Ont., last December.
Liberty Coalition Canada was among several groups that set up booths in the exhibitors hall at the conference.
Unaware he was speaking with a CBC News journalist, an individual at its booth handed over a copy of the document, saying it was “a plan to help Christians infiltrate the political system.”
Clark declined an interview request from CBC News.
But Rock is open about the goals of the Christian political movement of which he sees himself a member.
“We would want to see people elected to office, and installed in the academies of our country, and in our legal system … who aren’t ashamed to consult God’s eternal laws when it comes to the decisions that they make,” he said in a voice memo to CBC News.
Controversial branch of Christianity
Through its podcasts and fundraising efforts, Liberty Coalition Canada appears to be seeking a broader audience for Christian reconstructionism, an austere form of evangelism that seeks inspiration from the Old Testament to guide modern government and culture.
“What you have with the Niagara Declaration … is a form of Christian reconstruction,” said André Gagné, a professor of theology at Montreal’s Concordia University.
In speeches and podcast appearances, Thiessen, the coalition’s founder, often invokes thinkers (Cornelius Van Til) and concepts (theonomy, presuppositionalism) that are central to the reconstructionist movement.
He has also participated in several events that are hosted by organizations and figures that experts associate with reconstructionism.
Stackhouse, the Crandall University professor, studies evangelical Christianity and estimates reconstructionists account for a small minority of Canadian evangelicals.
“It’s on the fairly strong right wing of Calvinism or Reform Christianity,” Stackhouse said.
“This is what I would call the fundamentalist form of Protestant Christianity.”
Separate from mainstream evangelicals
Reconstructionists stand apart from mainstream evangelicals in Canada who have largely accepted the country’s religious pluralism and are less interested in pushing biblical values in every corner of society.
“We are very conscious that we are a minority,” said Rick Hiemstra, research director of the Evangelical Fellowship of Canada, the country’s largest association of evangelicals.
“Christendom as an idea is past and our relationship with the rest of Canada needs to be different than what it was in the past.”
Experts say reconstructionists, on the other hand, see increasing tolerance for minority rights and other progressive policies as an attack on Christianity that will lead to the decline of Western civilization.
“[Reconstructionists] feel they should preach what they call the entire council of God,” Gagné said.
“So if God says in the Bible that homosexuality is a sin, they feel they shouldn’t be censored for preaching that.”
Ties to controversial U.S. figures
Scholars usually trace the origins of reconstructionism to R.J. Rushdoony, a religious thinker who rose to prominence in the U.S. in the 1970s.
Rushdoony believed that modern societies should be organized around the Ten Commandments. He advocated capital punishment for homosexuality, adultery and abortion.
His teachings had a profound influence on the Christian right. He is often credited with convincing other evangelical leaders in the U.S. of the need to oppose legalized abortion, launching the decades-long — and ultimately successful — effort to overturn Roe v. Wade.
More recently, reconstructionism in the U.S. is often associated with Christ Church in Moscow, Idaho, and its controversial pastor, Douglas Wilson.
Wilson preaches what one scholar has called “extremely muscular Christianity,” which champions traditional models of masculinity and calls on believers to build their own parallel society to avoid the evils of modern secular culture.
“[In] his most recent writing, Wilson has no qualms about describing his goal as ‘theocracy,'” writes Crawford Gribben, a professor at Queen’s University Belfast, in his 2021 book Survival and resistance in evangelical America: Christian Reconstruction in the Pacific Northwest.
Wilson’s ideal society, according to Gribben, would be run along biblical lines: same-sex marriage and abortion would be illegal; men would be in charge and women would be at home with the children.
Wilson is also known for having romanticized slavery in his earlier writings and denigrates the LGBTQ community. Last year, he called trans people “mentally ill.”
His church in Moscow operates its own school system and has extensive publishing and media interests. Its stated goal is to make Moscow “a Christian town,” a project that has attracted at least several hundred people to migrate to the area.
Looking for Canadian support
Members of the Liberty Coalition may not share that goal, but they have visited Moscow and do maintain ties with leaders of Wilson’s church. The coalition’s podcasts are hosted by a website run by members of the Christ Church community.
Gabriel Rench, a prominent member of the Christ Church community, attended the Church at War conference at Trinity Bible. Reaume, in turn, preached at Christ Church earlier this year.
Wilson has encouraged Canadian Christians to follow his lead.
“Jesus Christ commanded Christians in Canada to have as the direct object of all their missionary endeavours the evangelization and conversion of Canada,” Wilson said in 2019.
“So the goal is for Canada to become Christian. And, if you know your history, for Canada to become Christian again.”
Wilson made the comments during an event at the Ezra Institute, a conservative Christian think-tank in Grimsby, Ont.
The institute is located in a mansion on a 9.7-hectare gated property, where it hosts regular talks, conferences and training sessions, many of them headed by the institute’s founder, Joseph Boot. It also publishes books, a magazine and its own podcast.
“The Ezra Institute [and] Joe Boot’s own work do represent Christian reconstruction,” said Stackhouse, pointing to Boot’s PhD studies and published work as evidence.
On social media and in his writings, Boot has made a number of anti-LGBTQ statements, including comparing gender-affirming care to “slavery” and claiming that trans athletes are “pretending.”
As part of the Ezra Institute’s activities, it is affiliated with a number of radical Christian thinkers in the U.S., such as Jeff Durbin, an Arizona pastor who believes women should be charged with homicide if they have an abortion, even if that means facing the death penalty.
Another institute fellow, Jeffery Ventrella, works for the Alliance Defending Freedom, a conservative Christian legal advocacy organization that is considered an anti-LGBTQ hate group by the Southern Poverty Law Center.
The ADF, for its part, denies it is a hate group, saying on its website that it believes “all people are made in the image of God and that everyone is worthy of dignity and respect.”
As a registered charity, the Ezra Institute operates mainly through donations. Among its largest donors is a charitable foundation operated by John Hultink, founder of the online book wholesaler Book Depot, based in Thorold, Ont.
Since 2014, the Hultink Family Foundation has given the institute close to $6 million, according to Canada Revenue Agency filings.
The current CEO of Book Depot, Wilf Wikkerink, sits on the Ezra Institute’s board of directors.
In an email to CBC News, Book Depot said there are no financial connections between the company and the Hultink Family Foundation or the Ezra Institute.
“Book Depot sells books, and the religious affiliations of our team members and corporate directors in no way affects our core belief that every single person has inherent worth and dignity, despite opinions offered by some in the media that may indicate the contrary,” the statement said.
CBC News provided Hultink, who is listed as a director and vice-president of Book Depot, with an opportunity to respond to a list of questions.
Hultink did not respond to those questions. He replied with a statement that questioned the fairness of CBC News, the intentions of the journalist and whether the radio documentary that accompanies this story is an “exercise in anti-Christian hostility.” The statement can be viewed in its entirety here.
A lawyer representing Hultink later sent a further email to CBC News, saying his client “has never professed or upheld Christian reconstructionism as a theology.”
The Ezra Institute said it was unable to accommodate CBC News requests to tour its Grimsby facility or speak with a representative.
In a statement, the institute said it advances the “unchanging spiritual teachings” of the Bible on marriage and human sexuality.
According to the institute, these teachings include that “human beings were made male and female” and that marriage between a man and woman is the only permitted “form of human sexual intimacy.”
Rock, who is also a fellow at the Ezra Institute, framed his own vocal opposition to the LGBTQ community as an act of “love.”
“For me to permit you to, let’s say, live a lie or to believe something that isn’t true, because I don’t want to ruffle your feathers — [that] is the antithesis of love. That’s actually an act of hatred,” he said in a voice memo to CBC News.
Amping up conservative populism
While candidates backed by Liberty Coalition Canada have not had much electoral success so far, there are signs that hardline conservative Christians are growing more confrontational in Ontario, much to the alarm of LGBTQ groups.
“There’s been a strong, and I believe a successful, attempt to really limit the growth of LGBTQ+ communities in [Hamilton], influenced by the religious right,” said Jyss Russell, co-founder of speqtrum, one of that city’s few LGBTQ advocacy groups.
In December, several dozen people huddled together outside Hamilton’s city hall to celebrate the life of Bekett Noble, the trans student who died by suicide and whom the pastor at Trinity Bible Chapel mentioned in his sermon.
Noble had been studying at Redeemer, a Reformed Christian university in nearby Ancaster, Ont., where they ran an unofficial group for LGBTQ students.
“Why a Christian university would have a group for LGBTQ+ students is beyond me,” Reaume, the pastor at Trinity Bible, said in his December sermon.
LGBTQ groups feeling vulnerable
Noble’s death shook many in Hamilton’s LGBTQ community, even those who didn’t know them personally. It came at a moment when the community was feeling particularly vulnerable, Russell said.
LGBTQ advocates have been critical of the city’s willingness to co-operate with socially conservative Christian organizations while their own organizations have long struggled to secure consistent funding.
Hamilton’s LGBTQ community says it is also dealing with an increase in public displays of hate against its members.
Self-described street evangelists disrupted Pride events in 2018 and again in 2019, when clashes with counter-protesters led to several injuries and arrests.
In recent months, Hamilton and the surrounding area have seen a number of anti-drag protests.
The Canadian evangelicals inspired by reconstructionism are not responsible for most of these incidents, but they have allied themselves with the current wave of social conservative populism.
Both Thiessen and Rock took part in trucker convoy protests last year. This year several signatories of the Niagara Declaration have participated in, and organized, anti-drag demonstrations.
Given the electoral ambitions of groups like Liberty Coalition Canada and the financial resources of sympathetic conservative Christian organizations, LGBTQ advocates worry they are ill-equipped to confront the backlash against their community.
“People are trying to force us to go underground, just like we were underground before,” said Russell.
Noble’s death, Russell said, reminded her of why she originally got involved in activism. But it also prompted her to think about the broader structures behind the existing opposition to anti-LGBTQ rights in Canada.
“There is a whole other piece: all of those people that are propping up these institutions; these people that are funding these institutions; these people that are tithing to these institutions; the fact that these institutions are not taxed despite their actions,” she said.
“How are these mechanisms silencing us?”
People told to evacuate Centennial Lake area west of Ottawa due to forest fire – CBC.ca
The Township of Greater Madawaska in eastern Ontario said people with homes around Centennial Lake have been asked to leave because of a forest fire that started Sunday afternoon.
According to Ontario’s Ministry of Natural Resources and Forestry, the fire broke out shortly after 5:30 p.m. Sunday.
The township said in a news release late Sunday night its fire department was called to a fire “located on Centennial Lake which then expanded to shore.”
“Our team in co-ordination with the OPP have evacuated the surrounding areas of seasonal residents with a 24-hour evacuation notice,” the township said.
Residents who need help with the fire can call the township from 8:30 a.m. to 4 p.m. at 613-752-2222 and send an email after opening hours.
- If the power or data on your device is low, get updates on CBC Lite. It’s our low-bandwidth, text-only website.
The province has a fire ban in place for Renfrew County. It and all surrounding counties except for Ottawa have an extreme fire risk, the highest level on Ontario’s four-level scale.
Ottawa, which isn’t in one of these Ontario fire regions, has its own ban. Quebec has restricted access to some forests and parks.
Centennial Lake is approximately 50 kilometres west of Calabogie and 170 kilometres west of downtown Ottawa.
Smog warnings, advisories
Environment Canada says smoke from forest fires in Ontario and Quebec is causing poor air quality in Renfrew County and some surrounding areas.
Communities north and east of Gatineau, Que., have a smog warning.
This means people with respiratory conditions or heart disease should avoid intense outdoor physical activity while a smog warning is in place, it says.
People in smoky areas should be wary of exerting themselves too much in lower air quality and consider keeping windows closed, running HEPA filters and wearing a well-fitted N95-type mask to filter out particles from smoke.
Ottawa had record-breaking heat last week and hasn’t recorded any rain at its international airport since May 24.
This comes after significant spring flooding along some parts of the Ottawa River earlier in spring because of the amount of snow over the winter, then that melt meeting a surge of rain in late April.
Examining RCMP Treatment of Black Individuals in Canada
The Royal Canadian Mounted Police (RCMP) plays a critical role in maintaining law and order across Canada. However, recent incidents have shed light on concerns surrounding the treatment of Black individuals by RCMP officers. In this thought-provoking research, we delve into the experiences and perspectives of community members, activists, and experts to uncover the reality of RCMP interactions with Black people. Through their stories, insights, and calls for change, we aim to foster a deeper understanding of the challenges faced by Black individuals in their encounters with law enforcement.
To comprehend the reality of RCMP treatment towards Black individuals, it is essential to listen to their experiences. Sarah Davis, a racial justice advocate, shares, “Black individuals often feel targeted and disproportionately subjected to aggressive tactics, racial profiling, and systemic bias during interactions with RCMP officers.”
Statistics can provide further insights into the issue at hand. Data from the Office of the Police Complaint Commissioner reveals disparities in the treatment of Black individuals compared to their white counterparts. Mark Thompson, a community organizer, points out, “The overrepresentation of Black people in encounters with the RCMP raises serious concerns and demands a thorough examination of systemic issues.”
Calls for accountability and police reform are growing louder. Sandra Collins, an activist, emphasizes the need for transparency and independent oversight of RCMP actions, stating, “We must hold officers accountable for their actions, address systemic biases, and work towards comprehensive reform to ensure fair treatment of Black individuals.”
Building trust between the RCMP and Black communities is crucial for effective policing. Mary Johnson, a community leader, highlights the importance of community engagement and dialogue, stating, “Meaningful relationships and collaboration between the RCMP and Black communities can foster trust, understanding, and better outcomes.”
Improving RCMP training programs and enhancing cultural competency is essential to address biases and prejudices. Jamal Carter, a diversity educator, emphasizes, “Training should focus on dismantling stereotypes, promoting de-escalation techniques, and fostering an understanding of the diverse communities the RCMP serves.”
To address the systemic issues within the RCMP, collaborative efforts are required. Sarah Johnson, a reconciliation advocate, highlights the importance of engaging with Indigenous communities and Black-led organizations to develop inclusive policies and practices. “Reconciliation involves acknowledging past injustices, listening to communities, and actively working towards meaningful change,” she states.
The treatment of Black individuals by the RCMP is an ongoing concern that requires immediate attention. By listening to the stories and perspectives of those affected, we can gain a deeper understanding of the challenges they face. It is crucial for the RCMP to prioritize accountability, engage in community dialogue, and implement comprehensive reforms to address systemic biases. As Sarah Davis aptly concludes, “We must strive for a future where Black individuals can feel safe, respected, and protected by the very institutions that are meant to serve and safeguard all Canadians.” By shedding light on the issue, we hope to inspire a national conversation that leads to meaningful change and ensures equitable treatment for all individuals, regardless of their race or ethnicity.
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