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How NFTs are fueling a digital art boom – CNN

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Written by Oscar Holland, CNN

When graphic designer Mike Winkelmann started producing a drawing a day in 2007, he was simply looking for a way to improve his art skills. At best, the resulting “Everydays” project would help him promote his freelance work, which includes creating concert visuals for the likes of Justin Bieber and Katy Perry. But selling the digital images was not on his mind.

This week, a compilation of over 13 years’ worth of the artworks, collectively titled “Everydays: The First 5000 days,” will sell for millions of dollars via Christie’s. With more than a day of the auction still to go, the highest bid sits at $9.75 million, putting Winkelmann’s name among some of the art market’s most valuable.

Beeple (b. 1981), EVERYDAYS: THE FIRST 5000 DAYS, 2021. Non-fungible token (jpg). 21,069 x 21,069 pixels (319,168,313 bytes). Minted on 16 February 2021. Estimate: Unknown. Offered as a standalone lot as part of First Open | Online from 25 February to 11 March

A multi-million-dollar auction for Beeple’s “Everydays: The First 5000 days” is set to conclude this week. Credit: Beeple/Christies

“It’s a bit surreal, because (digital imagery) wasn’t really something that I pictured, in my lifetime, being able to sell,” said Winkelman, who goes by the name Beeple, in a video call from his home in South Carolina. “So it (has) come out of nowhere. But at the same time, I also really feel like this is going to be the next chapter of art history.”

Virtual art has been created, and talked about, for years. But now, thanks to endorsement from celebrities as diverse as Elon Musk, Lindsey Lohan and Steve Aoki, online buzz in art and cryptocurrency circles, and, perhaps most importantly, blockchain technology, it has not only entered the mainstream — it is generating huge sums of money for digital artists and online collectors.
Beeple’s latest sale comes just weeks after his animated work “Crossroad,” which imagined Donald Trump’s naked, graffiti-strew body slumped on the ground, was purchased online for $6.6 million. Elsewhere, a digital animation of the “Nyan Cat” meme — a flying cat with a Pop Tart for a body — earned its creator Christopher Torres almost $600,000 in a virtual auction. The musician Grimes meanwhile made a reported $5.8 million in under 20 minutes selling a range of collectible digital artworks.

At the center of this explosion in transactions are non-fungible tokens, or NFTs. Acting like virtual signatures, they address concerns that digital art’s value is diminished by the ease with which it can be copied or lost.

While an oil painting can only be displayed in one place and has a definitive owner, a digital image, video or gif can be infinitely duplicated and enjoyed on screens around the world for free. This has often posed problems for prospective collectors, who don’t know how to price digital art and fear it will lose resale value. But now, NFTs are offering two things that the physical art market has always depended on: scarcity and authenticity.

The rise of ‘non-fungible’ tokens

NFTs are built on blockchain technology, which — just as it does with Bitcoin — offers a secure record of transactions. This digital ledger serves as incorruptible proof of ownership, meaning that “original” artworks and their owners can always be identified via the blockchain, even if an image or video is widely replicated.

A “fungible” asset is one that is that can be replaced with another identical one of the same value, such as a dollar bill, while non-fungible one, like NFTs, are tied to unique goods and are not mutually interchangeable.

Like bitcoins, the tokens can be kept in a virtual wallet. They can then be sold or traded, often gaining value in the secondary market. This makes NFT artworks similar to physical ones — or any other real-world asset, according to Duncan Cock Foster, co-founder of Nifty Gateway, the platform behind Beeple’s and Grimes’ recent multi-million-dollar sales.

“We have systems for collecting paintings, and we have systems for collecting sculptures. But until now, people hadn’t figured out a good way to collect digital art — and NFTs allow you to do that,” Cock Foster said on a video call, adding that buying tokens is easier and “a lot more accessible” than traditional art collecting.

Related video: Just how much has the internet changed art?

On Nifty Gateway, artists set the number of editions for any single artwork by deciding how many accompanying tokens will be made available. This can range from one-offs, where a piece is sold to a single collector, to open-edition “drops,” where tokens are made available for a limited period of time.

The sale of Grimes’ “WarNymph” collection, for instance, allowed up to 9,999 purchases of various artworks within a seven-minute window. Several of the creations were listed for just $20 per token, some of which are now selling for thousands of dollars.

By connecting artists directly to collectors, NFTs effectively cut out galleries and other traditional gatekeepers. While Cock Foster would not disclose the size of Nifty Gateway’s cut, he claims it is “far less” than what a gallery would usually take.

For Beeple, this represents a “democratization” of the art market. “Now I have direct access to my audience,” he said. “I don’t have to go through an intermediary.”

And there’s another benefit for digital artists: They can continue making money on their work, even after it has been sold. NFTs can allow creators to receive a cut on all future transactions — on Nifty Gateway, this is typically set at 10% — breaking with the centuries-old model whereby artists do not directly benefit when sold works grow in value over their lifetimes. (For instance, when a David Hockney painting sold for $90.3 million in 2018, setting an auction record for a living artist, the British artist didn’t receive a single cent from the sale. His dealer had sold it for just $18,000 in 1972.)
Beeple (b. 1981), EVERYDAYS: THE FIRST 5000 DAYS, 2021. Non-fungible token (jpg). 21,069 x 21,069 pixels (319,168,313 bytes). Minted on 16 February 2021. Estimate: Unknown. Offered as a standalone lot as part of First Open | Online from 25 February to 11 March

One of digital images that Beeple produced daily from 2007. Credit: Beeple/Christies

So, while Beeple made less than $67,000 when he originally sold his “Crossroad” animation, he pocketed a further $660,000 when the initial buyer sold it on.

“The royalties are definitely something that make this much more sustainable and equitable for all parties,” the designer said.

New breed of collector

The collector behind the $6.6 million “Crossroad” sale, Pablo Rodriguez-Fraile, said that supporting creators is one of the unique benefits of investing in NFTs. While there is money to be made, and plenty of speculation happening in the crypto art market, the 32-year-old said that collecting digital works is about more than money.

“I try to look into the life and career of the creators. I like to get in contact with them and meet them … for me, it’s important to see consistency and thoughtfulness about everything outside the art as well,” said Rodriguez-Fraile on the phone, adding that he is drawn to works that are “masterfully executed.”

Beyond “Crossroad,” Rodriguez-Fraile said he has collected hundreds — perhaps thousands — of NFT artworks, selling only a handful so far.

Beeple's art often plays with pop culture icons in grotesque and unexpected ways.

Beeple’s art often plays with pop culture icons in grotesque and unexpected ways. Credit: Beeple/Christies

While the Miami-based collector was previously interested in blockchain and cryptocurrencies, were it not for NFTs, he said he would not be involved in buying art. His experience, like Beeple’s, suggests that the tokens are empowering a new breed of artists and collectors rather than taking a slice of the existing art market.

“The analogy I like to make is Uber,” Cock Foster said. “When they were trying to make a forecast for Uber’s market size, they looked at the amount of money people spent on black cars (private car services). But because it’s so much easier to call an Uber than it is to call a black car, the actual market ended up being much larger than that. I really think we’re seeing something similar with NFTs.

“They are lowering the barriers to collecting significantly,” added Cock Foster, whose platform operates under the ambitious tagline, “We will not rest until 1 billion people are collecting NFTs.”

Future prospects

Nifty Gateway may be a long way from its goal of 1 billion collectors, but the platform’s growth nonetheless reflects exploding interest in crypto art. In March 2020, the site recorded monthly transactions of $30,000; last month, this figure was up to $75 million, according to Cock Foster.

This jump broadly coincides with another major force in the art world: Covid-19. With galleries and auction houses shuttered around the world — and people spending more time browsing the web or shopping online — NFTs have offered a new outlet for art enthusiasts.

According to Beeple, this is why interest in the tokens has skyrocketed in recent months, even though the technology has been available since 2017.

“You keep hearing that Covid has pushed things 10 years forward, and I think this honestly is a big part of it,” he said. “Everybody was sitting at home over the last year — so while I think this was inevitable, it really got accelerated.”

Why is art so expensive?

The use of NFTs is now stretching far beyond the art world. DJ and musician Deadmau5 has used the tokens to sell digital merchandise, while the new Kings of Leon album is being released as an NFT. Nike is even reported to have registered a patent for tokenized shoes, branded “CryptoKicks.”

This rapid growth has led to fears of an NFT bubble — one that may burst when the world emerges from pandemic-era restrictions. While collector Rodriguez-Fraile believes that “NFTs are here to stay,” he accepted that “we might be going through a period of hype … and I think the general ecosystem might slow down a bit when it comes to pricing.”

For Cock Foster, however, the return to normality presents opportunities rather than threats — not least because galleries offer ways to experience digital art beyond a computer screen.

“Digital art is very, very immersive,” he said, adding that displaying art is still important to online collectors. “So, I think we can build some really cool physical experiences.”

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Adm. Art McDonald letter to senior military officials ‘shocking,’ says Gen. Eyre – Global News

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A letter sent by Adm. Art McDonald to senior military officials claiming he has been exonerated on an allegation of sexual assault and should be immediately reinstated is “shocking,” says Canada’s acting top soldier.

Gen. Wayne Eyre, acting chief of the defence staff, responded to the letter sent by McDonald in his own letter to senior staff, which was shared with Global News. McDonald was placed on indefinite leave by the government and is waging amid an increasingly public battle to return to the top post.

“We must remember that in a democracy the military is subordinate to our duly elected civilian leadership. This fundamental is paramount to our profession. I was asked to act as Chief of the Defence Staff on February 25, and I will continue in that role until told otherwise by our civilian leadership,” wrote Eyre in the letter on Friday.

“To that end, this shocking letter changes nothing with respect to our vital work of defending our nation, changing our culture, and preparing for the threats ahead.”

One defence official told Global News that McDonald neither consulted nor informed Eyre of his plans to send out the contentious letter.

Defence Minister Harjit Sajjan said in a statement to Global News on Friday that the message sent by McDonald “is inappropriate and unacceptable.”

“In Canada, civilians provide necessary oversight of the military and decide who is best suited to lead the armed forces” Sajjan said. “McDonald’s email does not reflect this, nor does it reflect the need to put survivors and victims of sexual misconduct first.”

READ MORE: Adm. Art McDonald tells colleagues he’s exonerated, should return to top military post

In the letter obtained by Global News on Thursday, McDonald said he was “quite disappointed that my exoneration has not seen my return to duty” after military police declined to charge the admiral over alleged sexual misconduct in August.

Global News has previously reported the allegation is specifically one of sexual assault.

McDonald also argued his reinstatement is important to avoid “undermining the principles that must be foundational to legitimate cultural change” within the military, citing the need for fairness for both accusers and those accused of wrongdoing.

McDonald denied the allegation against him, and added that media reports were “often replete with hurtful sensationalism, innuendo and inaccurate characterizations.”

Two sources confirmed the letter, addressed to generals and flag officers of the Canadian Forces, was sent by McDonald and bore his signature.

READ MORE: Vance will not face military service charges; source cites his four-star rank

Military and political sources have said the lack of criminal charges against McDonald has not removed concerns about whether he has the moral authority to lead the military.

Global News learned in August that the Canadian Forces National Investigation Service interviewed dozens of people as part of the probe into the allegation, but were unable to determine an agreed-upon set of facts, as many of those interviewed claimed to have been drunk at the time of the alleged sexual assault.

The Department of National Defence said at the time that its investigation “did not reveal evidence to support the laying of charges under either the Code of Service Discipline or the Criminal Code of Canada.”


Click to play video: 'No charges against defence chief Adm. Art McDonald following military investigation'



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No charges against defence chief Adm. Art McDonald following military investigation


No charges against defence chief Adm. Art McDonald following military investigation – Aug 6, 2021

“Adm. Art McDonald was not exonerated by the military police,” said Charlotte Duval-Lantoine, a fellow with the Canadian Global Affairs Institute specializing in military culture.

“They could not meet the burden of proof to charge Art McDonald. That doesn’t mean that the allegations were false.

“It doesn’t mean that the victim was lying … so he cannot say that he was exonerated.”

Duval-Lantoine said she was “appalled” to hear of McDonald’s letter and noted it raises fresh questions around whether he holds the moral authority to govern the Canadian military.

“He’s determining for himself that he has the moral authority to gain back to the job of chief of the defense staff,” Duval-Lantoine explained.

“What he doesn’t realize is that it is not his decision to make. He’s not the one who needs to determine whether he has a moral authority. It is up to the government, and I would also argue that it is the determination of service members that would be under his command.”

IN HER WORDS: The woman behind McDonald allegation tells her story

Retired Lt.-Gen. Mike Day, former commander of Canada’s special forces, expressed similar concerns at the letter in a blog post on Friday as well, noting he and others are feeling “horror” at what is unfolding.

“Contrary to the Admiral’s claim and the start point of his argument, a failure to press charges, for whatever reason is not an exoneration, neither in form nor function. A decision not to proceed based on insufficient evidence neither exonerates nor condemns,” Day wrote.

“Exoneration can only come from those who govern the Admiral (ie MND / PM).”

Day noted that the position of chief of the defence staff is one that serves at the pleasure of the government, and said McDonald’s decision to pursue his campaign for reinstatement so publicly indicates one of several “concerning” possibilities: either he doesn’t understand how the process actually works, or he is “not targeting his return but rather any negotiations that might inform his release.”

“If the first instance such ignorance is disqualifying,” Day explained. “In the second there is a demonstration of a willingness to ignore the impact on Lt(N) [Heather] Macdonald as well as to continue to negatively impact the morale of the CAF for personal gain: This too is disqualifying.”


Click to play video: 'IN HER WORDS: The woman behind the Adm. McDonald allegation tells her story Pt. 1'



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IN HER WORDS: The woman behind the Adm. McDonald allegation tells her story Pt. 1


IN HER WORDS: The woman behind the Adm. McDonald allegation tells her story Pt. 1 – Mar 28, 2021

Macdonald told Global News previously that the decision by military police not to pursue any charges against McDonald left her feeling like she’d been “punched in the stomach.”

“I am not surprised as this was exactly why I was reluctant to come forward and why most survivors don’t come forward. It’s not worth it. I feel a little like I’ve gone through hell for nothing,” said Macdonald, a navy combat systems engineer who has served for 16 years.


Click to play video: 'IN HER WORDS: The woman behind the Adm. McDonald allegation tells her story Pt. 2'



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IN HER WORDS: The woman behind the Adm. McDonald allegation tells her story Pt. 2


IN HER WORDS: The woman behind the Adm. McDonald allegation tells her story Pt. 2 – Mar 28, 2021

Since McDonald’s letter became public, multiple women officers who have been victims of sexual misconduct told Global News they were deeply concerned by the tone of the letter and the message it sends to those who may want to come forward.

Former Supreme Court Justice Morris Fish warned in June that it is “legally impossible” to charge senior military officials of McDonald’s rank under the military justice system.

Global News confirmed last month this finding had played a direct role in the decision by military police not to lay charges under the military system during a probe into McDonald’s predecessor.


Click to play video: 'Exclusive: Gen. Jonathan Vance won’t face any military service charges'



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Exclusive: Gen. Jonathan Vance won’t face any military service charges


Exclusive: Gen. Jonathan Vance won’t face any military service charges – Sep 15, 2021

Retired Gen. Jonathan Vance is facing allegations of inappropriate behaviour from two female subordinates, which were first reported on by Global News on Feb. 2.

He denies all allegations of inappropriate behaviour.

Read more:
Gen. Jonathan Vance charged with obstruction of justice after military investigation

Military police opened an investigation into the allegations shortly afterward and in July, charged him with one count of obstruction of justice for alleged conduct during the course of their investigation.

The Canadian Forces National Investigation Service handed the case over to the civilian criminal court system, but opted not to pursue any charges against Vance on the allegations of sexual misconduct through the military court system, citing the Fish report.

Since the allegations against Vance emerged, multiple senior military leaders have been removed from their positions or investigated for allegations of sexual misconduct, sparking what experts have called an institutional “crisis” and a reckoning for the Canadian Forces.

Former Supreme Court justice Louise Arbour was appointed by the government in April to lead an external, independent review tasked with providing recommendations on how best to create an independent reporting system for military sexual misconduct.

Global News has confirmed Arbour does not plan at this stage to issue any interim recommendations.

Read more:
Here’s what you need to know about the military sexual misconduct crisis

During the last session of Parliament, Liberal Anita Vandenbeld — who was parliamentary secretary to the defence minister — had said Arbour would be issuing interim recommendations so the government could implement them quickly.

“Throughout the process, she will provide interim recommendations that we can implement right away,” Vandenbeld said on May 10.

While Arbour’s appointment was announced in April, her contract to begin the review did not kick in until May 21, and she has 12 months from that date to complete her review, according to its terms of reference.

Last week, Prime Minister Justin Trudeau said the military “still doesn’t get that survivors need to be at the centre and the unique priority of everything in regards to sexual misconduct and harassment in the military.”

“This is, again, a reminder of just how much work there is to do.”

When asked by Global News whether work on creating an independent reporting system for military sexual misconduct will begin this fall or winter, given Arbour’s recommendations aren’t due until next year, a spokesperson for the Prime Minister’s Office offered a brief response.

“I’ll refer you to DND on this matter.”

–With files from Global’s Mercedes Stephenson

© 2021 Global News, a division of Corus Entertainment Inc.

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National Fibre Art Exhibition comes to Woodstock – Woodstock Sentinel Review

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The path through life can take some unexpected turns.

Article content

The path through life can take some unexpected turns.

Article content

Beginning Oct. 16, Crossroads, a brilliant display of quilts, felting, weaving and other fibre art from across Canada that embraces the vagaries of life will be showcased in Woodstock.

“Crossroads is a fitting theme, not only as the Grand National Fibre Art Exhibition embarks on its first touring exhibition, but as many of us have encountered personal, social and political crossroads this past year,” said Mary Reid, the director and curator of the Woodstock Art Gallery.

While hosted by the Woodstock Art Gallery, the Crossroads exhibit will actually be displayed  the Woodstock Museum National Historic Site.

“It’s been a long time coming since I first learned of the exhibition in 2018. I am so impressed with the exhibition. The organizing committee spans from coast to coast, so it’s very national in its scope,” Reid said.

“It is all volunteer based. It was so impressive to see how much they has been done in finding funding, as well as all of the heavy lifting involved to get this going.”

Juried by award-winning artists Tracey Aubin, Debora Barlow and Judy Villett, the exhibition features 48 fibre art pieces interpreting the Crossroads theme.

“This medium of fibre art crosses art and craft. There are some traditional quilt pieces, pieces with new media and 3D pieces. There is such a variety of creative techniques, imagery and skills, from abstract to realistic.”

The Grand National Fibre Art Exhibition was developed in 2003 to showcase the incredible creativity of Canadian quilt artists and has since expanded to include a wide variety of fibre art materials and technique.

Article content

​According to the Grand National Fibre Art Exhibition, Crossroads encourages observers to think of the people throughout history who have meet and acted on their own “crossroads.”

Living through the current pandemic, the theme of crossroads is particularly timely, Reid noted.

“When this was being planned, we had no idea of what the future would hold. Who would have ever known?” Reid said. “I would like to thank our colleagues at the Woodstock Museum for providing the space and resources to help share this meaningful exhibition with our community.”

Crossroads will be on view at the museum at 466 Dundas St. until Feb. 26, 2022.

A virtual artist webinar, hosted by the Woodstock Art Gallery in partnership with the fine art program at Fanshawe College, is scheduled for Jan. 20, 2022, at 3 p.m.

Registration details for the webinar will be shared on the gallery’s website.

bgeernaert@postmedia.com

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Adm. Art McDonald tells colleagues he’s exonerated, should return to top military post – Global News

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A letter sent by chief of the defence staff Adm. Art McDonald to top Canadian military officers claims he has been exonerated of allegations of sexual assault, and argues for his “immediate” return to the top military command post.

In the letter obtained by Global News on Thursday, McDonald says he is “quite disappointed that my exoneration has not seen my return to duty” after military police declined to charge the admiral over alleged sexual misconduct in August.

He also argues his reinstatement is important to avoid “undermining the principles that must be foundational to legitimate cultural change” within the military, citing the need for fairness for both accusers and those accused of wrongdoing.

Two sources confirmed the letter, addressed to generals and flag officers of the Canadian Forces, was sent by McDonald, whose signature appears on the letter.

Read more:
Sajjan says he expects McDonald to stay on leave ‘while we review this situation’

Global News has reached out to the Department of National Defence for comment.

McDonald goes on to detail how his actions in response to the allegation, including stepping aside as chief of the defence staff in February, was meant to “enable a rigorous and thorough examination,” and was “out of respect for the courage it takes to make a complaint.”

“My dismay with the current situation is, of course, aggravated by the fact that, from the moment I was informed that an allegation had been made against me, I have acted with the integrity and compassion that you would expect of your Admiral,” he wrote.

“Therefore, I assert that my leadership is now proven stronger than ever.”

Multiple women officers who have been victims of sexual misconduct told Global News they are deeply concerned by the tone of the letter and the message it sends to those who may want to come forward.

READ MORE: Vance will not face military service charges; source cites his four-star rank

Former Supreme Court justice Morris Fish warned in June that it is “legally impossible” to charge senior military officials at McDonald’s rank under the military justice system.

Global News confirmed last month this finding had played a direct role in the decision by military police not to lay charges under the military system during a probe into McDonald’s predecessor.


Click to play video: 'No charges against defence chief Adm. Art McDonald following military investigation'



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No charges against defence chief Adm. Art McDonald following military investigation


No charges against defence chief Adm. Art McDonald following military investigation – Aug 6, 2021

Despite insisting he did “all (he) could to ensure allegations were fairly considered,” McDonald does not mention in the letter what he told the Globe and Mail in an interview earlier this week: that he did not sit for an interview with military police investigators.

He told the Globe that he was willing to do an interview, but declined to do so based on the advice of his lawyers after investigators did not disclose details of the allegations or identify his accuser.

McDonald writes in the letter that he is “concerned” that he has yet to hear anything further from the Department of Defence or the Prime Minister’s Office since the military declined to bring charges.

Defence Minister Harjit Sajjan said in August that he expects McDonald to remain on leave while the government “review(s) this situation.”

Read more:
Military police will not charge Adm. Art McDonald after sexual misconduct probe

That was in response to a statement from McDonald’s lawyers that claimed he would be returning to his post as chief of the defence staff, while also claiming their client had been exonerated.

Military and political sources have said the lack of criminal charges against McDonald has not removed concerns about whether he has the moral authority to lead the military.

Global News learned in August that the Canadian Forces National Investigation Service interviewed dozens of people as part of the probe into the allegation, but were unable to determine an agreed upon set of facts, as many of those interviewed claimed to have been drunk at the time of the alleged sexual assault.

The Department of National Defence said at the time that its investigation “did not reveal evidence to support the laying of charges under either the Code of Service Discipline or the Criminal Code of Canada.”

The woman behind the allegation told Global News then that the decision left her feeling like she’d been “punched in the stomach.”

“I am not surprised as this was exactly why I was reluctant to come forward and why most survivors don’t come forward. It’s not worth it. I feel a little like I’ve gone through hell for nothing,” said Navy Lt. Heather Macdonald, a navy combat systems engineer who has served for 16 years.


Click to play video: 'IN HER WORDS: The woman behind the Adm. McDonald allegation tells her story Pt. 1'



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IN HER WORDS: The woman behind the Adm. McDonald allegation tells her story Pt. 1


IN HER WORDS: The woman behind the Adm. McDonald allegation tells her story Pt. 1 – Mar 28, 2021

Macdonald has previously said details of her allegation had been leaked to media without her consent, and she told Global News in March she did not want to share those details publicly out of respect for the due process owed to both her and McDonald as the probe played out.

She granted Global News permission to share the details of her allegation publicly, which she said pertained to unwanted touching on board HMCS Montreal in July 2010, when the ship was docked in Nuuk, Greenland.

During a party with allied military on board the ship, Macdonald alleges McDonald shoved the face of the ship captain into her breasts after a button on her shirt popped open.

McDonald was task force commander at the time of a group made up of warships from the U.S., Denmark and Canada. The captain was Macdonald’s commanding officer.

In his letter, McDonald denies the allegation against him, and adds that media reports were “often replete with hurtful sensationalism, innuendo, and inaccurate characterizations.”


Click to play video: 'IN HER WORDS: The woman behind the Adm. McDonald allegation tells her story Pt. 2'



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IN HER WORDS: The woman behind the Adm. McDonald allegation tells her story Pt. 2


IN HER WORDS: The woman behind the Adm. McDonald allegation tells her story Pt. 2 – Mar 28, 2021

Multiple senior leaders including McDonald’s predecessor, now-retired Gen. Jonathan Vance, stand accused of sexual misconduct and inappropriate behaviour in what experts have described as an institutional “crisis” for the military.

Vance denies all allegations of inappropriate behaviour first reported by Global News on Feb. 2.

In the months since, the military sexual misconduct crisis has sparked twin parliamentary committee probes that heard blistering testimony about both the government’s handling of sexual misconduct allegations as well as the systemic problems in the military that have allowed it to continue.

Witnesses who have testified during those parliamentary committee probes this spring warned repeatedly that women and men who come forward with allegations of sexual misconduct in the Canadian Forces frequently face retaliation from superiors and peers.

—With files from Amanda Connolly and Marc-André Cossette

© 2021 Global News, a division of Corus Entertainment Inc.

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