A policy expert says the Canada’s Johnson & Johnson COVID-19 vaccine shipment timeline is the result of naivety and a lack of ambition, while an infectious disease physician says it won’t be the country’s ‘workhorse’ vaccine.
On Monday, Procurement Minister Anita Anand announced that the first shipments of the single-dose COVID-19 vaccine from Johnson & Johnson would arrive at the end of April. Health Canada announced approval of the vaccine March 5.
Dan Breznitz, Munk chair of innovation studies and co-director of the innovation policy lab at the Munk School of Global Affairs & Public Policy at the University of Toronto, told Global News this is the latest of various stumbles due to a late start to planning, with NACI first meeting to discuss COVID-19 in June 2020, and a lack of understanding of current world economic systems.
“In the past, you know, you had a production facility and the R&D and the design and everything in one place,” he explained.
“What we have is a world now set into slices of activities. So that product is made in various stages, if you will, around the world… it also means you have vast supply chains. Depending on where you have and those points of a supply chain, you have less or more power.”
While he has not seen the contract that Canada has with Johnson & Johnson, he questions what incentives were provided, adding it will take months to have enough vaccine for the world and there’s “always hiccups.”
“So countries that have don’t have more than just the ‘hey, I signed that contract and I gave you some money’ — which is basically every country on earth — would be the last in the priority unless they have some other cards up their sleeves,” he said.
“We decided, A: not to have cards under our sleeves; and B: from what I understand, again, I haven’t read the contract, we really cared more about the price of the vaccine than about anything else. And that’s to me seems a bit strange.”
COVID-19: Canada to receive Johnson & Johnson deliveries by end of April
Canada has pre-ordered 10 million doses of the Johnson & Johnson vaccine, with options to order up to 28 million more.
On Friday, before it was announced that first shipments would arrive at the end of April, Minister Anand said that she had repeatedly stressed the importance and necessity of Canada receiving a delivery schedule from Johnson & Johnson as soon as possible.
She added at that time that “the precise delivery schedule is one that we still need to receive and, if necessary, negotiate.”
A spokesperson for Janssen Canada, Janssen being a pharmaceutical company of Johnson & Johnson, told Global News only that it anticipates fulfilling the 10 million doses by the end of the third quarter “with first delivery targeted in the next several weeks.”
Even without the Johnson & Johnson vaccine, however, Canada is still on track to receive at least 44 million doses of COVID-19 vaccines from AstraZeneca, Moderna, and Pfizer by the end of June, though NACI is now recommending AstraZeneca’s COVID-19 vaccine not be administered to people under the age of 55.
Infectious disease physician and associate professor at McMaster University, Zain Chagla, says that when Johnson & Johnson shipments finally arrive, they will help speed up the country’s vaccination timeline, but “it’s not necessarily going to change the trajectory that much.”
“Even what we get in April is probably going to be a small amount relative, given that Johnson & Johnson is currently going to the United States, a small amount is going to Europe, South Africa has now signed a big contract for it too. We are part of the global demand for this vaccine in that sense and so we’ll get small amounts,” he told Global News.
“It’s not going to be the one that necessarily gets us to mass vaccination. It will certainly help, but this isn’t going to be the workhorse one.”
Chagla says with a month to go until the Johnson & Johnson shipments arrive, Canada should be focusing on how to make sure it gets into the right arms.
The Johnson & Johnson vaccine is the only single-dose COVID-19 vaccine approved by Health Canada and is also significantly easier to ship and store in comparison to other vaccines, as it can be kept in a refrigerator for three months.
“To me, homeless shelters, jails, high-risk workplaces — those are the places we probably should be putting this vaccine into,” Chagla explained.
“In populations where a single dose is appropriate, where they’re so transient, bringing them into a clinic is very difficult and that you could get it all done within a day or two, or at least have some doses residual for someone that shows up a week or two later into the system.”
Meanwhile, a company based out of St. Catharines, Ont., is hoping that it can add to the world’s vaccine supply through the use of a little-used mechanism that would allow it to override Johnson & Johnson’s patent and produce a generic version of the vaccine.
Biolyse Pharma, which currently produces cancer medicines, is hoping to obtain a compulsory licence through Canada’s Access to Medicines Regime, which is Canada’s legislation that reflects the World Trade Organization’s agreement on Trade-Related Aspects of Intellectual Property Rights (TRIPS).
Biolyse spokesperson John Fulton says the company could potentially produce up to 20-million doses per year.
“About four years ago we started purchasing equipment and building out a facility to produce biologic drugs. And, of course, we’re dealing with a pandemic so they decided, ‘Well, let’s get involved with this war effort and pivot to producing vaccines,’ because it’s all the same equipment.”
He says over the last several months, Biolyse reached out to companies to see if they could work together to help produce vaccines, but didn’t get any takers. That’s when he reached out to Knowledge Ecology International (KEI) for assistance pursuing a compulsory licence.
Biolyse managed to use Canada’s Access to Medicines Regime in 2006 amid a global peak of H5N1 to get a generic of Tamiflu added to a list of drugs covered under Canada’s patent act, which is among Canada’s requirements to obtain a compulsory licence.
In that case, it took roughly eight months before the patent act was amended to include oseltamivir phosphate.
Biolyse has a meeting scheduled with Health Canada in early April to discuss the application, but a researcher with KEI told Global News it’s unlikely any decision will be made at that time and it’s unclear how long the entire process will take.
It’s worth the effort, Chagla suggested, because the threat of variants and the potential need for repeat vaccinations makes for a long-term need for COVID-19 vaccine on a global scale.
“Obviously, more production, more vaccines is better. And again, Johnson & Johnson has the potential to be the global vaccine in that sense because of the one dose nature and because of the the issues of refrigeration stability. Adding to that benefit to the world is only helpful.”
Outside of the Johnson & Johnson vaccine, Breznitz is hoping that Canada will start preparing for the future now.
“We are, as always, too naive and not ambitious enough,” he said.
“Are we going to up our ante and ensure that we are — and we can be — global leaders in the production of those kinds of vaccines in this country?”
— with files from Global News’ Rachael D’Amore.
© 2021 Global News, a division of Corus Entertainment Inc.
CANADA STOCKS – TSX falls 0.14% to 19,201.28
* The Toronto Stock Exchange’s TSX falls 0.14 percent to 19,201.28
* Leading the index were Stantec Inc <STN.TO>, up 3.4%, Imperial Oil Ltd, up 3.3%, and Corus Entertainment Inc, higher by 2.9%.
* Lagging shares were Aphria Inc, down 14.2%, Village Farms International Inc, down 9.9%, and Aurora Cannabis Inc, lower by 9.4%.
* On the TSX 91 issues rose and 134 fell as a 0.7-to-1 ratio favored decliners. There were 24 new highs and no new lows, with total volume of 228.0 million shares.
* The most heavily traded shares by volume were Toronto-dominion Bank, Royal Bank Of Canada and Suncor Energy Inc.
* The TSX’s energy group fell 0.32 points, or 0.3%, while the financials sector climbed 2.46 points, or 0.7%.
* West Texas Intermediate crude futures rose 0.52%, or $0.31, to $59.63 a barrel. Brent crude rose 0.4%, or $0.25, to $63.2 [O/R]
* The TSX is up 10.1% for the year.
Air Canada signs C$5.9 billion government aid package, agrees to buy Airbus, Boeing jets
By David Ljunggren and Allison Lampert
OTTAWA/MONTREAL (Reuters) -Air Canada, struggling with a collapse in traffic due to the COVID-19 pandemic, reached a deal on Monday on a long-awaited aid package with the federal government that would allow it to access up to C$5.9 billion ($4.69 billion) in funds.
The agreement – the largest individual coronavirus-related loan that Ottawa has arranged with a company – was announced after the airline industry criticized Prime Minister Justin Trudeau’s Liberal government for dawdling. The United States and France acted much more quickly to help major carriers.
Canada‘s largest carrier, which last year cut over half its workforce, or 20,000 jobs, and other airlines have been negotiating with the government for months on a coronavirus aid package.
In February, Air Canada reported a net loss for 2020 of C$4.65 billion, compared with a 2019 profit of C$1.48 billion.
As part of the deal, Air Canada agreed to ban share buybacks and dividends, cap annual compensation for senior executives at C$1 million a year and preserve jobs at the current level, which is 14,859.
It will also proceed with planned purchases of 33 Airbus SE 220 airliners and 40 Boeing Co 737 MAX airliners.
Chris Murray, managing director, equity research at ATB Capital Markets, said the deal took into account the “specific needs of Air Canada in the short and medium term without being overly onerous.”
He added: “It gives them some flexibility in drawing down additional liquidity as needed.”
Transport Minister Omar Alghabra said the government was still in negotiations with other airlines about possible aid.
Canada, the world’s second-largest nation by area, depends heavily on civil aviation to keep remote communities connected.
Opposition politicians fretted that further delays in announcing aid could result in permanent damage to the country.
Air Canada said it would resume services on nearly all of the routes it had suspended because of COVID-19.
‘SIGNIFICANT LAYER OF INSURANCE’
The deal removes a potential political challenge for the Liberals, who insiders say are set to trigger an election later this year.
The government has agreed to buy C$500 million worth of shares in the airline, at C$23.1793 each, or a 14.2% discount to Monday’s close, a roughly 6% stake.
“Maintaining a competitive airline sector and good jobs is crucially important,” Finance Minister Chrystia Freeland told reporters, adding the equity stake would allow taxpayers to benefit when the airline’s fortunes recovered.
The Canadian government previously approved similar loans for four other companies worth up to C$1.billion, including up to C$375 million to low-cost airline Sunwing Vacations Inc. The government has paid out C$73.47 billion under its wage subsidy program and C$46.11 billion in loans to hard-hit small businesses.
Michael Rousseau, Air Canada‘s president and chief executive officer, said the liquidity “provides a significant layer of insurance for Air Canada.”
Jerry Dias, head of the Unifor private-sector union, described the announcement as “a good deal for everybody.”
Unifor represents more than 16,000 members working in the air transportation sector.
But the Canadian Union of Public Employees, which represents roughly 10,000 Air Canada flight attendants, said the package protected the jobs of current workers rather than the 7,500 members of its union who had been let go by the carrier.
($1=1.2567 Canadian dollars)
(Reporting by David Ljunggren in Ottawa and Allison Lampert in Montreal; Additional reporting by Julie Gordon in Ottawa and Munsif Vengattil in Bengaluru; Editing by Dan Grebler and Peter Cooney)
U.K. advises limiting AstraZeneca in under-30s amid clot worry
British authorities recommended Wednesday that the AstraZeneca COVID-19 vaccine not be given to adults under 30 where possible because of strengthening evidence that the shot may be linked to rare blood clots.
The recommendation came as regulators both in the United Kingdom and the European Union emphasized that the benefits of receiving the vaccine continue to outweigh the risks for most people — even though the European Medicines Agency said it had found a “possible link” between the shot and the rare clots. British authorities recommended that people under 30 be offered alternatives to AstraZeneca. But the EMA advised no such age restrictions, leaving it up to its member-countries to decide whether to limit its use.
Several countries have already imposed limits on who can receive the vaccine, and any restrictions are closely watched since the vaccine, which is cheaper and easier to store than many others, is critical to global immunization campaigns and is a pillar of the UN-backed program known as COVAX that aims to get vaccines to some of the world’s poorest countries.
“This is a course correction, there’s no question about that,” Jonathan Van-Tam, England’s deputy chief medical officer, said during a press briefing. “But it is, in a sense, in medicine quite normal for physicians to alter their preferences for how patients are treated over time.”
Van-Tam said the effect on Britain’s vaccination timetable — one of the speediest in the world — should be “zero or negligible,” assuming the National Health Service receives expected deliveries of other vaccines, including those produced by Pfizer and Moderna.
EU and U.K. regulators held simultaneous press conferences Wednesday afternoon to announce the results of investigations into reports of blood clots that sparked concern about the rollout of the AstraZeneca vaccine.
The EU agency described the clots as “very rare” side effects. Dr Sabine Straus, chair of EMA’s Safety Committee, said the best data is coming from Germany where there is one report of the rare clots for every 100,000 doses given, although she noted far fewer reports in the U.K. Still, that’s less than the clot risk that healthy women face from birth control pills, noted another expert, Dr. Peter Arlett.
The agency said most of the cases reported have occurred in women under 60 within two weeks of vaccination — but based on the currently available evidence, it was not able to identify specific risk factors. Experts reviewed several dozen cases that came mainly from Europe and the U.K., where around 25 million people have received the AstraZeneca vaccine.
“The reported cases of unusual blood clotting following vaccination with the AstraZeneca vaccine should be listed as possible side effects of the vaccine,” said Emer Cooke, the agency’s executive director. “The risk of mortality from COVID is much greater than the risk of mortality from these side effects.”
Arlett said there is no information suggesting an increased risk from the other major COVID-19 vaccines.
The EMA’s investigation focused on unusual types of blood clots that are occurring along with low blood platelets. One rare clot type appears in multiple blood vessels and the other in veins that drain blood from the brain.
While the benefits of the vaccine still outweigh the risks, that assessment is “more finely balanced” among younger people who are less likely to become seriously ill with COVID-19, the U.K’s Van-Tam said.
“We are not advising a stop to any vaccination for any individual in any age group,” said Wei Shen Lim, who chairs Britain’s Joint Committee on Vaccination and Immunization. “We are advising a preference for one vaccine over another vaccine for a particular age group, really out of the utmost caution rather than because we have any serious safety concerns.”
In March, more than a dozen countries, mostly in Europe, suspended their use of AstraZeneca over the blood clot issue. Most restarted — some with age restrictions — after the EMA said countries should continue using the potentially life-saving vaccine.
Britain, which relies heavily on AstraZeneca, however, continued to use it.
The suspensions were seen as particularly damaging for AstraZeneca because they came after repeated missteps in how the company reported data on the vaccine’s effectiveness and concerns over how well its shot worked in older people. That has led to frequently changing advice in some countries on who can take the vaccine, raising worries that AstraZeneca’s credibility could be permanently damaged, spurring more vaccine hesitancy and prolonging the pandemic.
Dr. Peter English, who formerly chaired the British Medical Association’s Public Health Medicine Committee, said the back-and-forth over the AstraZeneca vaccine globally could have serious consequences.
“We can’t afford not to use this vaccine if we are going to end the pandemic,” he said.
In some countries, authorities have already noted hesitance toward the AstraZeneca shot.
“People come and they are reluctant to take the AstraZeneca vaccine, they ask us if we also use anything else,” said Florentina Nastase, a doctor and co-ordinator at a vaccination centre in Bucharest, Romania. “There were cases in which people (scheduled for the AstraZeneca) didn’t show up, there were cases when people came to the centre and saw that we use only AstraZeneca and refused (to be inoculated).”
Meanwhile, the governor of Italy’s northern Veneto region had said earlier Wednesday that any decision to change the guidance on AstraZeneca would cause major disruptions to immunizations — at a time when Europe is already struggling to ramp them up — and could create more confusion about the shot.
“If they do like Germany, and allow Astra Zeneca only to people over 65, that would be absurd. Before it was only for people under 55. Put yourself in the place of citizens, it is hard to understand anything,” Luca Zaia told reporters.
The latest suspension of AstraZeneca came in Spain’s Castilla y Leon region, where health chief Veronica Casado said Wednesday that “the principle of prudence” drove her to put a temporary hold on the vaccine that she still backed as being both effective and necessary.
French health authorities had said they, too, were awaiting EMA’s conclusions, as were some officials in Asia.
On Wednesday, South Korea said it would temporarily suspend the use of AstraZeneca’s vaccine in people 60 and younger. In that age group, the country is only currently vaccinating health workers and people in long-term care settings.
The Korea Disease Control and Prevention Agency said it would also pause a vaccine rollout to school nurses and teachers that was to begin on Thursday, while awaiting the outcome of the EMA’s review.
But some experts urged perspective. Prof Anthony Harnden, the deputy chair of Britain’s vaccination committee, said that the program has saved at least 6,000 lives in the first three months and will help pave the way back to normal life.
“What is clear it that for the vast majority of people the benefits of the Oxford AZ vaccine far outweigh any extremely small risk,” he said. “And the Oxford AZ vaccine will continue to save many from suffering the devastating effects that can result from a COVID infection.”