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Looking at Red LED Light Helps to Improve Eyesight for Elderly – LEDinside

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A research led by researchers of UCL (University College London) revealed that staring at a deep red light for three minutes a day can significantly improve declining eyesight. Based on the result of the study, scientists believe that new affordable home-based eye therapies could be develop, helping the millions of people globally with naturally declining vision.

The study was published on The Journals of Gerontology, titled “Optically improved mitochondrial function redeems aged human visual decline.”Lead author, Professor Glen Jeffery (UCL Institute of Ophthalmology) indicated that people’s visual system declines significantly once over 40 as cells in the eye’s retina begin to age. Cell’s mitochondira density, which boosts cell function and require high energy, declines, leading to photoreceptor function drop.

Researchers built on their previous findings in mice, bumblebees and fruit flies, which all found significant improvements in the function of the retina’s photoreceptors when their eyes were exposed to deep red light at a wavelength of 670 nm. .

“Mitochondria have specific light absorbance characteristics influencing their performance: longer wavelengths spanning 650 to 1000nm are absorbed and improve mitochondrial performance to increase energy production,” said Professor Jeffery.

The study recruited 24 people (12 male, 12 female) between 28 and 72, who had no ocular disease, to participate. All participants’ eyes were tested for the sensitivity of their rods and cones at the start of the study. Rod sensitivity enable people to see in dark while cones sensitivity helps to distinguish colors in low contrast.

All participants were then given a small LED torch to take home and were asked to look into its deep red 670nm light beam for three minutes a day for two weeks. They were then re-tested for their rod and cone sensitivity


(Image: UCL)

The result shows that the 670nm light had no impact in younger individuals, but in those around 40 years and over, significant improvements were obtained. For color detection, the sensitivity improved by up to 20% in some people aged around 40 and over. Improvements were more significant in the blue part of the color spectrum that is more vulnerable in ageing. Rod sensitivity (the ability to see in low light) also improved significantly in those aged around 40 and over, though less than color contrast.

Based on the result of the study, professor Jeffery noted that, “It is possible to significantly improve vision that has declined in aged individuals using simple brief exposures to light wavelengths that recharge the energy system that has declined in the retina cells, rather like re-charging a battery.”

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First direct evidence of ocean mixing across the Gulf Stream – Phys.org

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The “Triaxus” towing platform breaks through the choppy surface of the ocean during a storm. By towing such a platform with monitoring instruments through the water, changing its depth in a ‘yo-yo’ pattern as it traveled, scientists created high-resolution snapshots of how a dye released upstream evolved across the Gulf Stream front. Credit: Craig M. Lee, UW APL

New research provides the first direct evidence for the Gulf Stream blender effect, identifying a new mechanism of mixing water across the swift-moving current. The results have important implications for weather, climate and fisheries because ocean mixing plays a critical role in these processes. The Gulf Stream is one of the largest drivers of climate and biological productivity from Florida to Newfoundland and along the western coast of Europe.

The multi-institutional study led by a University of Maryland researcher revealed that churning along the edges of the Gulf Stream across areas as small as a kilometer could be a leading source of mixing between the waters on either side of the current. The study was published in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences on July 6, 2020.

“This long-standing debate about whether the Gulf Stream acts as a blender or a barrier to ocean mixing has mainly considered big ocean eddies, tens of kilometers to a hundred kilometers across,” said Jacob Wenegrat, an assistant professor in UMD’s Department of Atmospheric and Oceanic Science and the lead author of the study. “What we’re adding to this debate is this new evidence that variability at the kilometer scale seems to be doing a lot of mixing. And those scales are really hard to monitor and model.”

As the Gulf Stream courses its way up the east coast of the U.S. and Canada, it brings warm salty from the tropics into the north Atlantic. But the current also creates an invisible wall of water that divides two distinct ocean regions: the colder, fresher waters along the northern edge of the Gulf Stream that swirl in a counterclockwise direction, and the warmer, saltier waters on the southern edge of the current that circulate in a clockwise direction.

First direct evidence of ocean mixing across the gulf stream
A research crew deployed a float from the R/V Knorr before releasing a fluorescent dye into the water. Scientists then tracked the drift of both dye and float through the Gulf Stream revealing significant mixing of waters across the swift current. Credit: Craig M. Lee, UW APL

How much ocean mixing occurs across the Gulf Stream has been a matter of scientific debate. As a result, ocean models that predict climate, weather and biological productivity have not fully accounted for the contribution of mixing between the two very different types of water on either side of the current.

To conduct the study, the researchers had to take their instruments to the source: the edge of the Gulf Stream. Two teams of scientists aboard two global-class research vessels braved winter storms on the Atlantic Ocean to release a along the northern front of the Gulf Stream and trace its path over the following days.

The first team released the dye along with a float containing an acoustic beacon. Downstream, the second team tracked the float and monitored the concentration of dye along with , salinity, chemistry and other features.

Back on shore, Wenegrat and his coauthors developed high-resolution simulations of the physical processes that could cause the dye to disperse through the water in the manner the field teams recorded. Their results showed that turbulence across areas as small as a kilometer exerted an important influence on the dye’s path and resulted in significant mixing of water properties such as salinity and temperature.

First direct evidence of ocean mixing across the gulf stream
Fluorescent dye provides a unique way to track the evolution and mixing of water across the Gulf Stream. In a recent study fluorescein dye (as pictured here) was released along the north wall of the Gulf Stream, and tracked by ship as it mixed horizontally across the current. Credit: Lance Wills, WHOI

“These results emphasize the role of variability at very small scales that are currently hard to observe using standard methods, such as satellite observations,” Wenegrat said. “Variability at this scale is not currently resolved in global climate models and won’t be for decades to come, so it leads us to wonder, what have we been missing?”

By showing that small-scale mixing across the Gulf Stream may have a significant impact, the new study reveals an important, under-recognized contributor to ocean circulation, biology and potentially climate.

For example, the Gulf Stream plays an important role in what’s known as the ocean biological pump—a system that traps excess carbon dioxide, buffering the planet from global warming. In the surface waters of the Gulf Stream region, ocean mixing influences the growth of phytoplankton—the base of the ocean food web. These phytoplankton absorb carbon dioxide near the surface and later sink to the bottom, taking carbon with them and trapping it in the deep ocean. Current models of the ocean biological pump don’t account for the large effect small-scale mixing across the Gulf Stream could have on phytoplankton growth.

“To make progress on this we need to find ways to quantify these processes on a finer scale using theory, state-of-the-art numerical models and new observational techniques,” Wenegrat said. “We need to be able to understand their impact on large-scale circulation and biogeochemistry of the ocean.”

The research paper, “Enhanced mixing across the gyre boundary at the Gulf Stream front,” Jacob O. Wenegrat, Leif N. Thomas, Miles A. Sundermeyer, John R. Taylor, Eric A. D’Asaro, Jody M. Klymak, R. Kipp Shearman, and Craig M. Lee, was published in the July 6, 2020 issue of the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences.


Explore further

New opportunities for ocean and climate modelling


More information:
Jacob O. Wenegrat el al., “Enhanced mixing across the gyre boundary at the Gulf Stream front,” PNAS (2020). www.pnas.org/cgi/doi/10.1073/pnas.2005558117

Citation:
First direct evidence of ocean mixing across the Gulf Stream (2020, July 6)
retrieved 6 July 2020
from https://phys.org/news/2020-07-evidence-ocean-gulf-stream.html

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Strange pink snow in the Italian Alps might be a red flag – CNET

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Pink Snow as seen in the Presena glacier.


Miguel Medina/Getty Images

Pink snow, also called “watermelon snow,” has appeared at the Presena glacier in northern Italy, according to researcher Biagio Di Mauro of the Institute of Polar Sciences at Italy’s National Research Council. While it’s not uncommon for the Italian alps to be “pretty in pink” in spring and summer, scientists become cautious when the phenomenon, which is caused by algae, starts happening more frequently. 

Di Mauro told CNN that 2020’s lack of snowfall and higher temperatures have nurtured the algae’s growth. More algae could lead to ice melting faster.

When Di Mauro tweeted clarification for an article from The Guardian, he said the algae was probably Chlamydomonas nivalis, a snow algae. He also said the algae’s relationship with climate change hasn’t been proven yet. 

Di Mauro tweeted photos of the pink snow on Monday.

Across the ocean, in late May, Antarctica reported green snow, caused by microscopic algae. Though microscopic, the green blooms could be spotted by satellites. The color might also have connections with the impact of warming climates, researchers said.


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Canadarm3 will help pave way for Canadian boots on moon, and maybe Mars, Space Agency says – National Post

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When humankind makes its long-awaited return to our nearest celestial neighbour, Canada will lend a hand. Literally.

The Canadian Space Agency has recently announced that our nation and the Brampton, Ontario-based company MacDonald, Dettwiler and Associates, will design and build Canadarm3, a new robotic arm for use aboard the U.S.-led Lunar Gateway. In 1999 the company purchased Spar Aerospace, which developed the first two arms, also known as remote manipulator systems or RMS.

“We will be the masters of robotics on Gateway,” says Gilles Leclerc, whose enthusiasm for the project is matched only by his out-of-this-world job title of Director General, Space Exploration, Canadian Space Agency.

The Lunar Gateway, slated to begin construction in 2023, is a small space station that will remain in lunar orbit, providing a rendezvous location for ships travelling from the Earth to the moon, as well as landers on their way to the lunar surface. It could also be used as a staging area for future crewed flights to Mars.

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