Connect with us

Health

Mounjaro, tirzepatide found effective for weight loss, Eli Lily says

Published

 on


Two trials have now found tirzepatide, sold under the brand name Mounjaro as a diabetes treatment, to be effective for weight loss. It is likely to be approved later this year.

In a second large study, the drug Mounjaro, now used to treat diabetes, has shown its effectiveness at helping people lose weight.

The drug is not yet approved for weight loss, but likely will be later this year, now that two trials have found it effective with similar side effects as other weight loss medications.

The study, released by drug-maker Eli Lilly on Thursday, showed participants with diabetes lost nearly 16% of their weight over the 18-month trial. The company had already shown that the same drug, generically called tirzepatide, could help people with obesity but not diabetes lose more than 20% of their body weight.

It is generally harder for people with diabetes to lose weight and this is the first drug trial to show such significant weight loss for people with the disease, according to Lilly associate vice president Dr. Nadia Nazir Ahmad.

So far, data on the drug has only been released via a company press release. Ahmad said Lilly plans to release full results at the American Diabetes Association’s annual meeting in San Diego in June and submit them to a peer-reviewed journal.

 

What is tirzepatide and how does it compare to Ozempic and Wegovy?

Tirzepatide, sold under the brand name Mounjaro, is approved for the treatment of diabetes.

It is believed to act on obesity in two ways, Ahmad said, by reducing appetite and affecting how the body burns fat.

Semaglutide, the generic name for the drug in both Ozempic and Wegovy, acts only on the first of those and thus appears to be slightly less effective at promoting weight loss, though they have never been compared in a head-to-head study. Lilly is currently in the planning stages for one, Ahmad said

Both semaglutide and tirzepatide are delivered by weekly injection.

Ozempic, Wegovy, Mounjaro: How these medications promote weight loss

What did the new trial show?

The new trial included 938 adults, one-third of whom received a 10-mg dose of tirzepatide, one-third received a 15-mg dose, and one-third a placebo.

Those on the lower dose lost about 13% of their body weight, or about 30 pounds. That compares to nearly 16% weight loss of those on the higher dose, or about 34 pounds, and 3% or 7 pounds among those getting the placebo.

Less than 3% of the placebo group lost more than 15% of their body weight, compared to 40% of the low-dose group and 48% of the high-dose group.

A measure of diabetes severity, A1C also fell in people taking the drug.

Lilly has not said what dose it will request for approval from the Food and Drug Administration for weight loss.

Mounjaro is meant to be ramped up from a low, introductory dose of 2.5 mg to as much as 15 mg per weekly dose. The highest dose costs about $1,000 per month. Wegovy, which is a higher dose of the same drug as Ozempic, retails for about $1,300 a month.

Insurance, including the government’s Medicare and Medicaid, typically covers the cost of medications for diabetes but not for weight loss.

 

What happens if you stop taking Mounjaro?

These weight-loss medications are intended to be taken monthly for life.

Lilly’s Ahmad noted that no one would think they could stop taking their blood pressure medication once their numbers reached a healthy level.

More: Obesity was long considered a personal failing. Science shows it’s not.

Studies have shown that people tend to regain at least some of the weight once stopping medication. In the new trial, called SURMOUNT-2, Lilly followed patients for four weeks after stopping tirzepatide and found they began to regain.

The company is running another randomized study to look at what happens longer term after people stop the drug.

Side effects of Mounjaro

Tirzepatide and semaglutide have similar side effects. In the new trial, about 20% of people at both drug doses suffered nausea and diarrhea, 12% endured vomiting and 8% had constipation. In the placebo group, 6% had nausea, 9% diarrhea, 3% vomiting and 4% constipation.

Nearly 4% of those receiving placebo dropped out of the trial because of side effects, compared to the same percentage of people on the lower dose and 7% on the higher dose. Overall, a higher percentage of people receiving the placebo dropped out of the trial than those receiving the drug.

Lifestyle changes and tirzepatide

Lifestyle changes remain important while on tirzepatide, Ahmad said, but differ slightly from the typical recommendations.

When appetite is suppressed and the body is losing weight, she said, it’s particularly important to eat a healthy diet and stay hydrated.

“Lifestyle is important with medications that treat chronic diseases,” she said.

Contact Karen Weintraub at kweintraub@usatoday.com.

Health and patient safety coverage at USA TODAY is made possible in part by a grant from the Masimo Foundation for Ethics, Innovation and Competition in Healthcare. The Masimo Foundation does not provide editorial input.

 

728x90x4

Source link

Continue Reading

Health

Helping people living with dementia ‘flourish’ through dance

Published

 on

Dr. Pia Kontos, a Senior Scientist at UHN’s KITE Research Institute, is co-leading an initiative to help people living with dementia flourish. (Photo: Tim Fraser/UHN KITE Studio)

Dr. Pia Kontos believes in the power of the arts to support people to live well with dementia.

The Senior Scientist at UHN’s KITE Research Institute focuses on challenging policies and practices that discriminate against those living with dementia and developing and evaluating arts-based and digital knowledge translation initiatives to reduce stigma, improve social inclusion and quality of care for them.

“The predominant assumption is people living with dementia don’t have the capacity to be creative,” says Dr. Kontos, who is also a professor in the Dalla Lana School of Public Health at the University of Toronto. “However, we know through extensive research that dance…powerfully supports people living with dementia to be creative and to flourish.

“And flourishing should be a goal that we all have.”

Dr. Kontos co-produced in 2023 Dancer Not Dementia, a short documentary film. It captured the power of a dance program for seniors – Sharing Dance Older Adults (SDOA) – to challenge the stigma associated with dementia, support social inclusion and enrich lives. It’s told through the eyes of residents and staff at Alexis Lodge Dementia Care Residence and Cedarhurst Dementia Care Home in Toronto.

SDOA was jointly developed by Canada’s National Ballet School (NBS) and Baycrest Centre in 2013 for older adults with a range of physical and cognitive abilities, including dementia.

Typically, dance programs in dementia care settings are provided as a therapeutic intervention for older adults. However, SDOA’s goal is to provide a creative outlet for participants and opportunities for social interaction with other people living with dementia, staff and loved ones.

Now, Dr. Kontos will look to incorporate traditions from marginalized communities into SDOA through a $750,000 Canadian Institutes of Health Research (CIHR) Institute of Aging Implementation Science Team Grant. Dr. Rachel Bar, Director of Research and Health at NBS is co-principal applicant for the grant.

This CIHR funding supports projects that evaluate the effectiveness of existing programs, services and models of care that show promise for those impacted by cognitive impairment and dementia. An important focus is improving equitable and inclusive access to care and support.

The three-year grant to Drs. Kontos and Bar will support SDOA efforts to partner with organizations in Black, Chinese and South Asian communities to integrate their cultural practices into its programming.

Training dancers from these communities to teach the adapted program is central to these partnerships.

“People living with dementia from marginalized communities rarely have their traditions honoured with art and leisure programming,” says Dr. Kontos.

“It’s important to align dance programs with the cultural traditions of these communities. Otherwise, the music and movements wouldn’t reflect the experiences of ethno-culturally diverse populations, and the programs wouldn’t be inclusive.

“We wouldn’t be supporting their capacity to be creative or to be in relationships with others through dance. We would be falling short.”

SDOA has already partnered with Alexis Lodge, Alzheimer Society of Canada, Baycrest, NBS, Indus Community Services, Social Planning Council of Ottawa, and Yee Hong for this initiative.

728x90x4

Source link

Continue Reading

Health

CDC: Heat may have contributed to four human cases of bird flu in Colorado

Published

 on

Credit: Alexas Fotos from Pexels

Heat probably played a role in at least four cases of bird flu in poultry workers confirmed by U.S. health officials Sunday—the first cases in poultry workers in two years.

Sweltering temperatures in Colorado rose to at least 104 degrees, which is suspected to have contributed to the human cases, according to Dr. Nirav Shah, principal deputy director at the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. The barns where poultry workers were culling chickens were “no doubt even hotter,” Shah said during a press conference on the most recent outbreak of bird flu in humans.

The new cases bring the U.S. total to at least nine cases since the first human case of the current outbreak was detected in 2022, also in a Colorado poultry worker. Eight of the nine were reported this year.

The workers were separating chickens that were going to be killed to stop the spread of the virus. The fans may also have contributed to the human infections because, while helping to keep the environment cooler, they “also spread things like feathers around which are known to carry the virus,” Shah added.

The large and strong fans also make it difficult for protective goggles and face masks to stay in place, he said.

About 60 workers at the poultry farm showed symptoms of illness and were tested for bird flu. Four tested positive for bird flu and one additional presumptive case is awaiting confirmation.

The illnesses were relatively mild, with symptoms including conjunctivitis and common respiratory infection symptoms like fever, chills, coughing, and runny nose, according to the CDC. None were hospitalized, officials said. The other U.S. cases have also been mild.

Officials said they are bracing for more cases.

The CDC says the risk to the general public remains low and the health agency is not recommending livestock workers be vaccinated against bird flu given the “mild symptoms noted thus far,” Shah said.

An initial analysis of virus samples from an infected poultry worker does not show any changes in the virus that would make it easier to spread among people and there is no evidence of person-to-person spread in the U.S.

“It’s important to note that this assessment is based on what we know today and may change,” Shah said. “CDC is constantly looking for key changes that may alter our risk assessment of the virus, such as the severity of illness that it causes, the ease with which it can transmit to humans or changes to its genetic fingerprint.”

At the request of Colorado’s officials, the CDC sent a 10-person team to Colorado to help the state manage the bird flu outbreak in humans and poultry. The team included epidemiologists, veterinarians, clinicians and industrial hygienists.

Shah also noted it was a bilingual team. Overall in the U.S., it is estimated about half of farm workers are Latino.

An analysis of the virus from an infected worker indicates that the infections at the chicken farm are “largely the same” as the strain detected in dairy herds in Colorado and other states, according to Shah. But an investigation is ongoing to determine exactly how the outbreak is spreading between wild birds, chicken and cattle.

Since 2022, a highly contagious strain of bird flu has spread across the U.S. at an unprecedented rate.

Georgia’s powerhouse poultry industry, which produces more broiler chickens than any other in the country, has mostly dodged the kinds of major outbreaks that have resulted in the deaths of more 90 million birds in commercial and backyard poultry flocks in the U.S.

About 1.8 million chickens will be killed at the Colorado poultry farm after these latest bird flu cases were detected.

In late 2023, ducks at a commercial breeding farm in Sumter County, Georgia, tested positive for H5N1. This year, in March, the virus made a jump to a mammal species that surprised many scientists: cows.

With a significant dairy industry, plus even larger beef and poultry interests, the potential arrival of the virus here threatens Georgia’s economy and the health of residents.

As of Monday, the H5N1 virus has been confirmed in 158 dairy herds in 13 states, according U.S. Agriculture Department.

So far in Georgia, there have been no bird flu cases in cattle, and there have been no human cases.

Since the unprecedented spread of H5N1 in poultry in 2022, the Georgia Department of Public Health has quietly monitored 132 people for signs of the virus, according to DPH spokeswoman Nancy Nydam. Those tracked were either first responders to one of the state’s few virus outbreaks in backyard and commercial poultry flocks or farmworkers where the infections occurred. Of those monitored, fewer than 10 people were tested for H5N1 and none came back positive.

Since the virus was discovered in cattle, a small number of first responders from Georgia who went to other states to help with investigations—fewer than 15—have also been monitored for signs of illness.

Federal officials said Tuesday they still believe they can eliminate the bird flu virus from , even as the number of herds infected continues to grow. The latest state to recently report infected dairy cattle was Oklahoma. North Carolina is the only state adjacent to Georgia to report an infected dairy herd.

Eric Deeble, acting senior adviser for the H5N1 response at the USDA, said investigations show the is spreading among cattle through cattle moved from one herd to another and the shared use of milking equipment. It can be contained through enhanced biosecurity measures such as thoroughly cleaning milking “parlors” and equipment, separating sick cows, and having dairy workers wear protective equipment.

Deeble also noted USDA scientists are also working with partners to develop a cattle-specific H5N1 vaccine—a process requires many steps and will take time.

The USDA is also exploring the possibility of developing a poultry vaccine as the number of cases soar, and outbreaks lead to the slaughter of millions of farmed birds. But USDA and industry stakeholders point to challenges that would hinder a vaccination program.

The biggest sticking point is around trade.

Mike Giles, president of the Georgia Poultry Federation, said mass vaccination would be impractical for several reasons, including the fact that the industry would lose its lucrative export market: The United States and many of its trade partners restrict the import of products or eggs from countries affected by the highly pathogenic strain or flocks that have been vaccinated against it.

“(Bird flu) has been, from an animal health standpoint, our top concern,” Giles said. “The challenge, and I think the industry has responded to it well, has been maintaining the state of preparedness and urgency and focus on biosecurity, and I think that has been accomplished.”

2024 The Atlanta Journal-Constitution. Distributed by Tribune Content Agency, LLC.

Citation:
CDC: Heat may have contributed to four human cases of bird flu in Colorado (2024, July 17)
retrieved 17 July 2024
from https://medicalxpress.com/news/2024-07-cdc-contributed-human-cases-bird.html

This document is subject to copyright. Apart from any fair dealing for the purpose of private study or research, no
part may be reproduced without the written permission. The content is provided for information purposes only.

 

728x90x4

Source link

Continue Reading

Health

Here is the new guidance for RSV vaccines

Published

 on

Health officials recently changed the guidelines for respiratory syncytial virus vaccines. Here’s what Canadians need to know about the guidance and the virus itself.

New guidance on vaccines

As of July 12, the National Advisory Committee on Immunization (NACI) now recommends RSV vaccines for individuals who are 75 years old and older, especially those who have a greater risk of developing severe RSV.

Based on current evidence and expert opinion, NACI said in a news release, it also strongly recommends vaccines for those aged 60 and older who live in nursing homes and other chronic care facilities.

What is RSV?

RSV is a common contagious virus that often causes bronchiolitis, a lung infection, and pneumonia.

Infants face the highest risk of developing severe RSV disease, however, this risk also increases with age and with certain medical conditions, according to the Public Health Agency of Canada (PHAC). It can lead to serious complications for older people, including hospitalization and death.

What are the symptoms?

RSV typically causes mild, cold-like symptoms that usually begin two to eight days after exposure to the virus, according to PHAC.

Those with RSV may experience a runny nose, coughing, sneezing, wheezing, fever and less appetite and energy. Infants may be irritable, have trouble breathing and have less appetite and energy.

What is the treatment?

RSV infections are usually mild and last about one to two weeks. If you are infected, health officials recommend you stay home and limit contact with others.

They also recommend lots of rest and drinking plenty of fluids. Take over-the-counter products, such as acetaminophen or ibuprofen, if you have a fever. Seek immediate care or go to the hospital if you’re having trouble breathing or become dehydrated, PHAC adds.

Adblock test (Why?)

728x90x4

Source link

Continue Reading

Trending