The Canadian Press
WASHINGTON — Two of the U.S. military’s top officers have received the coronavirus vaccine.Army Gen. Mark Milley, who is chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff, and Air Force Gen. John Hyten, the vice chairman of the Joint Chiefs, got their shots Monday. They received the Pfizer vaccine.Other members of the Joint Chiefs are also expected to get shots as part of a campaign to reassure those serving in the military branches that the vaccine is safe.___THE VIRUS OUTBREAK:A new COVID-19 relief bill shaping up in Congress includes individual payments reaching $600 for most Americans and an extra $300 a week in unemployment benefits. Votes on the bill in the House and Senate are expected Monday. Among those getting help are hard-hit businesses, schools, health care providers and renters facing eviction. Also, President-elect Joe Biden will receive his first dose of the coronavirus vaccine on live television as part of a growing effort to convince the American public the inoculations are safe.___Follow AP’s coverage at https://apnews.com/hub/coronavirus-pandemic, https://apnews.com/hub/coronavirus-vaccine and https://apnews.com/UnderstandingtheOutbreak___HERE’S WHAT ELSE IS HAPPENING:DENVER — Colorado’s legislature will go into recess soon after convening in January as lawmakers wait for COVID-19 cases to subside.Democratic leaders said Monday that legislators will begin the new session Jan. 13 and address any urgent business and required actions, such as swearing in new members. They will then suspend the session.The tentative plan is to reconvene Feb. 16, by which time legislative leaders hope the peak of the coronavirus pandemic will have subsided. They say lawmakers will resume work earlier if there is an emergency that requires immediate attention.___AUSTIN, Texas — Gov. Greg Abbott of Texas is getting the coronavirus vaccine as the number of patients hospitalized with the virus statewide is back over 10,000 for the first time since July’s peak.Abbott will receive the vaccine on live television Tuesday at a hospital in the state capital. His office says health officials urged the 63-year-old governor to get the vaccine in order to boost public confidence that the inoculations are safe.Newly confirmed cases and hospitalizations in Texas are soaring tot levels unseen since a deadly summer outbreak. Abbott reiterated last week that he will not order a new round of lockdown measures. The virus is blamed for at least 25,000 deaths in Texas.___MONTGOMERY, Ala. — Alabama Gov. Kay Ivey became one of the first governors on Monday to receive the COVID-19 vaccine, bidding to build public confidence in the vaccinations that will have to be widely administered to ease the pandemic.The Republican governor said that she wanted to assure people it is safe, after she received the first of the two-shot Pfizer vaccine at a Montgomery hospital on Monday.Ivy, a 76-year-old lung cancer survivor, said she had no hesitation about taking the vaccine and urged others to take it as it becomes available.Alabama is seeing a record-setting surge in COVID-19 in the wake of Thanksgiving and officials fear things will only get worse because of Christmas holiday gatherings.With more than 2,520 patients hospitalized statewide for COVID-19 and cases increasing steadily, Christmas week began in Alabama on Monday with health officials issuing new pleas for residents to take precautions against the virus.___BATON ROUGE, La. — The Louisiana Supreme Court has sent a legal feud between Gov. John Bel Edwards and House Republicans over coronavirus restrictions back to district court.The high court said Monday the judge ruled too quickly that the state law the GOP used to try to nullify the restrictions was unconstitutional.The justices wrote that Baton Rouge Judge William Morvant should have held a full hearing on other issues raised in the lawsuit over the Democratic governor’s mask mandate and business restrictions.The Supreme Court’s decision was a technical one that didn’t weigh in on the merits of the lawsuit. Instead, it requires Morvant to hold another hearing in the case.___LITTLE ROCK, Ark. — The governor of Arkansas said the state received more doses of coronavirus vaccines on Monday as the number of virus-related deaths continued to increase.Republican Gov. Asa Hutchinson said the state reported 58 deaths from COVID-19 on Monday, though about one-third of those were delayed reports. The state saw 1,457 newly confirmed COVID-19 cases, and more than 1,000 people remained hospitalized with the virus.Hutchinson said Arkansas also began receiving shipments of the newly approved coronavirus vaccine from the drugmaker Moderna, with 5,900 doses expected Monday and additional shipments planned for Tuesday and Wednesday. The state also received 18,575 doses of Pfizer’s vaccine.Over the past two weeks, the rolling average number of daily new cases in Arkansas has increased by nearly 9%, according to researchers at Johns Hopkins University. One in every 189 people in Arkansas tested positive for the virus in the past week.___LOUISVILLE, Ky. — The governor of Kentucky announced Monday that several long-term care facilities in the state have started vaccinating their residents.Democratic Gov. Andy Beshear said vaccines for those groups should be finished by early March. Deaths in the state’s assisted living and nursing homes account for two-thirds of the state’s coronavirus death toll.Kentucky received it’s first shipments of the new COVID-19 vaccine last week. About 7,000 Kentucky residents, the vast majority of them health care workers in hospitals, have been vaccinated since.Through the federal Pharmacy Partnership for Long-Term Care Program, Walgreens pharmacy will provide the COVID-19 vaccinations in roughly 800 long-term care facilities across Kentucky.___OKLAHOMA CITY — The head of Oklahoma’s largest teachers union praised the governor on Monday for moving school personnel to phase two of the vaccine distribution plan, but she warned that forcing schools to return to in-person learning next month could jeopardize the safety of public school workers.Oklahoma Education Association President Alicia Priest also released details of an informal survey of more than half its members that show 63% believe schools are not safe for in-person instruction.Republican Gov. Kevin Stitt has said his goal is to return all public schools to in-person classes after the Christmas break.Priest, a Spanish teacher from Yukon, described Stitt’s plan is an “arbitrary date” and suggested it could pit parents and educators against one another.___CHARLESTON, W.Va. — West Virginia set another weekly record for positive coronavirus cases and deaths as it awaits an influx of vaccines from Moderna.Health officials said the state recorded at least 6,638 confirmed cases of the virus in the seven-day period ending Sunday. That passed the mark of 6,439 positive cases set two weeks ago. The state also reported 160 deaths last week.Officials said on Monday that the state’s vaccination drive reached a third of all long-term care centres in the state last week. They expect to have administered doses to all 214 centres by the end of the month, ahead of schedule and ahead many other states.Republican Gov. Jim Justice has said about 85% to 95% of long-term care centre residents are taking the vaccine, but about 40% of staff are declining it.___DUBAI, United Arab Emirates — Kuwait is suspending all commercial international flights and closing its land and sea borders starting Monday evening until Jan. 1 over fears about the highly infectious new coronavirus strain.The government said that cargo flights and trade routes will remain open.Health authorities ordered those who arrived from the European Union or the United Kingdom in the past week to immediately take a PCR coronavirus test.The national airline of the United Arab Emirates also announced it will require all passengers flying from the United Kingdom starting Thursday to show a negative PCR coronavirus test within 72 hours before taking off over fears of the fast-spreading new strain of the virus.The Kuwaiti Health Ministry said COVID-19 cases increased by 230 to 148,209 on Monday, while the death toll rose by one to 922.___AUSTIN, Texas — The Texas Capitol will reopen to the public in January after being closed for much of the year because of the pandemic, a decision that comes as new coronavirus cases and hospitalizations are surging to the highest levels since summer.Republican Gov. Greg Abbott said in a statement on Monday that the capitol will reopen Jan. 4, about a week before the Texas Legislature reconvenes for the first time since 2019.Texas had more than 9,800 hospitalized coronavirus patients as of Sunday, the most since a deadly summer outbreak. The state is approaching the Christmas holiday with fewer than 800 intensive care unit beds and last Thursday smashed a single-day record for new cases with with more than 16,000, which state officials partly attributed to holiday gatherings.___BATON ROUGE, La. — Louisiana is expecting to receive shipments of a second coronavirus vaccine.The office of Democratic Gov. John Bel Edwards said Louisiana is expecting to receive 79,500 doses of the Moderna vaccine and more than 28,000 Pfizer vaccine doses that will arrive this week.Meanwhile, a new audit released Monday by Legislative Auditor Daryl Purpera’s office says the slow pace of laboratories’ reporting of coronavirus test results is hindering the health department’s ability to understand the scale of the outbreak, do adequate contact tracing and determine the rate of positive versus negative test results.Health Secretary Courtney Phillips says the department’s data analysis accounts for many of the issues raised by the auditor’s office.___UNITED NATIONS — The World Health Organization’s technical lead for COVID-19 said on Monday that scientists in the United Kingdom are still trying to understand the transmissibility and lethality of the new virus strain, and the antibody response it provokes.Dr. Maria Van Kerkhove said studies on antibody response are underway and they expect results “in coming days and weeks.”Emergencies Chief Dr. Mike Ryan said, “There’s zero evidence that there’s any increase in severity associated with this disease.”He said that whether the new variant responds the same as older variants to current vaccines “is currently being checked in a number of labs.”WHO Chief Tedros Adhanom Ghebreyesus said that the strategy for addressing new variants of COVID-19 was same as for prior variants.___TORONTO — Ontario is announcing a province-wide lockdown because of a second wave of COVID-19 in Canada’s most populous province.The lockdown will be put in place for southern Ontario from Dec. 26 until Jan.23, but will lift for northern Ontario on Jan. 9.Ontario has had seven straight days of more than 2,000 cases a day. Modeling shows that could more than double in January. Health officials earlier say a four to six week hard lockdown could significantly stop the spread of COVID-19.___LOS ANGELES — California Gov. Gavin Newsom is back in a precautionary coronavirus quarantine for the second time in two months as surging COVID-19 cases swamp the state’s hospitals and strain medical staffing.The governor’s office says Newsom will quarantine for 10 days after one of his staffers tested positive for COVID-19 on Sunday afternoon.Newsom was tested and his result came back negative, as did the tests of other staffers who were in contact.Last month, members of the governor’s family were exposed to someone who tested positive. Newsom, his wife and four children tested negative at that time.As of Sunday, more than 16,840 people were hospitalized with confirmed COVID-19 infections — more than double the previous peak reached in July — and a state model that uses current data to forecast future trends shows the number could reach 75,000 by mid-January.___MADRID — Spain’s health ministry reported slightly more than 22,000 officially recorded new cases of COVID-19 over the weekend and 334 deaths amid a continuing rise in daily infection numbers.The ministry said Monday that Spain’s pandemic tally has now reached 1.82 million cases and 49,260 fatalities.While infection numbers declined substantially in late November in Spain, there has seen a steady increase in December. Officials say this is most likely due to the increase in social gatherings and people mixing in the street and in stores in the run-up to Christmas.The ministry said the infection rate per 100,000 inhabitants was at 224 Monday compared to 214 on Friday. This is still way down from a high of 529 cases on Nov. 9.The average occupancy rate of ICU beds by COVID-19 patients remained at 20%.The Associated Press
First ever baby T-rex fossils found in Alberta | News – Daily Hive
For the first time ever, the fossils of a baby Tyrannosaurus Rex have been discovered.
Researchers were able to find a small toe claw in Morrin, Alberta, and a jawbone in Montana.
The findings were published in a study, led by Greg Funston, on Monday, January 25, in the Canadian Journal of Earth and Sciences.
When the team first began their dig, it wasn’t even the T. Rex they were searching for.
“Our research in Morrin, Alberta, was looking for troodontid (raptor dinosaurs) material, and investigating potential reasons for why a couple [of] sites had an abundance of their teeth while being rare in other locations,” Mark Powers, a University of Alberta Ph.D. student, and the second author on the study told Daily Hive. “It wasn’t even on our radar,” he added.
During their dig, they discovered the small claw and began the careful process of collecting it from the ground.
“It involved taking bags of sediment from the site and then breaking it down with water while sifting through the material. Once it was collected, it became a test of our hypothesis that it was a tyrannosaur,” said Powers.
“To do this, we looked at as many fossils of animals that existed in the same rocks and time, to see if we could falsify our diagnosis. This process is important in order to give as accurate an identification as possible. It is also one of the most fun processes! You basically get to be a detective examining all the clues you have available,” Powers added.
There have been thousands of isolated T-Rex bones found, but never at an embryonic stage. There are many factors why finding these fossils at such a young age is incredibly rare.
“Tyrannosaurs grew rapidly, so even at 3 years of age, they were already wolf-sized or bigger,” said Powers. “Small animals are thought to break apart or become lost or destroyed before they can preserve. This makes it challenging to find specimens that are either embryonic or freshly hatched. The delicate skeletons were likely broken up by running water or scavenging from predators before they settled in a position where they could fossilize.”
While there are already dozens of Tyrannosaur skeletons, finding the fossils of one so young will provide more understanding of the carnivorous dinosaur.
“This gives us a starting point for the ontogeny (growth) of tyrannosaurs. It will allow for more comprehensive studies of their growth and provide a slough of additional avenues of research,” said Powers.
The baby rex won’t have a name, but could possibly be given one once the specimen is on display. Unofficially, Mark Powers has already given the little dinosaur a placeholder name.
“As of right now, I would give it the title of Tiny Tyrannical Tyke. Alliterative titles are always catchy,” said Powers.
Babies from famed carnivorous dinosaur group were 'born ready' to hunt – Toronto Sun
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Both are slightly smaller cousins of Tyrannosaurus rex. The largest-known tyrannosaurs topped 40 feet (12 metres) long and 8 tons in weight.
The jaw possesses distinctive tyrannosaur traits, including a deep groove inside and a prominent chin.
University of Edinburgh paleontologist Greg Funston, lead author of the research published in the Canadian Journal of Earth Sciences, said the scientists were amazed at how similar the embryonic bones were to older juvenile and adult tyrannosaurs and noted that the jaws boasted functional teeth.
“So although we can’t get a complete picture, what we can see looks very similar to the adults,” Funston said.
It appears that tyrannosaurs, Funston added, were “born ready to hunt, already possessing some of the key adaptations that gave tyrannosaurs their powerful bites. So it’s likely that they were capable of hunting fairly quickly after birth, but we need more fossils to tell exactly how fast that was.”
In Iceland, Testing the Drones That Could Be the Future of Mars Exploration – Atlas Obscura
On February 18, 2021, if all goes to plan, NASA’s Perseverance rover will land on Mars. While it’s poking around, looking for signs of past habitability, Ingenuity—a tiny, experimental solar-powered helicopter hitching a ride on its underside—will try to demonstrate the possibility of flight on another world for the very first time. We may be looking at the future of exploration on the Red Planet.
Back here on Earth, others are already looking beyond Ingenuity. A next-generation NASA-funded Mars mission concept, the Rover-Aerial Vehicle Exploration Network or RAVEN, is about to be put through its paces in a gauntlet like no other. The project will pair an autonomous rover with specialized drones and be sent across a 32-square-mile lava field in Iceland as a test run for a future on Mars.
Interplanetary rovers are technological marvels, but they’re stuck to the ground. Drones, in one form or another, are the next evolutionary step, and they will be used for more than just reconnaissance. With scoops and drills, eventually they will “go somewhere the rover can’t go, and bring something back,” says Christopher Hamilton, a planetary scientist at the University of Arizona and lead researcher on RAVEN.
There’s no mistaking the impact drones are having on science right now. During the prolific eruption of Hawai‘i’s Kīlauea volcano in 2018, the government authorized the largest peaceful deployment of drones in American history. Spearheaded by longtime drone advocate Angie Diefenbach, a geologist at the U.S. Geological Survey’s Cascades Volcano Observatory, they were used to film lava fountains up close, track the slithering progression of molten rock, and even help people escape their homes in the dead of night.
Today, the U.S. Geological Survey has a dedicated drone program, catching up with universities across the world that are using them to reach inaccessible or dangerous places for scientific research. “It’s the age of the drones,” says Diefenbach. “We’re going to do so many cool things.”
Not long ago, the most advanced drones “were all in the hands of the military,” says Gordon Osinski, a planetary scientist at the University of Western Ontario and RAVEN team member. Now you can buy pretty capable ones online or at your local computer store. Bit by bit, he says, drones “are changing how we do fieldwork on Earth. And I think it’s definitely going to do the same for other planets.”
Scientists are getting very good at piloting drones down here, but flying on Mars is going to be tougher. The air density is a fraction of Earth’s, so any mechanical aviators will need to push a lot more of it to get any elevation—hence Ingenuity’s test run. While engineers grappled with this challenge at NASA’s Jet Propulsion Laboratory back in 2014, the Bárðarbunga volcanic system in Iceland erupted. Between August 2014 and February 2015, it spilled enough lava to easily smother Manhattan, making it Iceland’s largest eruption in 230 years.
The lava flow, as it cooked ice and water trapped below, developed a hydrothermal system with hot springs that became home to many happy microbes. By 2021, things had cooled, but vestiges of those bastions of life still exist, creating an environment similar to what researchers hope to be able to identify on Mars. To the tune of $3.1 million, NASA agreed with Hamilton that it would be a great place to test the next generation of automated Mars explorers, and RAVEN was born.
There are two components to RAVEN. The first is the rover. Courtesy of the Canadian Space Agency, it’s comparable to Curiosity in capability and design. It can be remotely operated by a human, (on Mars there would be several minutes of delay between commands and action) but it’s also able to navigate the land all on its own.
The real innovation of the project will be in its cargo. The drone is a carbon fiber hexacopter, capable of flying for around 35 minutes and up to a distance of three miles, carrying about 20 pounds of scientific equipment. It will act as the more technologically capable rover’s field assistant.
A camera will be one key instrument, but for more than just aerial photographs. It can take several different photographs of the same surface feature, and then send them to the rover, where heftier processors will make true 3D maps of terrain—“a full virtual rendering of the environment around the drone and rover,” says Hamilton. These, in turn, will help it navigate precisely and speedily around the area.
The drone will also use a visible to near-infrared spectrometer, which looks at radiation coming off the ground to identify any interesting minerals or substances. But the drone has another killer app.
NASA is laser-focused on bringing pristine Mars rocks back to Earth. Perseverance will dig up and cache 43 pen-sized rock samples that, through a series of upcoming NASA and European Space Agency missions, will be brought to Earth by 2031. While this robotic Rube Goldberg machine plays out, RAVEN will be testing a new way to grab samples in Iceland.
“My favorite part of RAVEN is the Claw,” says Hamilton. This refers to a scoop, or a series of scoop designs, that will be attached to the drone. Rocks of interest will be picked up and flown back to the rover, where the rover’s chemical-interrogating technology will see if the rock is fascinating enough to go visit the site where it came from, either to see the original context or get a bigger sample.
Scientists are looking to use that same concept for their Earthbound drones too. “The most exciting bit was to see the Claw attached to it, because that’s exactly where I’d like to go in the next year, for the [U.S. Geological Survey] at least,” says Diefenbach, for applications here. “That made me pretty excited.”
The team’s engineering partner, Honeybee Robotics, is coming up with drill designs, too, to pull out small cylindrical cores or grind rock into powder that can be vacuumed up and flown to the rover.
This year, RAVEN’s hardware is being manufactured and software is being coded while its hardware is manufactured. The games will begin in summer 2022, when the rover and drones arrive at Bárðarbunga volcano’s Holuhraun Lava Field.
The actual first test of the equipment reads like the instructions of a practical final exam. An operations team unfamiliar with the site, which will include students, will use satellite imagery to determine where best to “land” the rover and drones. They will issue commands to both vehicles and, within a set amount of time measured in Mars-days, then characterize the environment’s geology and identify potentially habitable or once-habitable pockets of it. In addition to testing RAVEN’s technology, the test will determine if a team new to the site will be able to identify the most astrobiologically areas to study—just as a future rover-drone Mars mission will have to. “I can’t participate in the science planning for our team, because I have the answer key,” Hamilton says, since he already knows the site, and the areas with the best potential for exploration. After the trial ends, and the team compares notes, they’ll run it back in summer 2023.
Hamilton can picture the time where RAVEN, or something like it, is deployed on Mars for real. By that stage, he says, “there is the possibility that the rover would be an astronaut.” Imagine that, not science fiction but real: spacefaring scientists, flying drones over Martian volcanoes, searching for alien biosignatures in the hazy light of the distant sun, the Earth (and Iceland’s lava fields) a bluish dot in the sky.
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