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Social media safety messages: Pictures should match the words: Effective posts led to better understanding among new parents – Science Daily

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When using social media to nudge people toward safe and healthy behaviors, it’s critical to make sure the words match the pictures, according to a new study.

After looking at social media posts, parents of young children were better able to recall safety messages such as how to put a baby safely to sleep when the images in the posts aligned with the messages in the text, the researchers found.

The study appears in the Journal of Health Communication.

“Many times, scientists and safety experts aren’t involved in decisions about social media for health agencies and other organizations, and we end up seeing images that have nothing to do with the safety message or, worse, images that contradict the guidance,” said lead author Liz Klein, an associate professor of public health at The Ohio State University.

Take the safe sleep example, for instance. The researchers found posts that advocated a bumper-free crib for baby but used an image of an infant in a crib with bumpers. They saw posts about preventing head injury with bike helmets illustrated by pictures of kids without bike helmets.

“In this study, we were trying to understand how much those mismatches matter — do people understand the message even if the picture isn’t right? Does the picture really matter?” Klein said.

Their answers came from research using eye-tracking technology to gauge the attention young parents paid to various posts, and subsequent tests to see what they recalled about the safety messages.

When the 150 parents in the study were shown a trio of posts with matched imagery and text and three other posts with mismatched visual and written messages, they spent far longer on the matched posts — 5.3 seconds, compared to the 3.3 seconds their eyes lingered on the mismatched posts.

Further, the matched messages appeared to make a difference in understanding and recall of safety messages. After accounting for differences in health literacy and social media use among participants, the researchers found that each second of viewing time on matched posts was associated with a 2.8% increase in a safety knowledge score.

“With nearly 70% of adults reporting use of social media, and many parents using social media and other internet sources to keep current on injury prevention strategies, social media is a great opportunity to broadcast safety and injury prevention messages,” said study co-author Lara McKenzie, a principal investigator in the Center for Injury Research and Policy at Nationwide Children’s Hospital in Columbus.

“As more health organizations and public health agencies use social media to share health information with the public, the findings of our study underscore the need to ensure that the imagery and text in social media posts are aligned.”

Klein said she understands that those managing social media accounts may be drawn to images that are the most attention-grabbing. But when it comes to health and safety, this study suggests that making sure the image and the text are sending the same message is more important.

“If you want people to put their medicine up and out of reach of children, kids to wear their bike helmets or new parents to remember that babies should always go to sleep on their backs, alone and in a crib — that’s where matching matters. Maybe save the eye-grabbing stuff and the humorous posts for different purposes.”

Klein said the findings in this study likely extend beyond child safety messaging to any number of health and safety campaigns, but that there’s more work to be done to understand how best to harness the power of social media for different types of public health communication.

“We need to pay more attention to how we communicate with the people we’re trying to influence with health and safety guidance. All of us can do a better job of thinking about how we use our social media accounts to contribute to better public health,” she said.

Story Source:

Materials provided by Ohio State University. Original written by Misti Crane. Note: Content may be edited for style and length.

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Different types of gambling, media converging for growth – 570 News

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ATLANTIC CITY, N.J. — The many different types of gambling are quickly coming together with each other and with media outlets — and Wall Street is taking notice.

Casino gambling, internet gambling, sports betting and daily fantasy sports are no longer separate silos with unique audiences: Gambling companies are increasingly combining them and partnering with media companies to expand the reach of gambling.

This expansion is leading Wall Street analysts to predict fast-growing revenue in the U.S. over the next five to 10 years. Morgan Stanley sees a $15 billion sports betting and internet gambling market by 2025, and Macquarie Research says that same market could be $30 billion by 2030.

“The once disparate categories of online gaming, media and sports are joining teams to create powerful partnerships that we believe will grow viewership, increase overall fan engagement, and drive significantly higher market values for all those connected,” Macquarie wrote in a report issued Tuesday.

It cited numerous examples of deals between sports betting and media companies last year, including Bally’s and Sinclair Broadcasting; Flutter Entertainment and FOX; PointsBet and NBC; William Hill and CBS; DraftKings and Caesars Entertainment partnering with ESPN; Penn National and Barstool Sports; BetMGM and Yahoo; and Turner Sports’ deals with FanDuel and DraftKings.

David Schwartz, a gambling historian with the University of Nevada Las Vegas, said combinations like these “seem to be the wave of the future.”

“With geographic expansion nearly complete in the U.S. — Texas is the biggest unserved market still out there — casino companies are looking to grow their revenues by expanding into new forms of gambling, (and) online and sports betting are the most prominent,” he said. “Even daily fantasy sports is seen as a viable route, as seen by recent moves by Bally’s and Caesars. The media partners get more content and more eyes on their product.”

Bill Miller, president of the American Gaming Association, the gambling industry’s national trade association, said deals like these are “a logical extension” of the industry’s desire to keep pace with customer expectations.

“Responsibly growing these verticals will be essential to the industry’s continued success,” he said.

In a report last week, Morgan Stanley forecast a $15 billion market for sports betting and internet gambling by 2025, an increase of 27% over current levels. As much as $10 billion of that is likely to come from sports betting, the company said.

Most analysts expect at least half the country will have legal sports betting by the end of 2021, with continued expansion after that.

Morgan Stanley said sports betting and internet gambling revenue reached $3.1 billion in the U.S. last year, well outpacing its forecast of $2 billion. While some of the growth in online wagering was undoubtedly helped by months of casino closures during the coronavirus pandemic, Morgan Stanley says there’s a durable market taking shape in these industries.

“We see legalized U.S. sports betting and iGaming as a once-in-a-generation shift for what was a mature gaming industry,” Morgan Stanley wrote. “It is clear to us that Americans’ interest in sports and gambling should lead to higher revenue (per) adult than we previously expected.”

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Follow Wayne Parry at http://twitter.com/WayneParryAC.

Wayne Parry, The Associated Press

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Rittenhouse, mother fixated on social media treatment – 570 News

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MADISON, Wis. — An Illinois teen accused of killing two people during unrest in Wisconsin and the teen’s mom were fixated on social media comments about them in the hours after his August arrest, newly released police video shows.

Police in Antioch, Illinois, on Monday released four hours of video taken after Kyle Rittenhouse turned himself in hours after the Aug. 25 protest in Kenosha, the Chicago Tribune reported. The protest was part of a series of chaotic demonstrations that ensued after a white Kenosha officer shot Jacob Blake, who is Black, in the back seven times during a domestic dispute. Rittenhouse is white.

Prosecutors say Rittenhouse, who was 17 at the time, opened fire during the protest, killing Joseph Rosenbaum and Anthony Huber and wounding Gaige Grosskreutz. Rittenhouse faces multiple charges, including intentional homicide. He has argued he was protecting businesses and fired in self-defence. Conservatives have rallied around him, generating enough money to make his $2 million cash bail.

Cellphone video shows Rittenhouse walking past police in the moments after the shootings, his rifle slung over his shoulder and his hands in the air. Officers let him go, and he turned himself in to police in his hometown of Antioch the next day.

The Chicago Tribune reported that the police video shows Rittenhouse sobbing and hyperventilating. Investigators reminded him of his right to remain silent. Rittenhouse, who once participated in programs for aspiring offices, replied, “I know Miranda,” and said he wanted a lawyer.

Police left him in the interrogation room with his mother, Wendy Rittenhouse, who spent the next several hours scrolling through her phone. At one point she put her head in her hands and lamented about people posting derogatory remarks about both of them on Facebook.

His mother told him he needed to deactivate his social media accounts.

“’I have to get rid of social media?” he asked.

“Yep … ‘Cause they’re going to harass you if they can find you anywhere,” she said.

Rittenhouse said he couldn’t give her access to some accounts because the passwords were stored in his phone, which police had taken. He later asked an officer if detectives could delete his accounts. The officer said he would look into it.

In the audible portions of the video, Rittenhouse didn’t ask about the men he shot. He also didn’t appear to understand the seriousness of the situation, asking an officer if he could go home and if he could get counselling to help him cope.

“I don’t want to be one of those people that lives with PTSD the rest of their life,” he said.

Last week, a judge ordered ordered Rittenhouse to have no contact with known white supremacists after he was seen drinking in a bar in Mount Pleasant, Wisconsin, and posing for a photo with two men who made hand gestures used by white supremacists. Prosecutors also alleged men at the tavern serenaded Rittenhouse with the anthem of the Proud Boys, a neo-fascist group.

The legal drinking age in Wisconsin is 21 but Rittenhouse could legally drink alcohol because he was with his mother.

Rittenhouse is due back in court in Kenosha on March 10.

The Associated Press

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Opinion | New study shows social media is dumbing-down news consumers – StCatharinesStandard.ca

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The digital dream darkens further.

A recent study by PEW Research Center, Journalism and Media (PEW) shows that news consumers who rely upon social media are less knowledgeable and less engaged than those who use other news sources.

“The analysis of surveys … finds that those who rely most on social media for political news stand apart from other news consumers in a number of ways. (They) tend to be less likely than other news consumers to closely follow major news stories … (and) this group also tends to be less knowledgeable about these topics,” according to PEW.

The study found that social media news consumers tend to pay less attention to news than those who rely on most other sources. As of early June 2020, just eight per cent of U.S. adults getting most of their political news from social media said they were following news about the election “very closely,” compared with cable TV (37 per cent) and print (33 per cent). This difference is alarming for democracy.

“This relative lack of attention to news goes hand in hand with lower levels of knowledge about major current events and politics … respondents were asked 29 different fact-based questions that touch on a variety of topics … Across these 29 questions, the average proportion who got each question right is lower among Americans who rely most on social media for political news than those who rely most on other types of news sources, except for local TV,” the study says.

Demographically, adults who rely most on social media for news are younger and have lower levels of education than those who mainly use several other platforms.

One study index measured political knowledge — high, middle, and low — against seven different source types; news website, radio, print media, cable TV, network TV, social media and local TV. Only 17 per cent of social media users scored high, compared to 45 per cent using news websites, 42 per cent radio and 41 per cent print media.

On six political stories, social media users demonstrated the lowest awareness of any group. Social media users were also far less engaged in the coronavirus pandemic coverage, and more likely to have heard about conspiracy theories and other false claims.

How large is the problem then?

Another PEW study conducted in 2018 measured social media news sourcing among 38 advanced and developing countries globally. It found that a global median of 35 per cent use social media to get news daily. About half say they never use social networking sites to get news.

Responding to the question “How often do you use social networking sites to get news?”, Canada ranked second highest among advanced nations with 42 per cent — behind South Korea at 57 per cent, and ahead of the U.S. at 39 per cent.

Facebook is the king of social media news, with 36 per cent of Americans regularly logging on to obtain their news.

The Shattered Mirror: News, Democracy and Trust in the Digital Age, is a landmark Public Policy Forum report published in January 2017. It looks at the state of a much weaker news media in Canada, severely disrupted by the digital age.

“The digital revolution has made for a more open and diverse news ecosystem — and a meaner and less trustworthy one. It has also upended the model of “boots on the ground” backed up by a second platoon in the office upholding such hallowed standards as verification and balance. Established news organizations have been left gasping, while native digital alternatives have failed to develop journalistic mass, especially in local news,” the report found.

Between 2010 and 2017, 225 weekly and 27 daily newspapers were lost to closure or merger.

“Anyone who views news as a public good will see that this decline damages civil discourse,” the report concluded.

According to “The State of Social Media in Canada 2020,” published by the Social Media Lab at Ryerson University — 94 per cent of online Canadians have a social media account, 83 per cent on Facebook.

There are only 75 remaining daily newspapers in Canada, with paid circulation just over 11 million copies weekly.

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The age of post-truth couldn’t exist without the fact-free and emotive ecosphere of social media, wherein confirmation bias and selective exposure reinforce individual world views while dismissing contradictory information.

On social media, there is no one to fact-check the story.

As the most trusted man in America once said, “Journalism is what we need to make democracy work.”

Ken Grafton is a writer based in Wakefield, Que. His background includes global executive level experience in engineering and telecommunications.

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