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The Daily — Labour Force Survey, December 2021 – Statistique Canada

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Released: 2022-01-07

Employment rose by 55,000 (+0.3%) in December, while the unemployment rate was little changed at 5.9%.

There were more people working full-time in December, particularly core-aged men aged 25 to 54. Most of the employment growth was in Ontario. Nationally, gains were driven by the construction and educational services industries.

After having regained its pre-COVID level for the first time in November, total hours worked were little changed in December.

December Labour Force Survey (LFS) data reflect labour market conditions during the week of December 5 to 11. Public health measures in place during the reference week were largely similar to those in place in November, and were among the least restrictive seen during the pandemic. The widespread emergence of the Omicron variant, and associated adjustments to public health measures, occurred after the December reference week.

Chart 1 

Chart 1: Strong upward trend in employment from May to December

Strong upward trend in employment from May to December

Highlights

Employment growth continues in December

Employment rose by 55,000 (+0.3%) in December, driven by gains in the goods-producing sector (+44,000).

Full-time employment rose by 123,000 (+0.8%), while part-time employment declined by 68,000 (-1.9%).

Total hours worked were little changed in December.

Among core-aged men aged 25 to 54, employment increased by 63,000 (+1.0%), making it 162,000 (+2.5%) higher than in February 2020.

Although little changed in December, employment for core-aged women has also trended upward since June and was 130,000 (+2.2%) above its pre-pandemic level in December.

Public sector employment rose by 32,000 (+0.8%), while there was little change in the number of private sector employees and the number of self-employed workers.

Among workers who worked at least half their usual hours, the proportion who worked from home was little changed in December at 23.8%.

Average hourly wages increased 2.7% (+$0.80) on a year-over-year basis in December.

The labour force participation rate held steady at 65.3%, virtually the same as before the pandemic.

Employment increased in Ontario and Saskatchewan, while it declined in Newfoundland and Labrador.

Unemployment remains slightly above pre-pandemic level

The unemployment rate was 5.9% in December, little changed from November and slightly above its pre-pandemic February 2020 level (5.7%).

The adjusted unemployment rate—which includes people who wanted a job, but did not look for one—was 7.6%, marking the first return to the pre-pandemic level for this indicator.

The number of Canadians unemployed for 27 weeks or more fell for the second consecutive month (-25,000; -8.0%).

Employment growth driven by full-time gains

Full-time employment rose by 123,000 (+0.8%) in December, with the majority of the increase occurring among men of core working age (+95,000; +1.6%). In comparison, the number of people working part-time declined (-68,000; -1.9%). Full-time employment has trended up since June, and was 248,000 (+1.6%) higher than its pre-pandemic February 2020 level in December. In contrast, part-time employment has been mostly flat since June and remained at virtually the same level as it was in February 2020.

Chart 2 

Chart 2: Full-time employment trends upward from June to December 2021

Full-time employment trends upward from June to December 2021

Core-aged men lead employment growth

Total employment among core-aged men increased by 63,000 (+1.0%) in December, bringing their employment to 162,000 (+2.5%) above the level observed in February 2020.

Although it was little changed in December, employment for core-aged women has also trended upward since June and was 130,000 (+2.2%) above its pre-pandemic level in December.

There was little change in employment among youth aged 15 to 24 and people aged 55 and older in December.

The share of Canadians working from home little changed in December

Among workers who worked at least half their usual hours, the proportion who worked from home was little changed in December at 23.8%. The proportion of Canadians working from home has remained stable since August 2021.

Compared with December 2020, there were 500,000 fewer Canadians working from home. In 2020, the number of workers working from home had increased steadily in the fall during the second wave of the pandemic.

In January 2022, Statistics Canada will introduce several enhancements to LFS questions on work location in order to better capture permanent and temporary shifts in the locations where Canadians work. Notably, the new questions will capture hybrid arrangements where workers usually work both at home and at locations other than home. These enhancements will provide a more detailed picture of monthly changes in work location associated with the tightening and easing of public health restrictions, as well as insights into more permanent changes prompted by the COVID-19 pandemic.

Public sector employment continues upward trend, while self-employment remains flat

Public sector employment rose by 32,000 (+0.8%) in December, while the number of employees in the private sector and the number of self-employed workers were little changed.

The number of employees in the public sector was 7.9% (+307,000) above its pre-pandemic level, due to gains in public administration, educational services, as well as health care and social assistance. The number of private sector employees remained 1.4% higher (+178,000) than in February 2020, while self-employment continued to lag its pre-pandemic level by 8.5% (-245,000).

Chart 3 

Chart 3: Upward trend in public sector employment continues

Upward trend in public sector employment continues

Employment among Indigenous Canadians higher than before the pandemic

Compared with December 2019, total employment among Indigenous people was up 10.4% (+67,000) in December 2021. Increases in manufacturing (+19,000; +47.8%) and public administration (+15,000; +32.7%) contributed most towards these gains. Over the same period, employment increased 0.7% (+138,000) among non-Indigenous people (three-month moving averages; not seasonally adjusted).

LFS information for Indigenous people reflects the experience of those who identify as First Nations, Métis, or Inuit, and who live off reserve in the provinces.

A higher proportion of core-aged newcomers is employed than before the pandemic

After declining earlier in the pandemic due to international travel restrictions, the number of very recent immigrants (those who have arrived within the previous five years) has generally recovered to its pre-pandemic level in recent months. In December, the total number of very recent immigrants of core working age, who are most likely to participate in the labour market, was 0.6% (+5,000) higher than two years earlier (three-month moving average; not seasonally adjusted).

Among very recent immigrants in the core working age group, the share who were employed rose by 7.8 percentage points to 78.7% in the two years ending in December 2021. Employment gains over the period were largest in professional, scientific, and technical services (+26,000; +31.3%) and wholesale and retail trade (+20,000; +28.7%), reflecting the role that both higher-skilled and lower-skilled employment plays in the integration of newcomers into the labour market (three-month moving averages; not seasonally adjusted).

In December, the employment rates among core-aged immigrants who arrived more than five years ago (82.6%) and core-aged people born in Canada (85.5%) were little changed from two years earlier (three-month moving averages; not seasonally adjusted).

Employment rate increases year over year for most groups designated as visible minorities

Compared with one year earlier, the employment rate was up in December among Canadians who belong to population groups designated as visible minorities (+4.0 percentage points to 70.9%), as well as among those who are not a visible minority and not Indigenous (+2.0 percentage points to 70.8%). The employment rate increased for most of the largest visible minority groups, including Southeast Asian (+8.3 percentage points to 68.7%), Black (+4.5 percentage points to 72.1%) and Filipino (+4.0 percentage points to 77.7%) Canadians. The rate was little changed over the year for Chinese Canadians (66.5%) (population aged 15 to 69; not seasonally adjusted).

Shift in occupation drives an increase in the importance of selected skills

From December 2019 to December 2021, employment in sales and services occupations fell 273,000 (-6.0%), a larger decline than for any other major occupational group. People working in sales and services jobs accounted for 22.1% of all employment in December 2021, down 1.8 percentage points from two years earlier. In contrast, over the same period, the contribution to total employment increased by 1.1 percentage points (to 9.2%) for occupations in natural and applied sciences and related occupations, and by 0.9 percentage points (to 17.1%) for occupations in business, finance and administration.

In parallel with shifts in the composition of employment by occupation, specific skills have assumed increased importance over the course of the COVID-19 pandemic, presenting both opportunities and challenges to employers with vacant positions to fill and workers seeking to keep up-to-date with emerging labour market trends.

As of December 2021, more than half (52.7%) of employed Canadians worked in occupations where active learning skills are important, up 2.6 percentage points from two years earlier. “Active learning” involves understanding the implications of new information for both current and future problem-solving and decision-making. Over the same period, there were also notable increases in the proportion of workers in occupations where it is important to have reading comprehension (+2.4 percentage points to 73.0%); writing (+2.1 percentage points to 59.0%); and complex problem solving skills (+2.1 percentage points to 57.4%) (not seasonally adjusted).

Within selected occupation groups, the importance of specialised technical skills has also shifted over the course of the pandemic. For example, within the broad group of natural and applied science and related occupations, employment increases over the two years to December were greatest in occupations where programming skills (+32.3%; +111,000) or operations analysis skills (+20.0%; +106,000) are important. As a result of these increases, the proportion of employment in this group of occupations where these skills are important rose to 25.7% (+3.3 percentage points) for programming and to 36.1% (+1.5 percentage points) for operations analysis skills (not seasonally adjusted).

Chart 4 

Chart 4: Share of employment by occupation has shifted since 2019

Share of employment by occupation has shifted since 2019

Average hourly wages increased over the past 12 months

Average hourly wages increased 2.7% (+$0.80) on a year-over-year basis in December, similar to the average pace of wage growth observed from 2017 to 2019 (+2.6%).

One year ago, in December 2020, average hourly wages were up 5.5% on a year-over-year basis. This was due in part to changes in the composition of employment which occurred earlier in the pandemic. Using a method that holds the composition of employees by occupation and tenure constant at the 2019 average, year-over-year wage growth was 3.0% in December 2020.

In recent months, changes in the composition of employment have had less of an effect on wage growth than earlier in the pandemic. In December 2021, for the third consecutive month, year-over-year wage growth was essentially the same when holding the composition of employees constant (+2.6%; +$0.75 in December) as when no controls were applied (+2.7%; +$0.80 in December).

Unemployment remains slightly above pre-pandemic level

The unemployment rate was 5.9% in December, little changed from November. The rate was slightly above its pre-pandemic February 2020 level (5.7%), and within 0.5 percentage points of the record low of 5.4% observed in May 2019.

Total unemployment (1.21 million) was also little changed in December, and stood 67,000 (+5.8%) higher than the 1.15 million people who were unemployed in February 2020.

The adjusted unemployment rate—which includes people who wanted a job, but did not look for one—was 7.6% in December, marking the first return to the pre-pandemic level for this indicator.

Chart 5 

Chart 5: Unemployment rate little changed in December

Unemployment rate little changed in December

Widespread unemployment rate declines among men

In December, the unemployment rate fell for men in each of the three main age groups: those aged 15 to 24 (-1.1 percentage points to 11.9%); those aged 25 to 54 (-0.5 percentage points to 4.6%); and those aged 55 and older (-0.4 percentage points to 6.3%).

Among women, the unemployment rate for youth aged 15 to 24 rose 1.7 percentage points to 9.6%, while it was little changed for the other age groups.

Compared with February 2020, the unemployment rate was little changed among young men (11.9%) and young women (9.6%) in December. The rates for core-age men (4.6%) and women (4.7%) remained on par with pre-pandemic levels for the second consecutive month, after first reaching the milestone in November 2021. The unemployment rate remained elevated compared with February 2020 for both men (+1.0 percentage points; 6.3%) and women (+1.8 percentage points; 6.8%) aged 55 and older.

Long-term unemployment falls for second consecutive month

The number of Canadians unemployed for 27 weeks or more fell for the second consecutive month (-25,000; -8.0%) and stood at 293,000 in December. While long-term unemployment fell in each of the previous two months, it continued to account for a substantially higher share of total unemployment in December (24.1%) than in February 2020 (15.6%), prior to the onset of the pandemic.

Among people who were in long-term unemployment in November, 14.7% had found employment in December, slightly higher than the average of 11.6% observed from 2017 to 2019. The majority (69.5%) remained unemployed and 15.9% had left the labour market.

Labour underutilization continues decline to new pandemic low

The labour underutilization rate—the proportion of people in the potential labour force who are unemployed; want a job but have not looked for one; or are employed but working less than half of their usual hours—fell 0.4 percentage points to 12.0% in December, the lowest rate observed since the onset of the pandemic. While this remained 0.6 percentage points above the record low of 11.4% observed immediately before the pandemic in February 2020, it is within the range of monthly rates observed through 2018 and 2019, which ranged from 11.5% to 12.2%.

The decline in the labour underutilization rate in December was driven by a decrease in the number of people working less than half of their usual hours (-39,000; -4.0%).

Compared with February 2020, the number of people working less than half their usual hours (+116,000; +14.3%) and the number of job searchers (+85,000; +8.0%) remained elevated in December 2021. In contrast, the number of people who wanted a job but did not look for one, and the number of people on temporary layoff were on par with their pre-pandemic levels.

Labour force participation remains at record-high for core-aged population

The share of the population aged 15 years and older participating in the labour market held steady at 65.3% in December, virtually the same as it was prior to the pandemic.

Strong labour force growth over the previous six months was driven by core-aged people (aged 25 to 54), whose participation rate (88.3%) remained at a record high for the fourth consecutive month in December. The rate for core-aged women held steady at its record high of 84.6%, and the rate for core-aged men was little changed at 92.0%.

Among people aged 55 and older, the participation rates of both men and women remained below pre-pandemic levels in December. For women aged 55 and older, the rate was virtually unchanged at 31.2% (1.3 percentage points below February 2020). For men in this age group, the rate fell by 0.6 percentage points to 42.7% (1.3 percentage points below February 2020). The decline in participation of people aged 55 and older over the course of the pandemic is partly due to population aging, as the share of this age group that is 65 and older was higher in December 2021 than two years earlier.

For female youth aged 15 to 24, the participation rate rose by 1.2 percentage points to 66.9% in December, and was 1.6 percentage points higher than prior to the pandemic in February 2020. The male youth participation rate was little changed at 64.0%, virtually the same as it was prior to the pandemic.

Employment gains driven by the goods-producing sector

Employment in the goods-producing sector grew for a second consecutive month in December, rising by 44,000. An increase in construction (+27,000) accounted for most of the gain in the sector.

After increasing by 127,000 in November, the number of people working in the services-producing sector was virtually unchanged in December. Employment was up by 17,000 in educational services, but was little changed in all other services-producing industries, including accommodation and food services.

Since May 2021, employment in the services-producing sector has grown by 780,000 and was 2.0% above its pre-COVID February 2020 level in December 2021. In contrast, the number of people working in goods-producing industries grew little during the summer and early fall, following losses in May and June. Despite recent gains, employment in goods-producing industries in December 2021 remained 1.6% below its pre-pandemic February 2020 level.

First employment increase in construction since August

In December, employment increased in construction by 27,000 (+1.9%), the first gain in the industry since August. Nationally, most of the growth was concentrated in full-time work and among paid employees. The December employment gains follow an increase in the industry’s gross domestic product, which rose 1.6% in October 2021.

Despite the gain in December, employment in construction remains 2.7% (-41,000) below its pre-COVID February 2020 level.

More people working in educational services

The number of people working in educational services rose by 17,000 (+1.2%) in December, with Ontario accounting for the majority of the increase. Employment in the industry has hovered around the same level since September and was 6.7% (+93,000) above its pre-COVID level in December.

In Quebec, schools were closed after the December LFS reference week, and several provinces have delayed the return of students or moved to online learning following the December holiday. Statistics Canada will continue to monitor the impact of public health measures on employment in educational services over the coming months.

Employment trends diverge across industries in 2021

While overall employment returned to its pre-COVID level in 2021, industries followed different trajectories over the course of the year.

The information, culture, and recreation industry saw notable employment recovery in 2021. In December 2020, the number of people working in this industry was 12.6% below its pre-COVID level. Employment grew by 107,000 in 2021, and returned to its pre-pandemic level in September 2021. Most of the increases in information, culture and recreation occurred in the late summer and early fall of 2021.

Despite increasing by 103,000 in 2021, employment in accommodation and food services remained 16.9% (-206,000) below its February 2020 pre-COVID level in December 2021, with little employment growth in the industry since September. High job vacancies since the summer point to ongoing recruitment challenges for employers in this industry.

While employment in manufacturing had returned to its pre-COVID level by the end of 2020, there was little net growth in the industry in 2021, with several subsectors affected by semiconductor shortages. Losses in May 2021 were erased by gains in the fall. According to data from the Survey of Employment, Payrolls and Hours (SEPH), payroll employment in beverage manufacturing (+2,800; +6.2%) was furthest above its pre-pandemic level in October 2021, while printing and related support activities (-5,300; -11.2%) and motor vehicle parts manufacturing (-3,500; -4.7%) were furthest behind.

In December 2020, the number of people working in agriculture was 7.4% lower than its pre-COVID level. Employment continued to decline in 2021, falling to 19.5% (-59,000) below its February 2020 level by December 2021. In December, there were 37,000 fewer people working in agriculture compared with 12 months earlier, with nearly all of the losses attributable to self-employment (not seasonally adjusted). Businesses in agriculture faced significant challenges in 2021, including hot and dry weather impacting the growing season in Western Canada (Production of principal field crops, November 2021).

Chart 6 

Chart 6: In 2021, employment recovered partially in accommodation and food services and trended down in agriculture

In 2021, employment recovered partially in accommodation and food services and trended down in agriculture

Employment up in two provinces

In December 2021, employment increased in Ontario and Saskatchewan, while it declined in Newfoundland and Labrador. There was little change in all other provinces.

In the 12 months ending in December 2021, nearly all provinces posted employment growth, led by Ontario (+413,000; +5.7%), Quebec (+158,000; +3.8%), Alberta (+130,000; +6.0%) and British Columbia (+101,000; +3.9%). There were also more people working in Manitoba (+37,000; +5.9%), Saskatchewan (+23,000; +4.3%), Nova Scotia (+16,000; +3.4%) and Prince Edward Island (+5,800; +7.5%) in December 2021 than in December 2020. There was little overall employment change in December 2021 in New Brunswick and Newfoundland and Labrador, although employment in both provinces was on par with pre-pandemic levels in December. Employment changes for Nova Scotia in particular have occurred in the context of record high population growth due to both international and interprovincial migration (Canada’s population estimates, third quarter 2021).

For further information on key province and industry level labour market indicators, see “Labour Force Survey in brief: Interactive app.”

Employment in Ontario rose for the seventh consecutive month (+47,000; +0.6%) in December, bringing total gains since May to 468,000 (+6.5%). Increases were in full-time work, and mostly in wholesale and retail trade and manufacturing. Men aged 15 to 24 and men aged 25 to 54 accounted for most of the gains. The unemployment rate fell for the seventh consecutive month, down 0.4 percentage points to 6.0%, the lowest since February 2020.

Despite changing little in December, since May 2021 employment gains in the Toronto census metropolitan area (CMA) totalled 330,000 (+10.1%) and the unemployment rate fell from 10.5% to 6.8%. In December, the Peterborough CMA had one of the highest unemployment rates among all CMAs (9.5%; +3.2 percentage points compared with February 2020), while recovery also lagged in the Brantford CMA, where the unemployment rate was 7.2% in December (+2.2 percentage points compared with February 2020) (three-month moving averages).

In December, employment also rose in Saskatchewan (+6,000; +1.1%), the first notable increase since September. The gain was in full-time employment and mainly among men aged 25 to 54. The most notable increase was in professional, scientific and technical services. The unemployment rate in the province was 5.4% and was below its pre-pandemic level in the CMAs of Regina (5.6%; 1.2 percentage points below February 2020) and Saskatoon (5.5%; 1.1 percentage points below February 2020) (three-month moving averages).

In Quebec, employment was little changed as increases in full-time work offset decreases in part-time work. While construction posted the largest gain in December, there were notably fewer people working in healthcare and social assistance. The unemployment rate ended the year at 4.6% and remained near the pre-pandemic low of February 2020. The Québec CMA had the lowest unemployment rate among all CMAs at 2.6% (1.5 percentage points below February 2020; three-month moving average).

Following an increase in November, employment in Alberta was little changed in December and the unemployment rate was 7.3%. At 64.2%, the employment rate was again the highest among the provinces.

In British Columbia, employment held steady for the sixth consecutive month. The unemployment rate was 5.3%. Gains earlier in 2021 lifted employment in the province 56,000 (+2.1%) above its February 2020 level. The recent severe flooding affecting the southwest region of the province occurred just after the end of the November reference week and, by December, the region was in early reconstruction. On a non-seasonally adjusted basis, hours worked in the province rose by 8.7% in December following declines of 4.4% in October and 4.2% in November. In the CMA of Vancouver, employment was little changed in December, however, compared with December 2019 there were fewer people (-8.5%) working in transportation and warehousing, coinciding with disruptions at the Port of Vancouver linked to supply chain challenges and, more recently, flooding (three-month moving average; not seasonally adjusted).

In Newfoundland and Labrador, employment fell by 4,600 (-2.6%) in December, partly offsetting the increase observed in November. The decline was mainly in full-time work. The unemployment rate rose 1.2 percentage points to 11.6% as the number of unemployed increased by 2,900.

Quarterly update for the territories

Employment in Yukon rose by 2,300 in the three months ending in December to 24,000, the first notable quarterly increase in 2021. The employment rate increased from 66.0% in the third quarter to 72.3% in the fourth quarter, while the unemployment rate fell 3.3 percentage points to 2.8%.

Compared with the third quarter, employment in the Northwest Territories rose by 700 in the fourth quarter of 2021 to 24,000. The employment rate rose by 1.9 percentage points to 70.6% and the unemployment rate was 5.1%.

Employment in Nunavut averaged 11,500 for the 12 months ending in December, down 900 compared with the 12 months ending in September. The employment rate was little changed at 50.0%. The unemployment rate averaged 10.2% in the 12 months ending in December.

Looking Ahead

Since the December reference week, many provinces have made adjustments to public health measures in response to rising COVID-19 cases, including renewed capacity limits or closures for restaurants, stores, recreational facilities, and entertainment venues, as well as the extension of school holiday breaks or a return to online schooling. Similar measures in previous months have resulted in labour market impacts.

LFS results for the week of January 9 to 15 will be released on February 4, 2022.

Sustainable Development Goals

On January 1, 2016, the world officially began implementation of the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development—the United Nations’ transformative plan of action that addresses urgent global challenges over the next 15 years. The plan is based on 17 specific sustainable development goals.

The Labour Force Survey is an example of how Statistics Canada supports the reporting on the Global Goals for Sustainable Development. This release will be used in helping to measure the following goals:


  Note to readers

The Labour Force Survey (LFS) estimates for December are for the week of December 5 to 11, 2021.

A standard revision to the LFS data will be released on January 24, 2022. The LFS seasonally adjusted estimates will be revised back to January 2019 using updated seasonal factors.

The LFS estimates are based on a sample and are therefore subject to sampling variability. As a result, monthly estimates will show more variability than trends observed over longer time periods. For more information, see “Interpreting Monthly Changes in Employment from the Labour Force Survey.”

This analysis focuses on differences between estimates that are statistically significant at the 68% confidence level.

LFS estimates at the Canada level do not include the territories.

The LFS estimates are the first in a series of labour market indicators released by Statistics Canada, which includes indicators from programs such as the Survey of Employment, Payrolls and Hours (SEPH); Employment Insurance Statistics; and the Job Vacancy and Wage Survey. For more information on the conceptual differences between employment measures from the LFS and those from the SEPH, refer to section 8 of the Guide to the Labour Force Survey (Catalogue number71-543-G).

Skills data were derived for occupations at the four-digit National Occupation Classification (NOC) level using occupational skill ratings obtained from the Occupational Information Network (O*NET), a free U.S. online database. A crosswalk was developed to convert the O*NET data to the NOC 2016, version 1.3.

For more information on the O*NET® 26.1 Database by the U.S. Department of Labor, Employment and Training Administration (USDOL/ETA), please consult the O*NET® Content Model. Used under the CC BY 4.0 license. O*NET® is a trademark of USDOL/ETA.

Since March 2020, all LFS face-to-face interviews have been replaced by telephone interviews to protect the health of both respondents and interviewers. While this has resulted in a decline in the LFS response rate, more than 42,000 interviews were completed in December and in-depth data quality evaluations conducted each month confirm that the LFS continues to produce an accurate portrait of Canada’s labour market.

The suspension of face-to-face interviewing has had a larger impact on response rates in Nunavut than in other jurisdictions. Due to the larger decline in response rates for Nunavut, and resulting changes in the composition of the responding sample, data for Nunavut (table 14-10-0292-01) should be used with caution. To reduce the risks associated with declining data quality for Nunavut, users are advised to use 12-month averages (available upon request) rather than 3-month averages when possible. Statistics Canada will continue to monitor the quality of LFS data for Nunavut each month and provide users with updated guidelines as required.

In addition, all telephone interviews were conducted by interviewers working from their home and none were done from Statistics Canada’s call centres.

The distribution of LFS interviews in December 2021 compared with November 2021, was as follows:

Telephone interviews – from interviewer homes

• November 2021: 63.6%

• December 2021: 63.5%

Online interviews

• November 2021: 36.4%

• December 2021: 36.5%

The employment rate is the number of employed people as a percentage of the population aged 15 and older. The rate for a particular group (for example, youths aged 15 to 24) is the number employed in that group as a percentage of the population for that group.

The unemployment rate is the number of unemployed people as a percentage of the labour force (employed and unemployed).

The participation rate is the number of employed and unemployed people as a percentage of the population aged 15 and older.

Full-time employment consists of persons who usually work 30 hours or more per week at their main or only job.

Part-time employment consists of persons who usually work less than 30 hours per week at their main or only job.

Total hours worked refers to the number of hours actually worked at the main job by the respondent during the reference week, including paid and unpaid hours. These hours reflect temporary decreases or increases in work hours (for example, hours lost due to illness, vacation, holidays or weather; or more hours worked due to overtime).

In general, month-to-month or year-to-year changes in the number of people employed in an age group reflect the net effect of two factors: (1) the number of people who changed employment status between reference periods, and (2) the number of employed people who entered or left the age group (including through aging, death or migration) between reference periods.

Supplementary indicators used in the December 2021 analysis

Employed, worked zero hours includes employees and self-employed who were absent from work all week, but excludes people who have been away for reasons such as ‘vacation,’ ‘maternity,’ ‘seasonal business,’ and ‘labour dispute.’

Employed, worked less than half of their usual hours includes both employees and self-employed, where only employees were asked to provide a reason for the absence. This excludes reasons for absence such as ‘vacation,’ ‘labour dispute,’ ‘maternity,’ ‘holiday,’ and ‘weather.’ Also excludes those who were away all week.

Not in labour force but wanted work includes persons who were neither employed, nor unemployed during the reference period and wanted work, but did not search for reasons such as ‘waiting for recall (to former job),’ ‘waiting for replies from employers,’ ‘believes no work available (in area, or suited to skills),’ ‘long-term future start,’ and ‘other.’

Unemployed, job searchers were without work, but had looked for work in the past four weeks ending with the reference period and were available for work.

Unemployed, temporary layoff or future starts were on temporary layoff due to business conditions, with an expectation of recall, and were available for work; or were without work, but had a job to start within four weeks from the reference period and were available for work (don’t need to have looked for work during the four weeks ending with the reference week).

Labour underutilization rate (specific definition to measure the COVID-19 impact) combines all those who were unemployed with those who were not in the labour force but wanted a job and did not look for one; as well as those who remained employed but lost all or the majority of their usual work hours for reasons likely related to COVID-19 as a proportion of the potential labour force.

Potential labour force (specific definition to measure the impact of COVID-19) includes people in the labour force (all employed and unemployed people), and people not in the labour force who wanted a job but didn’t search for reasons such as ‘waiting for recall (to former job),’ ‘waiting for replies from employers,’ ‘believes no work available (in area, or suited to skills),’ ‘long-term future start,’ and ‘other.’

Information on population groups

Since July 2020, the LFS has included a question asking respondents to report the population group(s) to which they belong. Possible responses, which are the same as in the 2021 Census of Population, include:

• White

• South Asian e.g., East Indian, Pakistani, Sri Lankan

• Chinese

• Black

• Filipino

• Arab

• Latin American

• Southeast Asian e.g., Vietnamese, Cambodian, Laotian, Thai

• West Asian e.g., Iranian, Afghan

• Korean

• Japanese

• Other

According to the Employment Equity Act, visible minorities are “persons, other than Aboriginal peoples, who are non-Caucasian in race or non-white in colour.” In the text, people who identify as a member of a population group (visible minority) are analyzed separately.

Seasonal adjustment

Unless otherwise stated, this release presents seasonally adjusted estimates, which facilitate comparisons by removing the effects of seasonal variations. For more information on seasonal adjustment, see Seasonally adjusted data – Frequently asked questions.

The seasonally adjusted data for retail trade and wholesale trade industries presented here are not published in other public LFS tables. A seasonally adjusted series is published for the combined industry classification (wholesale and retail trade).

Next release

The next release of the LFS will be on February 4, 2022. January data will reflect labour market conditions during the week of January 9 to 15, 2022.

Products

More information about the concepts and use of the Labour Force Survey is available online in the Guide to the Labour Force Survey (Catalogue number71-543-G).

The product “Labour Force Survey in brief: Interactive app” (Catalogue number14200001) is also available. This interactive visualization application provides seasonally adjusted estimates by province, sex, age group and industry.

The product “Labour Market Indicators, by province and census metropolitan area, seasonally adjusted” (Catalogue number71-607-X) is also available. This interactive dashboard provides customizable access to key labour market indicators.

The product “Labour Market Indicators, by province, territory and economic region, unadjusted for seasonality” (Catalogue number71-607-X) is also available. This dynamic web application provides access to labour market indicators for Canada, province, territory and economic region.

The product Labour Force Survey: Public Use Microdata File (Catalogue number71M0001X) is also available. This public use microdata file contains non-aggregated data for a wide variety of variables collected from the Labour Force Survey. The data have been modified to ensure that no individual or business is directly or indirectly identified. This product is for users who prefer to do their own analysis by focusing on specific subgroups in the population or by cross-classifying variables that are not in our catalogued products.

Contact information

For more information, or to enquire about the concepts, methods or data quality of this release, contact us (toll-free 1-800-263-1136; 514-283-8300; infostats@statcan.gc.ca) or Media Relations (statcan.mediahotline-ligneinfomedias.statcan@statcan.gc.ca).

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COVID-19 antiviral pill on its way across Canada, as some hospitalizations dip – CP24 Toronto's Breaking News

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Alanna Smith, The Canadian Press


Published Wednesday, January 19, 2022 2:47PM EST


Last Updated Wednesday, January 19, 2022 5:07PM EST

Prime Minister Justin Trudeau says the first shipment of an oral COVID-19 pill is making its way across Canada but is no substitute for vaccination against the rapidly spreading virus.

The entire northern Quebec region of Nunavik is on “red alert” with more than half of its 14 Inuit communities struggling with high viral transmission.

Other provinces and territories are bracing for a peak in the pandemic’s fifth wave with hospitalizations beginning to level out.

The antiviral drug Paxlovid is meant to protect against hospitalization and death. Canada has purchased one million courses for delivery this year.

“It’s important to remember that this will be a powerful tool to continue to keep people from people getting extremely sick but it needs to be used right,” Trudeau said Wednesday.

“It’s not a replacement for getting vaccinated, for wearing masks, for staying safe, for keeping your distance.”

The Omicron variant-fuelled fifth wave appears to be peaking in some provinces, while others warn the worst is yet to come.

Quebec reported its lowest daily increase in COVID-19 hospitalizations with a rise of eight, bringing the total to 3,425 people in hospital. It also saw a slight decline in intensive care patients.

In Nunavik, a curfew is in effect and all non-essential public places are closed with private indoor gatherings banned.

Meanwhile, Ontario Health Minister Christine Elliott said there are “glimmers of hope” that COVID-19 cases will peak this month with hospitalization and intensive care admissions to follow.

The province recorded a small dip in the number of people with COVID-19 in hospital to 4,132 patients from 4,183, as intensive care patients rose by eight to 589. Fifty-nine new deaths were also reported.

Many types of Ontario businesses continue to be closed under public health restrictions, but Premier Doug Ford said to expect a “positive” announcement on measures later this week.

In British Columbia, some businesses are eligible for a financial boost from the province as they are forced to stay closed for at least another month to curb COVID-19 spread.

Places such as event venues, bars and nightclubs that don’t serve meals can now apply for grants of up to $20,000. Businesses that have been able to reopen can claim up to half that amount.

Manitoba’s top doctor said Wednesday the Omicron wave could peak soon, as the province logged a slight increase in hospitalizations and intensive care cases.

“Looking at other jurisdictions … it would be reasonable to expect that peak in the near future if we maintain the same trajectory,” said Dr. Brent Roussin, adding “it’s a little early to consider.”

Meanwhile, Saskatchewan is bracing for a tide ofCOVID-19 hospitalizations and absences among workers until mid-February,while more than 1,600 volunteers have answered a call from New Brunswick for pandemic assistance.

A surge of hospitalizations and a shortage of health-care staff led New Brunswick to ask people to help with clinical or non-clinical work, such as vaccine administration.

Almost 350 workers were isolating Wednesday after testing positive for COVID-19. New Brunswick has a record 123 people in hospital with COVID-19.

Prince Edward Island announced new restrictions this week to protect its health system. Nova Scotia, meanwhile, was the only Atlantic province to return to in-person learning at public schools this week.

Alberta is seeing hospitalization rates rising to levels not seen since mid-October. As case rates continue to climb, one of its largest school boards is asking the government to open vaccine clinics in schools.

Edmonton Public Schools said more than 5,000 of its students were absent Tuesday due to COVID-19 – about five per cent of its total student population.

This report by The Canadian Press was first published Jan. 19, 2022.

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Airlines cancel some flights after reduced 5G rollout in U.S. – CP24 Toronto's Breaking News

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Jon Gambrell And David Koenig, The Associated Press


Published Wednesday, January 19, 2022 11:20AM EST


Last Updated Wednesday, January 19, 2022 6:00PM EST

DALLAS (AP) – Some flights to and from the U.S. were canceled on Wednesday even after AT&T and Verizon scaled back the rollout of high-speed wireless service that could interfere with aircraft technology that measures altitude.

International carriers that rely heavily on the wide-body Boeing 777, and other Boeing aircraft, canceled flights or switched to different planes following warnings from the Federal Aviation Administration and the Chicago-based plane maker.

Airlines that fly only or mostly Airbus jets, including Air France and Ireland’s Aer Lingus, seemed relatively unaffected by the new 5G service.

Airlines had canceled more than 250 flights by midafternoon Wednesday, or 3% of the U.S. total, according to FlightAware. That was far less disruptive than during the Christmas and New Year’s travel season, when a peak of 3,200, or 13%, of flights were canceled on Jan. 3 due to winter storms and workers out sick with COVID-19.

A trade group for the industry, Airlines for America, said cancellations weren’t as bad as feared because telecom providers agreed to temporarily reduce the rollout of 5G near dozens of airports while industry and the government work out a longer-term solution.

At O’Hare International Airport in Chicago, Sudeep Bhabad said his father-in-law’s flight to India was cancelled.

“They have to resolve this problem,” Bhabad said. “It would have been a lot better if they had resolved it way before and we knew this in advance, instead of, like, finding out when we are here at the airport.”

Similar mobile networks have been deployed in more than three dozen countries, but there are key differences in how the U.S. networks are designed that raised concern of potential problems for airlines.

The Verizon and AT&T networks use a segment of the radio spectrum that is close to the one used by radio altimeters, devices that measure the height of aircraft above the ground to help pilots land in low visibility. The telecoms and the U.S. Federal Communications Commission, which set a buffer between the frequencies used by 5G and altimeters, said the wireless service posed no risk to aviation.

But FAA officials saw a potential problem, and the telecom companies agreed to delay their rollout near more than 80 airports while the agency assesses which aircraft are safe to fly in proximity of 5G, and which will need new altimeters.

At the moment, close to 40% of the U.S. airline fleet lacks FAA approval to land in low-visibility near 5G signals. The FAA said it recently cleared five more models of altimeters, including three on Wednesday.

“I assume whatever process they are using could be used to clear the rest,” said Randall Berry, a professor of electrical engineering at Northwestern University.

The Boeing 777 isn’t the only aircraft using altimeters awaiting approval from the FAA, and not all 777s have altimeters that are incompatible with 5G, according to the FAA.

The FAA says there are several reasons why the 5G rollout has been more of a challenge for airlines in the U.S. than in other countries: American cellular towers use a more powerful signal strength than those elsewhere; the 5G network operates on a frequency closer to the one many altimeters use, and cell tower antennae point up at a higher angle.

Some experts say poor coordination and cooperation among federal agencies is as much to blame as any technical issues.

“The fights around this from federal agencies have just gotten more and more intense,” said Harold Feld, an expert on telecom policy at the advocacy group Public Knowledge.

The European Union Aviation Safety Agency said it wasn’t aware of any problems on the continent caused by 5G interference. To mitigate airline interference, French telecom providers reduce the strength of their high-speed networks near airports.

Boeing Co. said in a statement it would work with airlines, the FAA and others to ensure that all planes can fly safely as 5G is rolled out.

In the meantime, airlines scrambled to adjust to the new reality.

Emirates, which relies heavily on the 777, halted flights to several American cities on Wednesday, but maintained service to Los Angeles, New York and Washington.

“We are working closely with aircraft manufacturers and the relevant authorities to alleviate operational concerns, and we hope to resume our U.S. services as soon as possible,” the state-owned airline said.

Tim Clark, president of Emirates, pulled no punches when discussing the issue. He told CNN it was “one of the most delinquent, utterly irresponsible” situations he’d ever seen as it involved a failure by government, science and industry.

Japan’s All Nippon Airways canceled 20 flights to cities such as Chicago, Los Angeles and New York, while Japan Airlines said it will stop using the 777 in the continental U.S. for now. Eight of its flights were affected Wednesday.

Air India announced on Twitter it would cancel flights to Chicago, Newark, New York and San Francisco because of the 5G issue. But it also said it would try to use other aircraft on U.S. routes – a course several other airlines took.

Korean Air, Hong Kong’s Cathay Pacific and Austrian Airlines said they substituted different planes for flights that were scheduled to use 777s. Germany’s Lufthansa swapped out one kind of 747 for another on some U.S.-bound flights.

Choi Jong-yun, a spokeswoman of Asiana Airlines, said the company hasn’t been affected so far because it uses Airbus planes for passenger flights to the U.S.

However, Choi said airlines have also been instructed by the FAA to avoid autopilot landings at affected U.S. airports during bad weather conditions, regardless of plane type. Asiana will redirect its planes to nearby airports during those conditions, she said.

FCC Chairwoman Jessica Rosenworcel said in a statement that the 5G “deployment can safely co-exist with aviation technologies in the United States, just as it does in other countries around the world.” However, she urged the FAA to conduct its safety checks with “both care and speed.”

Gambrell reported from Dubai. Associated Press video journalist Teresa Crawford in Chicago and AP writers Kim Tong-hyung in Seoul, South Korea, Yuri Kageyama in Tokyo, Ken Moritsugu in Beijing, David McHugh in Frankfurt, Germany, Frank Jordans in Berlin, Angela Charlton in Paris, Kelvin Chan in London and Isabel DeBre in Dubai contributed to this report.

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Airlines say Canadian flights unaffected by turmoil over 5G wireless launch in U.S. – CTV News

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MONTREAL –

Canadian airlines say flights to the U.S. remain unaffected by the rollout of new 5G wireless technology.

Several international airlines cancelled flights to the United States this week over concerns that 5G mobile phone service could interfere with aircraft technology.

On Wednesday, telecommunications giants Verizon and AT&T announced last-minute delays to the service launch near key U.S. airports — the latest of three postponements since early December — after U.S. carriers warned that the wireless frequency could cause widespread flight disruptions.

Critics say the new C-band 5G service operates in a frequency range that could interfere with airplane radio altimeters, which measure an aircraft’s height above the ground and help pilots land in low visibility.

Air Canada and WestJet Airlines Inc. say no flights to the U.S. have been cancelled due to the issue.

Last fall, the federal Industry Department established protective measures, including so-called exclusion zones near airports, to reduce any interference with radio altimeters while allowing deployment of 5G systems in the 3,500-megahertz band in Canada.(The planned 5G rollout by American telecoms falls between 4,200 and 4,400 megahertz.)

It also imposed a “national antenna down-tilt requirement” on telecoms to protect helicopters and planes used in low-altitude military and search and rescue operations as well as medical evacuations, “which by nature do not fly predictable routes into and out of major airports,” the department’s Nov. 18 decision reads.

“It is expected that as new information and studies become available, and as new radio altimeter standards are developed internationally, these measures may be modified or relaxed well within the 20-year term of ISED’s 3,500 MHz licenses,” Industry Department spokesman Hans Parmar said in an email.

John Gradek, head of McGill University’s aviation management program, says 5G networks in Canada run at lower wireless speeds that would not interfere with landings, and that only some older planes whose technology has not been upgraded pose a risk.

“The question you have to ask yourself is, are the airlines investing in what I would call hardening the radio altimeter equipment so it no longer gets interfered with by C-band 5G?” he said in a phone interview.

“People knew this was coming. The airlines could have done something to invest in their airplanes to get the equipment in place, but they have not. We all know it’s money — airlines are kind of short on money these days.”

On Wednesday, Emirates announced it would halt flights to several U.S. cities due to “operational concerns associated with the planned deployment of 5G mobile network services in the U.S. at certain airports.” It said it would continue flights to Los Angeles, New York and Washington.

Emirates president Tim Clark pulled no punches when discussing the issue. He told CNN it was “one of the most delinquent, utterly irresponsible” situations he’d ever seen as it involved a failure by government, science and industry.

Of particular concern appears to be older Boeing 777 wide-body jetliners. Emirates only flies that model and the Airbus A380 jumbo jet — and it was among one of the most affected airlines.

Japan’s All Nippon Airways cancelled 20 flights to cities such as Chicago, Los Angeles and New York after the U.S. Federal Aviation Administration “indicated that radio waves from the 5G wireless service may interfere with aircraft altimeters,” the carrier said. Along with Japan Airlines, it said Boeing announced restrictions on airlines flying its 777s.

Air India also announced on Twitter it would cancel flights to Chicago, Newark, New York and San Francisco because of the 5G issue. But it also said it would try to use other aircraft on U.S. routes — a course several other airlines took.

In Canada, the industry and transport departments are working with the telecom and aviation sectors “to ensure that appropriate rules are in place to protect the critical operations of radio altimeters” and minimize potential interference, Transport Canada spokeswoman Sau Sau Liu said in an email.

Transport Canada also issued a civil aviation alert on Dec. 23 offering recommendations on how to fly an airplane “in a 5G environment,” she noted.

This report by The Canadian Press was first published Jan. 19, 2022.

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