Just as COVID-19 began its life as a mysterious virus that crossed over from an animal to humans, it is natural that the public might look at other emergent zoonotic viruses with similar wariness. This, perhaps, explains the recent attention paid to a new Langya virus outbreak in China that has already infected 35 people. Could this lead to another global pandemic?
Fortunately, that is very unlikely, experts say. Unfortunately, that does not mean that the virus is not a threat, as a recent study in the New England Journal of Medicine revealed that there were 35 infections in a pair of eastern Chinese provinces in 2021.
Yet one reason not to be alarmed is, quite simply, that none of those patients died. Another lies in the nature of the Langya virus itself: It does not appear to have spread through human-to-human contact, and the infected patients all had close contact with animals like fruit bats and shrews, which were likely the original hosts.
“There are clearly repeated transmission events from what looks to be a common reservoir in shrews,” Vaughn Cooper, an evolutionary biology professor at the University of Pittsburgh, told NBC News. “The team did a very nice job of evaluating alternatives and finding that as the most likely explanation.”
Yet while this virus does not seem to pose a global threat, it is part of a classification of viruses with a long and ugly history. They are known as henipaviruses.
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Henipaviruses are negative-strand RNA viruses that are commonly found in mammals like shrews and fruit bats. Some henipaviruses are very dangerous; the Nipah virus, for instance, has a fatality rate between 40% and 75%. In addition to causing fevers, headaches, coughing and other flu-like symptoms, the Nipah virus can lead to serious side effects like brain swelling (encephalitis), seizures and even comas. Then there is the Hendra virus which has a fatality rate of 57% for the humans that it infects, bringing with it symptoms that can as with the Nipah virus also seem flu-like — and, likewise, can lead to brain swelling and death.
While the Langya virus does not appear to be a global threat, other henipaviruses do pose large problems on the regional level. A February article in the scientific journal PLOS: Neglected Tropical Diseases had this observation about the Nipah virus (NiV).
“Malaysia (43%), Bangladesh (42%), and India (15%) represent all incident cases of human NiV infections worldwide,” the authors explained. “Apart from the human catastrophe of high morbidity and mortality rates during documented epidemic outbreaks, the economic impact is tremendous. After the first NiV outbreak in 1999, Malaysian pig industry and related sectors suffered enormous damage, i.e., 1.1 million pigs were culled costing about US$66.8 million with a total decrease in the Malaysian economy of around 30% during that time.”
The authors also said that a global spread could arise from henipaviruses that can be spread through person-to-person transmission — such as NiV.
“The capacity for NiV to spread in hospital settings between staff and patients was shown in an outbreak 2001 in Siliguri, India, which affected 66 people,” the authors wrote. “The outbreak originated from an unidentified patient admitted to Siliguri District Hospital who infected 11 people. Thus, the ability of NiV to spread from patients to nursing staff has raised concern that the virus might adapt to more efficient human-to-human transmission.”
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Java Burn Reviews – Effective Ingredients for Weight Loss or Bogus Claims – Maple Ridge News
More consumers started consuming Java Burn, and the number is increasing every day. More consumers are pouring product-friendly reviews furnishing relevant information about Java Burn, its ingredients, recommended dosage, price list, complaints, and crucial F&A. Java Burn is a weight loss beverage consisting of green tea extract (300mg), green coffee bean extract (200mg), L-theanine (100mg), vitamin B-12(5mcg), chromium (20mcg), vitamin B6 (1mg) and vitamin D3(20mcg) totaling a 700mg dose. Innovator of this unique formula, John Barban, deems these components will stimulate a state of metabolism called nutritional synergy. This fat-burning supplement dissolves with any beverage without altering its taste and flavor. This morning beverage peps you up all through the day.
Enhance memory power
A healthy diet is crucial for overall well-being, and nutritional synergy fortifies the nutritional value of the foods you eat. The University of Illinois, in a study, found an association between specific nutrients and brain functioning in older individuals. Java Burn supports a weight loss regime without vigorous exercise and a restricted diet and enhances your memory power, intelligence, and brain function associated with global-oriented behavior. This nutritional supplement is organic; the flavorless powder stimulates healthy synergy, a form of metabolism when consumed with a balanced proportion of minerals and vitamins.
Java Burn is a weight loss supplement that comes in a tasteless powder form. The product is only available on the official website. A pouch of Java Burn costs $49; its organic ingredients instantly dissipate in coffee or other beverages stimulating metabolism. The product’s creator suggests you put one bag of the supplement in coffee, stir it well and sip. The powder is flavorless, so it does not alter the aroma or taste of brimming coffee. When your body’s metabolism rate increases, it burns the stubborn fat cells rapidly, and you shed that extra body weight.
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The metabolism rate affects the calorie of fat you burn during exercise, sleep or rest. Metabolism, aka metabolic rate, is a biochemical process in living organisms that breaks up nutrients and fat to generate the energy necessary for survival. In simpler terms, the rate at which your body produces energy or burns calories. The human body burns calories in three ways; when the body is at rest (Basal Metabolism) to keep the body running. BMR (basal metabolic rate) is, to a degree, dependent on genetics. Metabolism occurs when you perform daily activities and exercise.
As metabolism is partly genetic, to change it, you need outside influence; people with higher metabolism feel more vigorous. On the other hand, people with poor metabolism feel lethargic; the body resists the fat burning process and the stored fat cells in the belly and thigh do not shed. As the body burns fewer calories, less energy is produced, and the person feels sluggish. Java Burn, coupled with coffee, claims it increases the user’s metabolic rate. Consequently, the mulish stored fat starts to disintegrate. If you achieve a higher metabolic rate, the body will burn more calories at rest and daily errands. Lean people are more active than obese ones as their metabolic rate is higher in the no exercise period than the latter.
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Bad flu season predicted for B.C. – Kamloops This Week
After two years of record-low influenza rates, experts are warning the flu will likely be back in full swing this season.
That’s because of a general lifting of pandemic health measures, such as required masking, gathering size limits and travel restrictions, according to pharmacist Kim Myers.
“It definitely increases the spread of germs and colds,” said Myers, who works in the Greater Victoria area.
Health Canada estimates that in a non-pandemic year, about 12,200 Canadians are hospitalized with the flu or flu-like symptoms. Getting an exact number is difficult as only nine of the country’s provinces and territories report hospitalizations to the national flu surveillance system, FluWatch.
Flu hospitalizations dropped during pandemic
of those which do report — Newfoundland and Labrador, Prince Edward Island, Nova Scotia, New Brunswick, Manitoba, Alberta, Yukon, Northwest Territories and Saskatchewan — 5,176 influenza-related hospitalizations were reported during the 2017-2018 season and 3,657 were reported in 2018-2019.
During the 2019-2020 season, half of which occurred within the COVID-19 pandemic, there were 2,493 hospitalizations. That number dropped to zero in 2020-2021, again not including Ontario, Quebec, B.C. or Nunavut.
Myers said it’s hard to tell whether this year’s flu season will be as bad as pre-pandemic years, but that it will almost certainly be worse than the last year or two. She said the awareness the pandemic has raised around the importance of vaccines makes her hopeful more people will get the flu shot this year. Already, Myers said, people coming into her pharmacy are asking when shots will be available.
Possible correlation between COVID-19 and influenza vaccine uptake
B.C. did see a small spike in flu vaccine uptake in the first year of the pandemic. In 2018, 34.6 per cent of people got the shot, followed by 37.2 per cent in 2019 and 42.1 per cent in 2020, according to Statistics Canada. 2021 rates are not yet available.
A 2021 research paper published in medical journal Vaccine found the primary indicator of whether Canadians will get a vaccination is whether they have been vaccinated before, suggesting those who got the COVID vaccine may be more likely to get the influenza one.
More than 87 per cent of British Columbians have received at least one dose of a COVID vaccine as of Sept. 26.
Beginning in early October, B.C. residents will have the option of receiving COVID vaccine boosters and flu shots at the same time. The province said it will have the capacity to vaccinate about 250,000 people per week that way.
Who is most impacted?
For the majority of people, the flu means up to a week of sickness, but for young children, elderly people and the immunocompromised the virus can make it significantly harder for them to fight off infections.
Health Canada said 3,500 deaths are influenza-related each year, although that number is based off a mathematical estimate, rather than actual yearly data.
Myers said the best thing people can do to stop the spread of the virus and protect those most vulnerable to it is to follow many of the same precautions put in place for COVID-19: get vaccinated, wash your hands, wear a mask, stay home if you’re sick and minimize your number of crowded public outings.
“It’s not just for themselves, it’s trying to do it for those around them who are vulnerable and for those who aren’t able to receive vaccines. It’s important that we try and do that to help protect them,” Myers said.
Arm Yourself Against the 2022-23 Flu Season – Newswise
Newswise — LOS ANGELES (Sept. 28, 2022) — Amid the loosening of COVID-19 precautions and a sharp increase in flu cases in the Southern Hemisphere, Cedars-Sinai experts are warning the public to prepare for a bad flu season this year.
“Australia and New Zealand had their most severe flu season in five years,” said infectious disease specialist Soniya Gandhi, MD, associate chief medical officer at Cedars-Sinai. “We tend to see similar influenza patterns in the Northern Hemisphere, and while there is no guarantee that this will happen, it really highlights the importance of getting the flu shot this year.”
While people observed COVID-19 pandemic safety measures—like wearing face masks and washing hands frequently—during the past two years, the flu all but disappeared in the U.S. But this year could be different, as mask mandates have lifted, and more people are getting back to socializing.
“People are tired of respiratory viruses, and they’re trying to resume normal lives,” said infectious disease specialist Kimberly Shriner, MD, at Huntington Health, an affiliate of Cedars-Sinai. “I worry that since COVID-19 is beginning to settle down a little, there may be an impression that influenza will as well.”
Shriner and Gandhi spoke with the Cedars-Sinai Newsroom about what this flu season might bring and why it’s wise to be prepared and get a flu shot.
What concerns you about the current flu season in the Southern Hemisphere?
Australia has a robust flu-tracking system, and their flu season, which runs from April to October, offers clues as to what’s in store for the U.S.
The flu wasn’t only severe in Australia this year—it came on fast.
“Influenza started circulating two months earlier than normal, and the largest number of cases were in children ages 5 to 9,” Gandhi said. “This really emphasizes that even young people should be getting their flu shot.”
The silver lining? Australia saw lots of influenza A (H3N2), a strain that’s included in this year’s vaccine, Gandhi said. While it’s too early to assess the vaccine’s effectiveness in the U.S., she said it’s reassuring to know that this strain of the virus is covered in the current vaccine.
What other factors could affect our upcoming flu season?
Because people were more isolated in recent years, immunity to the flu in the population declined. The combination of reduced immunity and relaxed safety measures means the public will be doubly vulnerable to a circulating respiratory virus.
“When you throw all of that into the mix, it’s not surprising that we may have the worst flu season we’ve seen in a while,” Gandhi said.
Why should people take the flu seriously?
Influenza is a serious illness, especially for the elderly and those who are immunocompromised, like cancer or transplant patients.
“The flu can kill up to 50,000 people annually, and that certainly is a concern we have about this impending season given our preview of coming attractions in the Southern Hemisphere,” Shriner said.
In the U.S., influenza typically circulates from November through April, coinciding with the winter holidays when people gather indoors, and when COVID-19 tends to surge.
“An influx of hospitalizations from COVID-19 and the flu could stress the healthcare system and impact staffing if many healthcare workers are out sick,” Gandhi said. “It’s yet another reason to get the flu shot and the new Omicron booster as well.”
Why get the flu shot?
The past two years have demonstrated the capacity of vaccines to prevent diseases and save lives. “We’ve seen that dramatically with COVID-19, and I think the same is true of influenza,” Shriner said. “Vaccination often helps the individual, but it also protects those who either cannot receive a vaccine or who won’t respond very well to it.”
By limiting the spread of flu and preventing severe illness, the flu shot also can help maintain hospital capacity, Gandhi said. She cited a recent study of adults that showed the flu vaccine reduced their risk of ICU admission by 26% and death by 31%.
“The flu and COVID-19 vaccines are important on a personal level, and they’re critical from a public health standpoint,” Gandhi said.
Read more on the Cedars-Sinai Blog: What’s the Difference Between a Cold, the Flu and COVID-19?
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