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Beck: Feeling bloated? Try these diet tweaks – The Globe and Mail

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Many of us have experienced bloating at one time or another, the sensation when your stomach feels full and swollen. For some people, though, the discomfort caused by chronic bloating can interfere with everyday life.

Bloating is common affecting up to 30 per cent of the general population. Among people with irritable bowel syndrome (IBS), more than 90 per cent report bloating.

The good news: In many cases making simple diet changes can reduce, even resolve, uncomfortable bloating. The key, however, is determining what your bloat triggers are.

What is bloating?

Bloating is a recurrent sense of fullness, pressure or trapped gas in the upper abdomen (e.g., the stomach area). In some cases it’s accompanied by abdominal distention, a measurable increase in abdominal girth. Abdominal pain, gas and burping can also be present.

Symptoms may worsen over the course of the day or they can be triggered by eating a meal. Often bloating dissipates overnight.

The most common cause of bloating is air, or gas, trapped in the intestinal tract. What you eat – and how you eat – can lead to a build-up of intestinal gas.

Other reasons for bloating include inflammatory bowel disease, small intestinal bacterial overgrowth (SIBO), gluten intolerance (celiac disease) and non-celiac gluten-sensitivity. Chronic constipation, stress and certain medications (e.g., Aspirin, antacids, anti-diarrhea drugs) can also contribute to bloating.

Diet strategies to prevent bloating

While bloating may be caused by an underlying medical condition, it’s most often a result of what you eat and/or how you eat. Your first line of defense is addressing your diet.

Avoid overeating. Eating large meals, especially fatty meals that empty from your stomach slowly, can make you feel bloated. To eat smaller portions, serve meals on a luncheon-sized plate (seven to nine inches in diameter) instead of a dinner plate.

Check in with your hunger level halfway through your meal. You’ve had enough to eat when you feel satisfied but not full.

Slow your eating pace. Eating quickly can contribute to bloating by causing you to overeat. It takes roughly 20 minutes for appetite-related hormones to kick in and tell your brain you’ve had enough to eat.

Eating too fast also increases the amount of air you swallow, which can cause bloating. To eat slowly, put down your knife and fork after every bite and chew thoroughly.

Chewing gum, sucking on hard candies and drinking from a straw also increase the amount of air you swallow.

Increase fibre, water. If constipation is causing your bloating, increase your intake of foods rich in insoluble fibre, the type of fibre that retains water and adds bulk to stool, helping it pass more quickly through the colon.

Wheat bran, 100-per-cent bran cereal, whole wheat pasta and whole grain rye bread are excellent sources of insoluble fibre. Apples, berries, kiwifruit, pinto beans, green peas, sweet potato, avocado and prunes are also decent sources.

Fibre needs to absorb water to work effectively. Drink nine cups (women) and 12 cups (men) of water each day.

Try lactose-free. If you’re intolerant to lactose, the natural sugar in cow’s milk, consuming more lactose than your small intestine can digest can cause bloating, abdominal pain, distention, gas and loose stools.

If you suspect lactose may be the culprit, switch to lactose-free milk and lactose-free yogurt to see if your bloating symptoms improve. Hard cheeses (e.g., cheddar, Swiss, Parmesan) are low in lactose.

Consider a low-FODMAP diet. If you have IBS, bloating may be triggered by a group of poorly absorbed carbohydrates called FODMAPs. (FODMAP stands for fermentable, oligosaccharides, disaccharides, monosaccharides and polyols.) Lactose, by the way, is a FODMAP.

As FODMAPs move through the small intestine they draw in water. Once in the large intestine, gut bacteria ferment FODMAPs, which produces gas. Extra water and gas in the intestinal tract can cause IBS symptoms such as bloating, abdominal pain, flatulence and diarrhea.

Finding out which FODMAPs you’re sensitive to involves eliminating high-FODMAP foods for a short period of time and then, one at a time, adding FODMAPs back to your diet.

Consult a dietitian knowledgeable in low-FODMAP meal planning – and the strategic reintroduction and testing of FODMAPs – to ensure you follow a nutritionally balanced diet.

When to see a doctor

If dietary modifications don’t reduce your bloating, consult your doctor. It’s important to rule out any other conditions that could be causing your symptoms.

Leslie Beck, a Toronto-based private practice dietitian, is director of food and nutrition at Medcan. Follow her on Twitter @LeslieBeckRD

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Study suggests Pfizer COVID-19 vaccine only partially protects against Omicron – Toronto Sun

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The Omicron variant can partially evade protection from two doses of Pfizer and partner BioNTech’s COVID-19 vaccine, the research head of a laboratory at the Africa Health Research Institute in South Africa said on Tuesday.

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But the study showed that blood from people who had received two doses of the vaccine and had a prior infection was mostly able to neutralize the variant, suggesting that booster doses of the vaccine could help to fend off infection.

The Omicron variant, first detected in southern Africa last month, has triggered alarms globally of another surge in infections, with more than two dozen countries from Japan to the United States reporting cases.

The World Health Organization classified it on Nov. 26 as a “variant of concern,” but said there was no evidence to support the need for new vaccines specifically designed to tackle the Omicron variant with its many mutations.

Alex Sigal, a professor at the research institute, said on Twitter there was “a very large drop” in neutralization of the Omicron variant relative to an earlier strain of COVID-19.

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A separate lab test by virologist Sandra Ciesek of the University Hospital Frankfurt painted a somewhat bleaker picture.

Exposing the blood of vaccinated individuals to different virus variants, she found that the ability to mount an antibody response to Omicron in people who had three shots of BioNTech/Pfizer was up to 37 times lower than the response to Delta.

An antibody response to Omicron half a year after a two-shot regimen of Pfizer/BioNTech, Moderna or a mixed course of AstraZeneca/BioNTech was not even measurable, Ciesek added.

She posted only selected findings on Twitter, not including the number of samples, and the university said the paper had not yet been published.

“The set of data underscores that it makes sense to develop a vaccine that is adapted to Omicron,” Chiesek tweeted, adding that no conclusion could be drawn about protection against severe disease.

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WHO’s chief scientist, Soumya Swaminathan, said a large drop in the antibody response of vaccinated people to Omicron had been expected.

“This does not mean the vaccine will not work – T-cell immunity (is) likely to persist,” she said on Twitter, referring to a cellular immune response that is believed to prevent severe disease as a second line of immune defence.

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Researchers including Carsten Watzl of the German Society of Immunology and Penny Ward, visiting professor at King’s College London, said the findings underscored the need to get booster shots because a three-shot course would likely continue to protect against severe disease.

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Sigal’s lab tested blood from 12 people who had been vaccinated with two doses of the Pfizer/BioNTech vaccine, according to a manuscript posted on the website for his lab. The preliminary data in the manuscript has not yet been peer reviewed.

Blood from five out of six people who had been vaccinated as well as previously infected with COVID-19 still neutralized the Omicron variant, the manuscript said.

“These results are better than I expected. The more antibodies you got, the more chance you’ll be protected from Omicron,” Sigal said on Twitter.

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He said the lab had not tested the variant against blood from people who had received a booster dose, because they are not available in South Africa yet.

According to the manuscript, the lab observed a 41-fold decline in levels of neutralizing antibodies against the Omicron variant.

Sigal said on Twitter that figure is likely to be adjusted after his lab does more experiments.

While neutralizing antibodies are an indicator of the body’s immune response, scientists believe other kinds of cells such as B-cells and T-cells are also stimulated by the vaccines and help protect against the effects of the coronavirus.

The preliminary data does not indicate that the vaccine is less able to prevent severe illness or death. While lab tests are under way, BioNTech CEO Ugur Sahin said last week “we think it’s likely that people will have substantial protection against severe disease caused by Omicron.”

There is not significant data yet on how vaccines from Moderna, Johnson & Johnson and other drugmakers hold up against the new variant. All the manufacturers, including Pfizer and BioNTech, are expected to release their own data within weeks.

BioNTech’s Sahin told NBC News on Tuesday that the drugmaker has data coming on Wednesday or Thursday.

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Seven Omicron variant cases in Simcoe County linked to travellers from Nigeria – BayToday.ca

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The Simcoe Muskoka District Health Unit says it is investigating a household cluster in Simcoe County with seven confirmed COVID-19 cases that have a strong probability of being the Omicron variant of concern. All the cases are currently isolating at home.

“The cluster is linked to travellers who arrived in Simcoe County from Nigeria in late November,” says a news release.

The Simcoe Muskoka Health Unit borders the North Bay Parry Sound District Health Unit to the immediate south.

“Although the health unit is awaiting whole genomic sequencing of the samples which should be available in the next 7 to 14 days, given the travel history and the preliminary laboratory screening results, the likelihood of an Omicron cluster is very high.”

The Unit’s case and contact management team is currently following up with each case to identify close contacts regarding isolation and testing.

“Scientific data about the Omicron variant is still emerging,” said Dr. Charles Gardner, Medical Officer of Health. “Early evidence suggests that the variant might be more transmissible. While we continue to closely monitor this local situation, I urge all residents to remain vigilant about following public health measures, to monitor themselves for symptoms of COVID-19 and seek testing immediately if any should develop, and get vaccinated if they have not already done so.”

The rate of COVID-19 infection among the unvaccinated vaccine-eligible Simcoe Muskoka population is seven times higher than it is for the fully vaccinated population and the rate of COVID-19 hospitalizations is 15 times higher says Gardner. Getting the vaccine can lower the risk of serious illness, hospitalization, and death.

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Eating disorder symptoms and self-harm linked to higher levels of depression and anxiety during COVID-19 pandemic – Medical Xpress

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Timeline of ALSPAC assessments. NEET Not in education, employment or training. Gray text indicates the name of the ALSPAC questionnaire. Credit: DOI: 10.1186/s40337-021-00510-9

Young adults with previous self-harm or eating disorders reported higher levels of depression and anxiety during the pandemic, even when restrictions had eased, according to new research.

The study, led by the University of Bristol and funded by Elizabeth Blackwell Institute, Medical Research Council and Medical Research Foundation, has been published in the Journal of Eating Disorders. It looked at questionnaire information for 2,657 individuals from world-renowned health study Children of the 90s (also known as the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children) before and during the COVID-19 pandemic.

Researchers analyzed the relationship between previous reports of eating disorder symptoms and before the pandemic, and (symptoms of depression and anxiety) and mental wellbeing during the COVID-19 pandemic. The study also assessed whether , such as more sleep, relaxation techniques, or visiting green space, could be linked to and wellbeing in young adults with and without previous eating disorder symptoms or self-harm.

Researchers studied questionnaire data from 2017, when the participants were then aged 25 years, as well as data taken during the pandemic in 2020.

At age 25, 32 percent of the 2,657 young adults reported at least one eating disorder , 9 percent reported self-harm, and 5.5 percent reported both an eating disorder symptom and self-harm in the last year.

During the pandemic, those with previously reported eating disorder symptoms and/or self-harm had more symptoms of depression and anxiety, and worse mental wellbeing, compared to individuals without previous symptoms. This remained the case after adjusting for their pre-pandemic levels of depression, anxiety and mental wellbeing.

Lifestyle changes appeared to have little effect on the increased risk for mental health problems in those with prior eating disorder symptoms or self-harm.

Lead author Dr. Naomi Warne, Senior Research Associate at the University’s Centre for Academic Mental Health, said: “Eating and self-harm are common and troubling mental health problems among . In the UK, approximately 1.25 million people are living with an eating disorder and almost 1 in 15 adults report self-harm.

“Our research has highlighted individuals with prior self-harm and eating disorder symptoms are key risk groups and further longitudinal research is needed to understand their ongoing mental health as well as risk and protective factors.

“Individuals with previous eating disorder symptoms and self-harm should be considered vulnerable to depression and anxiety throughout the pandemic and beyond. Funding for rapid and responsive service provision is essential to reduce the impact of the on those with mental health problems.”


Explore further

One in four adults with depression or anxiety lacked mental health support during pandemic


More information:
Naomi Warne et al, Disordered eating and self-harm as risk factors for poorer mental health during the COVID-19 pandemic: a UK-based birth cohort study, Journal of Eating Disorders (2021). DOI: 10.1186/s40337-021-00510-9

Citation:
Eating disorder symptoms and self-harm linked to higher levels of depression and anxiety during COVID-19 pandemic (2021, December 8)
retrieved 8 December 2021
from https://medicalxpress.com/news/2021-12-disorder-symptoms-self-harm-linked-higher.html

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