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Is toilet paper bad for the environment?



A U.S.-based non-profit advocacy group is pushing toilet paper manufacturers to stop using Canada’s boreal forest as a resource.

The Natural Resources Defense Council recently released a report on manufacturers that it says are using what it calls virgin forests — previously untouched forests (sometimes called old-growth forests) — as a resource for toilet paper. reached out to the toilet paper manufacturers mentioned in the report to understand sustainability goals and how the industry is adapting to the changing climate. But experts say these big companies need to do more by shifting toilet paper away from forests to more sustainable options.

In the 2022 report titled the “Issue with Tissue”, the NRDC ranked popular toilet paper brands based on sustainability and eco-friendly ingredients.


The group claims the majority of popular brands in Canada and the U.S. are using wood fibre and pulp from the Canadian boreal forest, alleging that this practice leads to the destruction of ecosystems and decreases the carbon-capturing power of trees. Wood pulp and fibre is a co-product of the logging industry which harvests trees from Canada’s boreal forest.

The boreal forest covers 270 million hectares of which Spruce, Fir, Pine and Tamarack trees are most common. Canada’s boreal forest is 28 per cent of the world’s boreal zone and it is integral to the health of the planet by purifying the air and regulating the climate.

The NRDC alleges Canada uses one method to harvest trees called clear-cutting, which is the practice of removing a large area of forest at one time.

“Canada has the third highest intact forest loss of any country on the planet,” Shelly Vinyard, boreal corporate campaign manager with NRDC, told in an interview. “Every single year more than 400,000 hectares of boreal forests are clear-cut, and that’s roughly the size of a small city block every minute.”

According to the National Forestry Database, Canada harvested 143.1 million cubic metres of trees in 2020. reached out to the Ministry of Natural Resources and Forestry to understand how it balances the need for wood and manages forests sustainably.

“There are many different harvesting systems in Canada – clear cut is only one of those systems,” a spokesperson from the ministry told in an email. “All forest harvesting systems in Canada have been designed to emulate natural disturbances (e.g. wind, fire, etc). When we refer to harvesting trees, this does not always mean the clear-cut system, which is part of even-aged management.”

The ministry said that clearcutting is used in certain forest types in specific conditions.

The NRDC says by understanding how toilet paper could be hurting Canadian forests, consumers can make better decisions. It also hopes the report will encourage mass manufacturers to shift away from virgin forests and towards sustainable alternatives. Virgin forests are untouched trees also known as old-growth forests.

Forests store carbon at their roots and the older the tree is the more CO2 it captures and stores. Virgin forests are older trees because they have not been touched and are left to grow. By shifting practices away from virgin forests, NRDC says the impacts on the environment would decrease lowering carbon emissions released into the atmosphere.

“It’s really (manufacturers’) responsibility … they shouldn’t be making us complicit in the destruction of the boreal forest and other forests on the planet,” Vinyard said. “They have an opportunity here to really take full accountability of the impact of their source decisions right now. And to offer much more sustainable alternatives by using recycled content and minimizing their impact on intact forests.”

According to the Ministry of Natural Resources and Forestry, Canadian trees are subjected to sustainable forest management practices, liming natural disturbances.

“Retaining old-growth trees to provide critical habitat for plants, wildlife and other organisms is a key principle of sustainable forest management. In many jurisdictions, harvesting guidelines call for a certain proportion of old-growth or veteran trees to be retained,” the email read.


The NRDC report looked at toilet paper brands on the market in July 2022. It took data from websites, product packaging and company communications to evaluate the ecological footprint of the products.

Using variables from A to F, the scorecard gave the highest points to brands made from 100 per cent recycled content. According to the NRDC, recycled fibre has “enormous benefits” for forests and the global climate.

“Recycled content has one-third the carbon emissions of tissue fibre made from virgin wood,” according to the Environmental Paper Network’s Paper Calculator 4.0.

Toilet paper is made using wood pulp and fibre, which is what Vinyard says is a “co-product” of the larger logging industry.

“The forest is clear cut and then the wood is used for multiple different products like solid wood and toilet paper… the pulp used to make toilet paper is a co-product for the logging industry helping to make it more economically viable to clear cut these essential forests,” she said.

According to the government, Canada is committed to finding “sustainable” forest practices and decides each year which trees are harvested.

“Provinces and territories manage their public forest resources over long-term planning horizons (some 100-200 years), determining the annual volume of commercial tree species that is allowed to be cut each year,” a ministry spokesperson said in the email. “Overall, the country harvests only about 0.2 per cent of the total amount of forested land every year in Canada.”

Toilet paper can also be made up of post-consumer fibres, which are scraps of paper people would throw in a recycling bin.

The NRDC says post-consumer, also known as recycled paper, aids the recycling industry by creating a “circular economy,” which supports jobs and alternatives from sending paper waste to landfills.

Some credit was given to companies using virgin forest fibre that sources wood sustainably with a Forest Stewardship Council certification, which the NRDC says is the only certification system that minimizes logging impacts and has safeguards for protecting Indigenous Peoples’ rights. Some companies have mixed certifications. went through the list and noted which brands on the scorecard are available in Canada.

The majority of toilet paper brands in Canada, according to the NRDC’s report, are using wood from old-growth trees.

Kruger Inc., a Montreal-based manufacturer told in an email that in 2011, it was the first Canadian tissue company to earn an FCS certification.

“One-hundred per cent of our fibre (recycled and virgin) is third-party certified by either FSC or Sustainable Forest Initiative (SFI), assuring that the virgin fibre in our products come from sustainably managed forests,” Francois Paroyan, general counsel and corporate secretary of Kruger, said in the email.

After trees are harvested the pulp fibre is used to make toilet paper and other products. The pulp is gray in colour and not white like the final product.

To be white, toilet paper manufacturers sometimes use elemental chlorine-free (ECF) bleach. Several Canadian brands lost points for use of the bleach the report states, due to the impacts the chlorine gas has on water communities.

The highest-scoring Canadian toilet paper brand for sustainability is Scott Essential Standard Roll, manufactured by Kimberly-Clark. The brand received a B+ for being 100 per cent recycled toilet paper, using 20 per cent post-consumer fibres and using no chlorine bleach in its product. But the brand lost points for not having a forestry certificate which ensures the pulp and fibre is from sustainable sources.

The Natural Resources Defense Council recently released a report on manufacturers that it says are using what it calls virgin forests — previously untouched forests (sometimes called old-growth forests) — as a resource for toilet paper. (Natasha O’Neill/ via The Issue with Tissue report)

The highest ranking bamboo toilet paper scored a B. True Earth Paper Corp., which makes Silk’n Soft Oh Natural Unbleached toilet paper, uses bamboo and is not bleached. According to the report, the company does not have a Forest Stewardship Council certification.

“The sourcing of bamboo is maintained by our factories in Asia, the bamboo comes from natural mountain-grown bamboo in areas such as Jiangxi and Zhejiang and is not a threat to pandas. In some cases bamboo is harvested from plantations,” Brad Kornelson, spokesperson for Truth Earth Paper Corporation, told in an email. “Our factories undergo a third party audit and they must pass the audit and must be FSC certified before we elect to enter into a manufacturing agreement.”

The NRDC also analyzed the company’s Silk’n Soft White toilet paper, which is also made with 100 per cent bamboo but is bleached using ECF, and lowered its grade to a C.

“Our current focus is to change our packaging,” Kornelson said. “We are working with our factory to not only replace our plastic wrapper with cardboard (but) we are working to have the wrapper made from bamboo fibre as well as the cardboard tube and the shipping case as well.”

Other bamboo toilet paper from TUSHY scored a C from the report due to using chlorine bleach to whiten.

“The bamboo grows naturally, with no fertilizer (and has a) FSC certificate,” a spokesperson for TUSHY told in an email. “TUSHY is first and foremost a bidet company that strives to cut down toilet paper use by over 80 per cent and save trees and thus the planet one flush at a time.”

A bidet is a water pressure attachment to the toilet which sprays a person clean after use. According to TUSHY, bidets cut down on toilet paper usage by using one-eighth of a gallon per use unlike the 37 gallons needed to create a single roll of traditional paper.

The lowest-scoring Canadian toilet paper brand was Great Value Ultra, sold by Walmart, which received an F.

A spokesperson from Walmart Canada told in an email “the products mentioned in the report are not products that are available in Canada.”

Great Value Ultra toilet paper sold in Canada is made domestically.

Walmart Canada’s spokesperson pointed to a portion of its website where it says “By 2025, Walmart’s goal is that private brand products made of pulp, paper, and timber will be sourced deforestation and conversion-free.”

According to an article published in The Daily Memphian, an independent local paper in Memphis, Tenn., toilet paper brands Great Value and HDX are manufactured at a Kruger plant in the city.

Initially, received a response saying none of Kruger’s brands were represented in the report. When asked specifically about The Daily Memphian article Kruger responded by saying it doesn’t comment on specific brands it produces.

The “Issue with Tissue” report says Great Value toilet paper uses non-recycled paper from Canada’s boreal forest and is bleached using chlorine, and its manufacturers do not have a forest certificate.

When asked about the low score and the allegations in the report, Kruger’s counsel Paroyan told CTV News in an email only that “large retail customers often use multiple suppliers in the tissue category to supply their consumer demands, and we do not comment on our private label customers.”

According to Paroyan, the “majority” of fibre used by Kruger in Canada is sourced from Canada. He added about 25 per cent of the total Canadian fibre used is recycled content.

“We are always interested in advancements in the tissue industry, and regularly explore the use of alternative fibres,” Paroyan said. “Our decisions are guided by our stringent fibre procurement policy. Alternatives to traditional wood fibres are on our radar and we are weighing their positives and negatives including efficacy challenges, environmental impact (emissions associated with lifecycle of the product) and detractions, and consumer expectations.”

Other Canadian toilet paper brands found in stores scored low on the NRDC’s ranking due to using the majority of pulp from virgin forests, bleach to whiten the paper and not having a forestry certificate.

Scott 1000, Cottonelle Ultra and Scott Comfort Plus, manufactured by Kimberly-Clark, were given Fs by the NRDC.

The Cottonelle Professional brand, by 35 per cent recycled fibres, 20 per cent of which is from post-consumer materials.

The rest of the paper is from virgin forests and is bleached using a mix of ECF, the NRDC said, giving this brand a C.

Manufacturer Procter & Gamble had one Canadian toilet paper brand on the list, Charmin, which was given an F for being made of 95 per cent virgin forest fibres. The other five per cent was recycled materials, according to the NRDC.

The company has a mixed forest certificate and uses ECF bleach, the report details.

“Recycled toilet paper…has one-third the carbon footprint of products like Charmin, which are made from 95 per cent virgin fibre,” Vinyard said.

The Kirkland brand, by Costco, received an F as well. It is made 100 per cent out of virgin forests and is bleached using ECF, the report reads. reached out to Procter & Gamble, Kimberly-Clark and Costco for a comment but did not hear back before publication.


Canada’s forests stretch 347 million hectares and are under increasing pressure from insects, natural disasters and humans, according to a report by the Council of Canadian Academies (CCA).

Hundreds of tonnes of carbon are captured through photosynthesis and stored in the roots of trees. When a tree is no longer living or uprooted, that carbon seeps back into the atmosphere.

The CCA report says, 65 per cent of forests in Canada are being used for harvesting. They are storing 208 tonnes of carbon per hectare.

The Ministry of Natural Resources and Forestry records forest carbon release when a tree is harvested.

“Over the long term, a strategy that aims to maximize the carbon absorption and storage in the forest, while also storing carbon in long-lived wood products (and ensuring maximum value and use for anything harvested) will generate the best benefits,” a ministry spokesperson said. “That means balancing sustainable harvesting with conservation.”

In March 2022, 90 scientists from around the world wrote a letter urging the federal government to ensure old-growth forests are protected in the country’s climate action plan.

Advocacy groups argue any harvesting of old-growth forests is not sustainable, saying the benefits old trees have cannot be replaced with new saplings. The scientists said old-growth forests contain 30 to 50 per cent more carbon than replanted trees, and newer trees cannot absorb carbon at the same rapid rate as older trees.

“We are deeply concerned by the evidence of continued deforestation and degradation of primary forests globally and in Canada because of the resulting impact on greenhouse gas emissions and the biodiversity crisis,” they wrote in the open letter to Prime Minister Justin Trudeau.

According to the ministry, some products can “lock away” carbon after being processed. If Canada harvests sustainably by creating products that can be used multiple times while also using all parts of the tree – “in other words doing more with less”– the logging industry can provide valuable resources while also protecting forests.

But advocates like NDRC believe single-use wood products, like toilet paper continue to harm Canadian forests.

“Most consumers don’t even understand the impact or the cost of their toilet paper and tissue choices,” Vinyard said.


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Canada housing market: What to expect this spring as prices drop – Global News



With two kids under the age of six living in a two-bedroom, one-bathroom household, Jacquelin Forsey and her husband have long known it would only be a matter of time before their family outgrew their beloved home.

Long hours in the small space while Forsey was pregnant and toiling away from home during the COVID-19 pandemic, along with a visit to a neighbour who was selling their “beautiful” place that was “the perfect size,” convinced the couple to start their new home hunt recently.


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“If there was any way to make this place bigger, we would never leave,” said Forsey, a PhD student, of the home her family owns in the Leslieville area of Toronto.

“We love it. We love the neighbourhood, we love our house, but we just can’t all be in this tiny house forever.”

The couple has spent recent months scouring listings and put in at least one failed bid, but Forsey has her fingers crossed that their fortunes will change this spring as economists and brokers predict activity to return to Canada’s housing market.

The market has been sluggish since last year, when prospective buyers started putting off plans to purchase homes as the Bank of Canada aggressively hiked interest rates eight consecutive times.

The quick succession of increases eroded buying power as borrowing costs rose and sent prices falling, discouraging sellers from listing their homes.

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Canadian economics professor on housing market projection for 2023

With Canadian Real Estate Association data showing average prices have dropped 19 per cent from their February peak of $816,578 to $662,437 last month and BMO Capital Markets’ chief economist predicting they will bottom out after falling 20 to 25 per cent, realtors see many edging toward a purchase once more.

“We got a flood of buyers in January, in February and we still are getting more and more and we started seeing multiple offers return and bully offers return,” said Michelle Gilbert, a Toronto broker with Sage Real Estate Ltd.

“We’ve started getting calls where buyers are just like ‘I think I’ll just adjust what I want, but I don’t want to miss my opportunity.”

These clients are a mix of people who have to move because they are relocating for work or growing their families and also first-time homebuyers keen to not let lower prices pass them by.

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Many first-time buyers are finding it harder to qualify for mortgages, but still want to make a purchase, so they are compensating by adjusting their expectations, said Gilbert.

“Maybe they can’t get the square footage they thought they could get because they can’t qualify for as much but they still really want to get a good deal,” she said.

Over in Vancouver, Coldwell Banker Prestige Realty agent Tirajeh Mazaheri has also seen a resurgence in buyers.

Weeks after the Bank of Canada signalled further interest rate hikes were unlikely, she said properties started selling quickly and with multiple offers.

She spotted a condo listed for $699,000 garner 11 offers and a house listed for $2.8 million snag five bids last month.

Others aren’t wading into the market just yet but are preparing to do so soon.

“Everyone who wasn’t pre-approved is getting themselves pre-approved because people want to jump on buying something because they’re worried that prices are going to start going way too high again,” said Mazaheri.

Click to play video: 'Canadian home sales begin 2023 with a 14-year low'

Canadian home sales begin 2023 with a 14-year low

Despite such sentiment, she doesn’t see the market returning to the frenzied pace of 2021, largely because of the lack of properties available.

February’s new listings totalled 51,366, down 26 per cent from a year ago, the Canadian Real Estate Association recently revealed. On a seasonally-adjusted basis, they hit 57,535, down nearly eight per cent from January.

“A lot of sellers are beginning to want to list, but most of them, I am noticing, are a little bit cautious,” Mazaheri said.

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“They’re noticing the shift in the market as well and they want to get top dollar for their property, so they’re thinking maybe let’s wait until the spring or the summer.”

For Forsey, there is no rush to buy a home, but she admits the pause on interest rates is giving her family some confidence in its decision to look for a new place.

While her engineer husband has been crafting spreadsheets calculating what they can afford, their amortization and the effects of potential interest rates, she said they’ve accepted “that we can’t time the market and we just have to do the best we can do and what we’re comfortable with and then hope it works out.”

“We can stay here until the right opportunity comes and we don’t have to rush out and we don’t have to make a rash decision,” she said.

“And if it doesn’t work out for a long time for us, that’s OK because what we’ve got is pretty great.”

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Canada extends emergency travel program for Ukrainians fleeing war



The federal government is extending a program that temporarily resettles Ukrainians fleeing the war with Russia in Canada.

Ukrainians will now have until July 15, 2023, to apply to the Canada-Ukraine Authorization for Emergency Travel (CUAET) program. The program was set to expire on March 31.

It’s a special measure that allows Ukrainians, and their family members of any nationality, to settle in Canada for up to three years. CUAET allows successful applicants to apply for work and study permits free of charge.

Russia and Ukraine have been at war since 2014, but Russia stepped up its invasion significantly in February 2022. The federal government has provided military, financial and humanitarian aid to Ukraine and has slapped sanctions on thousands of Russians and Russian entities.


Immigration, Refugees and Citizenship Minister Sean Fraser made the announcement Wednesday.

“We’re going to closely monitor the ongoing needs of Ukrainians and Ukraine, to see how we can continue to lend our support and help win this war,” Fraser told a news conference.

The government has received just under a million applications to the program since it began in March 2022, and has approved 616,429 of them. Over 133,000 people have arrived in Canada through the program.

Fraser said the temporary nature of the program aligns with what Ukrainians want.

“When I speak to the vast majority of Ukrainians who’ve arrived here, their hope is that Ukraine is going to win this war. They want to go home one day,” Fraser said.

“To create a program that allows them to have temporary safe haven in Canada, while we await the circumstances on the ground becoming safe one day for people to return, has allowed us to help tens of thousands of people more than what otherwise would have been the case under a traditional refugee resettlement model.”

Fraser did not say whether the government would extend the program if the war continues beyond July 15. He said it will monitor the situation.

Ukrainians in Canada welcome extension

Kseniia Chystiakova, who is from a suburb of Kyiv, applied to CUAET just days after it launched in March 2022. She now lives in Winnipeg with her husband, son and mother.

Chystiakova’s father is in Germany because his application hasn’t been approved yet, and Immigration Refugees and Citizenship Canada (IRCC) hasn’t offered an explanation. Her mother, who did get approved, initially stayed with her husband but came to Canada last week as the March 31 deadline came closer.

But Chystiakova said she’s happy about the extension because it gives her father some time to get approved.

“I want them to be near us and to see their grandchild, but still we have hope that everything will be okay,” she said.

A woman in a sweater holds up a phone and smiles.
Kseniia Chistyakova, a Ukrainian who came to Canada through CUAET, phones her father in Germany to tell him about the extension of the program. Her dad has not yet been approved to enter Canada through the program, but she said the extension gives her hope. (Karen Pauls/CBC)

Chystiakova works at a staffing agency helping other Ukrainians find work. Her husband, who is not a Ukrainian citizen, is taking language classes and her son is enrolled in a local school.

“It’s a really great opportunity for him and for his future,” Chystiakova said.

“I think that we will stay here.”

Fraser made the announcement at Café Ukraine in Ottawa. The community cafe provides services, including language classes, to newcomer Ukrainians and host families.

“We’re only able to provide the support for Ukrainians because the government of Canada has generously opened the door for Ukrainians to come and find safe harbour here,” Yaroslav Baran, Café Ukraine’s co-founder, said at the announcement.

“The announcement that you’ve made today is a continuation of a long tradition, 130 years, of generous opening of doors by Canada to Ukrainians.”

The Ukrainian Canadian Congress (UCC) welcomed the government’s announcement.

“Our community is also grateful to the thousands of Canadians from coast to coast to coast who have opened their hearts and their homes to Ukrainians, the volunteers who work tirelessly to welcome Ukrainians in cities and towns across Canada, and the settlement services which deliver essential programs and supports,” Alexandra Chyczij, the UCC’s national president, said in a media statement.

“With increased support from allies like Canada, this year can be the year that the Russian armies are driven out of Ukraine and peace returns to Europe.”

Refugees walk along vehicles.
Ukrainian refugees walk alongside vehicles lining up to cross the border from Ukraine into Moldova near Mayaky-Udobne, Ukraine on Feb. 26, 2022. (Sergei Grits/The Associated Press)

Iain Reeve, associate director for immigration research at The Conference Board of Canada, said CUAET has brought new workers into Canada at a time when the country is facing a labour shortage.

“The Ukrainians come with a really wide variety of skills that can fit really well into a lot of available positions across Canada,” Reeve said.

“We see the enthusiasm that a lot of communities have had to welcome people, not just for the really obvious humanitarian benefits, but also because they see the potential labour market and economic benefits of welcoming Ukrainians — even if it is only on a temporary basis.”

But Reeve said the government will have to think carefully about the future of those coming in through the program.

“There’s a balance to be struck between not wanting to bring a bunch of people here under very difficult circumstances and maybe rob Ukraine of exactly the people that they’ll want to have back in the country to help rebuild once the conflict is hopefully over,” he said.

“But at the same time, if people want to stay in Canada, maybe we want to try to give them options to do that.”


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Liberal MP Han Dong leaving caucus amid foreign interference allegations



Han Dong, the Toronto-area MP at the centre of allegations that his election campaign benefited from Beijing’s meddling, says he is leaving the Liberal caucus and will sit as an Independent.

“I’m taking this extraordinary step because to [sit] in the government caucus is a privilege and my presence there may be seen by some as a conflict of duty and the wrong place to be as an independent investigation pursues the facts in this matter,” he said , reading a statement in the House of Commons on Wednesday night.

“I will be sitting as the Independent so that business of government and indeed the bills of Parliament is not interrupted as I work to clear my name and the truth is presented to Parliament and to Canadian people.”

His comments follow a story from Global News, alleging Dong advised a senior Chinese diplomat in February 2021 that Beijing should hold off on freeing Michael Kovrig and Michael Spavor — the two Canadians being held by China at the time.


The Global story cited two unnamed national security sources who said Dong made the suggestion because their release would be helpful to the Conservatives. CBC News has not verified the allegations.

Dong confirmed to Global that he had a discussion with Consul General Han Tao, but denied that he advised Beijing to delay releasing Kovrig and Spavor.

MP Han Dong says Beijing has ‘absolutely not’ played a role in his election


MP Han Dong discusses alleged election interference after a media report said he was one of the candidates believed to have been supported financially by the Chinese government heading into the 2019 election.

“Let me be clear. What has been reported is false, and I will defend myself against these absolutely untrue claims,” said the Don Valley North representative in his remarks to Parliament.

“But let me assure you as a parliamentarian and as a person, I have never and I will never, and would never advocate or support the violation of the basic human rights of any Canadian, of anyone, anywhere, period.”

A spokesperson for the Prime Minister’s Office said the office “only became aware that a conversation took place after Mr. Dong told us, following recent media questions.”

“I am a proud Liberal,” said Dong, his voice breaking during his remarks.

“Before concluding, I want to assure Mr. Michael Spavor and Mr. Michael Kovrig and their families that I did nothing to cause them any harm.”

“Mr. Speaker, I am in your hands as to what happens next.”

Dong spoke to reporters Tuesday

Alison Murphy, a spokesperson for Prime Minster Justin Trudeau, gave no other comment Wednesday night.

“I’ll refer you to Mr. Dong’s statement in the House tonight,” she wrote in an email.

An earlier Global News story, also citing anonymous sources, alleged national security officials gave an urgent briefing to senior aides from Trudeau’s office in 2019 “warning them that one of their candidates was part of a Chinese foreign interference network.”

Global’s sources allege the Canadian Security Intelligence Service (CSIS) believed Dong, who was re-elected in 2021, was a “witting affiliate” of China’s election interference networks.

Dong spoke to reporters for the first time Tuesday since that story broke in February.

“I was not offered, I was not told, I was not informed, nor would I accept any help from a foreign country, whether during my nomination or during my election campaign,” he said.

Dong also said Tuesday he had not been contacted by either CSIS, the RCMP or Elections Canada.

A CSIS spokesperson would not comment on whether the lack of contact with Dong was unusual.

“There are important limits to what I can publicly discuss, given the need to protect sensitive activities, techniques, methods and sources of intelligence,” Eric Balsam said in an email to CBC News on Wednesday.

“Disclosure could allow our adversaries to interrupt or harm our operations, techniques, methods and sources of intelligence. These limitations are therefore essential to ensure the safety, security and prosperity of Canada.”

Dong’s comments come as opposition MPs try to uncover what the Liberal Party knew, or didn’t know, about Beijing’s alleged attempts to meddle in Canada’s elections.

An independent panel tasked with overseeing the 2021 election concluded that foreign meddling did not affect the outcome.

CSIS calls foreign interference activities by China’s government the “greatest strategic threat to national security.”


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