The national cyberspying agency monitored a Canadian citizen, contrary to policy, for several years due to a series of internal mistakes, a newly released watchdog report says.
The Ottawa-based Communications Security Establishment collects a wide array of foreign communications, including phone calls and emails, in search of information of interest to Canada.
The CSE is forbidden by law from directing its activities against Canadians anywhere in the world and must try to protect their privacy when using or keeping intercepted information.
CSE commissioner Jean-Pierre Plouffe, the long-time watchdog over the agency, noticed a privacy lapse that prompted him to conduct an in-depth review.
In his 2018-19 annual report, recently tabled in Parliament, Plouffe says a foreign national who was identified as possibly holding Canadian citizenship was monitored by the CSE from 2010 to 2015.
As part of Canada’s role in the Five Eyes intelligence alliance, the CSE works closely with spy services from the United States, Britain, Australia and New Zealand.
In 2018, one of these agencies, which the report does not identify, drew CSE’s attention to the fact that the issue of the person’s nationality “had not been fully addressed” in 2010 when his or her possible Canadian citizenship was first discovered, Plouffe’s report says.
The CSE then “obtained the necessary information to confirm that the targeted person was indeed Canadian,” the report says.
It is the CSE’s usual practice to protect the privacy of people who are identified as possibly Canadian in the same way as those whose citizenship is confirmed, Plouffe says.
He found that CSE analysts did not knowingly target the Canadian and that a series of factors led to the agency’s error. Among them: the incident was discovered over a holiday, separate targeting teams responsible for different technical aspects of collecting information did not properly co-ordinate their responses, and the CSE failed to identify the possible Canadian as such in its targeting database.
Ultimately, Plouffe found that although the CSE complied with the law, the incident highlighted gaps in the agency’s information management, privacy-protection procedures and policy guidance related to targets who might be Canadian but whose status is in question.
He says the risk of such an error recurring is low given the CSE has taken several steps to avoid inadvertently targeting Canadians now, including adopting new tools and information-management procedures.
Plouffe was satisfied with the response and made no recommendations.
Ryan Foreman, a CSE spokesman, said he could not provide any additional details about the incident.
The episode “certainly is evidence that a constant watch needs to be maintained” on the agency’s evolving practices, said Bill Robinson, a research fellow with The Citizen Lab at the University of Toronto’s Munk School of Global Affairs and Public Policy.
“It’s concerning to see these things come up year after year,” said Robinson, who closely watches the CSE.
The spy service’s corrective steps are undoubtedly sincere but they don’t mean the same sort of problem won’t happen again, he added.
Since Plouffe’s report was written, the review duties of the commissioner’s office have been absorbed into a new watchdog, the National Security and Intelligence Review Agency, with a broader mandate.
This report by The Canadian Press was first published Feb. 5, 2020.
‘Malicious intent’ suspected in wolf escape, Greater Vancouver Zoo says
LANGLEY, B.C. — The Greater Vancouver Zoo said Tuesday afternoon that a number of its wolves were on the loose after the animals were believed to have been released from their enclosure as a result of “malicious intent.”
However, it said there was no danger to the public, and it was working with the B.C. Conservation Officer Service to “contain” the animals, while the Langley RCMP investigated what appeared to be a case of unlawful entry and vandalism.
“GVZoo staff continue to actively search for a small number of remaining wolves un-accounted for,” the zoo said in a posting. It highlighted the posting with a Facebook message at 3.25 p.m.
Earlier, British Columbia’s Environment Ministry had said that only one wolf was still missing at the zoo, located about 55 kilometres east of Vancouver in the community of Aldergrove.
It did not say how many had escaped at the facility, which says it has nine adult grey wolves and six cubs.
The zoo said on its website that a number of wolves were discovered outside their enclosure Tuesday morning, triggering what it said was an “ongoing investigation and is suspicious, and believed to be due to malicious intent.”
It said most of the wolves were back in the care of its animal health and welfare team.
The zoo had announced that it was closed on Tuesday morning via its Instagram and Facebook accounts.
The Environment Ministry said anyone who sees a wolf should keep their distance and report it by calling 1-877-952-7277.
This report by The Canadian Press was first published Aug. 16, 2022.
The Canadian Press
Ageism: Does it Exist or Is It a Form of ‘I’m a Victim!’ Mentality? [ Part 3 ]
Your age is irrelevant.
This is the third column of a 4-part series dealing with ageism while job hunting.
Career coaches and job search experts claim you can fool employers about your age and beat ageism. The truth is, regardless of your age, nobody can “beat” ageism.
Say you land an interview by concealing your age using experts’ tips and tricks. When you meet the hiring manager, will your age not become evident? Deflecting your age until an in-person or Zoom interview is pointless. At some point during the hiring process, your age will be revealed.
Then there’s the Internet, which “experts” never mention. Employers Google candidates to determine if they’re interview-worthy, which’ll turn up many ways to assess the candidate’s age:
- Your graduating years.
- The years you played minor league baseball.
- The picture your son, who tagged you, posted on Facebook, in August 2004, of you dropping him off at university.
- The whitepaper, Advancing Asian Markets Are Undermining Globalization, you wrote back in 1994 for the brokerage firm you were working at.
- Last March, you tweeted you were celebrating your 25th wedding anniversary.
There’s plenty of information on the Internet, either placed by you or not, that employers can use to determine your age. The Internet has made attempting to hide one’s age from employers futile. Employers can easily determine, even find, your age outside of your resume and LinkedIn profile. Hence, the advice to leave off dates, etc., seems illogical to me. It’s actually telling that you’re trying to hide your age when you leave off dates.
Employers can find almost anything about potential candidates thanks to the Internet. (e.g., age, place of birth, your social media posts). Consequently, employers won’t schedule an interview if they see something they don’t like about a candidate. The Internet allows employers to exercise their biases, right or wrong, before contacting a candidate. When you apply and don’t hear anything, the reason(s) is unknown to you. It’s a guess—a pacifying belief—to say you’re not getting interviews because of your age.
An employer invites you to an interview because you have the skills, experience, and qualifications they’re looking for, and your digital footprint has passed their scrutiny. If you’re not hired, it’s not because of your age. Assuming you didn’t arrive late, dressed professionally, built rapport with your interviewer, and didn’t knock over the picture of their dog, you weren’t hired because (the two most common reasons):
- You didn’t sell yourself as the solution to the problem the position was created to solve, or (brace yourself)
- There were better candidates.
Obviously, candidates get rejected for various reasons, not just the ones I mentioned. However, rejected candidates often use excuses, such as ageism, to justify why they weren’t selected rather than evaluating their interviewing skills.
You’re not owed friendship, love, respect, health, or making a living. Everything in life—everything worthwhile—must be earned. No matter how old you are, you need to earn (READ: prove) why you deserve to be on an employer’s payroll.
Now that you know you can’t beat ageism, what can you do? As regular readers of my columns know, my first advice to jobseekers is to find their tribe. Look for where you belong and will be welcomed. Pursue the right employers! My advice to “find your tribe” applies not just to ageism but to overcoming all perceived “isms.” An undeniable fact: As humans, we prefer to be around people we feel comfortable with.
When you focus on where you belong, your job search will be much more successful.
I’m confident there are just as many employers who value the experience a seasoned candidate will bring to their company as there are employers who prefer less seasoned candidates for what they’ll not bring to their company. (I know, this is a bit of a mind pretzel. Flip it around in your head for a few minutes. Slowly it’ll make sense.)
Regardless of whether you consider yourself young or old, you can make your age irrelevant by:
- Demonstrating your ability to generate revenue, save money, improve processes, improve safety, etc. (Share your expertise and track record of delivering results.)
- Adopt a consulting mindset. (Treat interviews as consulting conversations. Show curiosity and a learning mindset.)
- Communicating your confidence in your ability to hit the ground running. (This isn’t your first rodeo.)
- Show you’re energetic and enthusiastic.
Look at that; I provided ways to negate your age over which “older candidates” have more leverage.
Whatever your age, remember, an interview isn’t about you. It’s about convincing your interviewer you’re the best solution to their problems. Remember, you were vetted before getting the interview; your age isn’t an issue.
Next week, in my final column of this series, I’ll discuss having the right mindset to cope with ageism during job searches.
Nick Kossovan, a well-seasoned veteran of the corporate landscape, offers advice on searching for a job. You can send Nick your questions at firstname.lastname@example.org.
Canada eyes cash for critical minerals in Biden's big new climate bill – CBC News
A historic climate bill just passed by the U.S. Congress could have implications in entrenching Canada’s role in the shift toward clean transportation.
The legislation that passed last week established preferential tax treatment for electric vehicles assembled anywhere in North America.
That made-in-North-America approach generated some news headlines by bringing an amicable resolution to a months-long Canada-U.S. irritant.
Less noticed in the bill was a pot of money containing hundreds of millions of dollars to jump-start a new domestic industry in components for electric-vehicle batteries.
The ripple-effects could eventually be felt across the border, up into remote Canadian mining communities.
At issue is growing U.S. concern about becoming dependent on its great geopolitical rival, China, for the critical minerals powering future vehicles.
President Joe Biden invoked the U.S. Defense Production Act earlier this year allowing him to fund projects that would lessen dependence on U.S. rivals.
He’s now getting the funds to do it: $500 million US set aside in this incoming law, after another $600 million was tucked into a recent Ukraine assistance bill, atop an older multibillion-dollar loans program.
Those funds are now at Biden’s disposal to enact his stated plan to develop new suppliers for lithium, nickel, cobalt, graphite and manganese, as well as heat pumps.
An ‘opportunity’ for Canada
Could some of that money create new battery-component projects in Canada? Canadian officials are hopeful it will.
They point to a document recently posted on the White House website, from a binational panel: It explicitly mentions Canada being included as a domestic source under the U.S. Defense Production Act and says that creates potential co-operation opportunities on critical minerals.
“There is an opportunity the way [the bill is] structured — to take advantage of some of that,” Kirsten Hillman, Canada’s ambassador to Washington, told CBC News in an interview.
“This will spur domestic production [in the U.S.]. It also includes Canada as a domestic source. So we look forward to shared opportunities.”
The broader story of the new bill, which Biden will soon sign, is that it’s by far the most significant U.S. federal action ever against climate change.
It passed with relatively little media coverage last Friday, with the country’s politics distracted by the FBI search of former president Donald Trump’s home.
What’s in that big climate bill
But analysts who’ve studied the bill have predicted a major impact on carbon emissions through its more than $400 billion Cdn in tax credits and subsidies for a wide range of energy projects.
Those estimates project U.S. greenhouse-gas emissions will fall faster now to anywhere between 31 per cent and 42 per cent from 2005 levels, which would take the U.S. significantly closer to achieving its 2030 target under the Paris accord.
The so-called Inflation Reduction Act would remove one billion tons of greenhouse gasses from the atmosphere, says Princeton University’s Zero Lab — that’s equivalent to reducing two per cent of all current global emissions.
But there’s uncertainty in the projections: One reason the estimates vary so widely is it’s far from clear how quickly new energy projects will get started.
Here’s an example of that uncertainty: The much-discussed electric vehicle credit.
For almost a year, it was a festering irritant in Canada-U.S. relations. An earlier version of the bill, previously known as Build Back Better, allowed only U.S.-assembled vehicles to access certain tax credits.
What happened to that EV tax irritant?
That triggered threats of trade retaliation. Ottawa warned that the bill violated the new North American trade deal and would wipe out auto jobs and investment in Canada.
The head of Canada’s Automotive Parts Manufacturers Association, Flavio Volpe, called the friendlier language in the new, final, bill a relief for Canadian jobs: “It’s a bullet dodged,” he said.
“Probably more of a missile dodged.”
But wait. There’s an important caveat in the new, friendlier language. U.S. auto-makers are now calling the new credit practically useless, under current conditions.
For an electric car to qualify for the maximum $7,500 US in the new version of the credit, the car’s battery will increasingly need North American components: from 50 per cent of the battery in 2024, to 100 per cent in 2028.
The problem? North America doesn’t make that many battery components.
“[No vehicles] would qualify for the full credit when additional sourcing requirements go into effect. Zero,” said a letter from a U.S. auto industry lobby group.
An analysis for the non-partisan U.S. Congressional Budget Office projected that only a tiny percentage of vehicles will wind up receiving the tax credit.
In a 10-year fiscal forecast for the bill, the CBO estimated the U.S. treasury will wind up paying out just enough to deliver the full credit to slightly over 1 million vehicles over a decade.
The bottom line: Very few cars are expected to have enough North American components to qualify.
That’s where Canadian mining comes in.
A key architect of the final version of the bill, U.S. Sen. Joe Manchin, has repeatedly stated his skepticism about the original plan.
He said it made no sense to rush into the electric-vehicle age while America’s chief adversary still has a stranglehold on vital inputs.
But after Manchin visited Canada earlier this year, he opined that the two countries should be working more closely together on minerals.
This new bill appears designed to do just that, through the tax credits for North American vehicles, and the cash for critical-minerals projects.
If U.S. mining companies want access to some of that money, they can submit proposals to the American government.
Quebec mining project
One company eyeing U.S. public funds happens to have an important investment in Quebec.
Keith Phillips, president of North Carolina-headquartered Piedmont Lithium, said he’s not yet clear on what conditions the U.S. government will set and what projects it’s looking to fund.
More details about the administration of the bill will be revealed in regulations to be drafted in the coming months.
“I’m not sure anyone’s entirely clear on what the priorities are,” Phillips said in an interview.
His company is a minority investor in a Quebec lithium mine that’s now forecast to begin producing next year.
The next goal is to build a plant in Quebec for value-added processing with the majority partner, Australia’s Sayona Mining.
The project is in its infancy and there’s no site picked out yet.
Phillips said a similar plant would cost $600 million US to build in the U.S. and he said public money is a lifeline for projects that banks have little history of supporting.
“Of course it would be a priority,” he said of figuring out the potential for U.S. federal loans.
“If government assistance could be involved, it’s very helpful.”
Building a North American battery industry
The Canadian government also recently budgeted $4 billion to develop the country’s critical minerals sector.
Yet North America is starting way behind.
Canada, for instance, has a minute share of the world’s discovered deposits of lithium, cobalt and manganese.
Brian Kingston, head of the Canadian Vehicle Manufacturers’ Association, said he’s relieved by some of the changes in the U.S. bill.
But he’s still concerned — that auto-makers can’t meet the zero-emissions sales targets set by Ottawa without major improvements, in charging capacity, energy infrastructure and sales incentives.
As for a North American battery supply chain, he said: “[It] won’t emerge overnight.”
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