Connect with us

Health

Double mRNA COVID-19 vaccination found to increase SARS-CoV-2 variant recognition – News-Medical.Net

Published

 on


In a recent study posted to the bioRxiv* preprint server, researchers evaluated the impact of double BNT162b2 messenger ribonucleic acid (mRNA) vaccination in recognition of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) variants of concern (VoCs).

Study: Double-dose mRNA vaccination to SARS-CoV-2 progressively increases recognition of variants-of-concern by Spike RBD-specific memory B cells. Image Credit: CKA/Shutterstock

Background

Studies have reported that double coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) vaccinations generate high titers of SARS-CoV-2 S-targeted antibodies (Ab), Bmem and T lymphocytes; however, VoCs with SARS-CoV-2 S receptor-binding domain (RBD) mutations can evade humoral immune responses.

Booster doses have been reported to enhance VoC recognition by Abs; however, it is not clear whether VoC recognition is enhanced due to higher Ab titers or due to the increased capacity of Ab binding to S RBDs.

About the study

In the present study, researchers evaluated the benefit of double BNT162b2 vaccinations on SARS-CoV-2 VoC recognition.

Healthy and SARS-CoV-2- naïve persons (n=30) without immunological or hematological diseases were enrolled in the study to assess their peripheral blood B-lymphocyte subsets between February and June 2021.  Samples were obtained before the BNT162b2 vaccination, after three weeks of the first vaccination, and four weeks following the second vaccination.

Serum memory B lymphocytes (Bmem) counts and Ab titers were assessed using recombinant SARS-CoV-2 spike (S) protein RBDs of the Wuhan, Gamma, and Delta strains. Neutralizing Ab (NAb) titers were evaluated using 293T-ACE2 cells and SARS-CoV-2 pseudotyped viral assays. Further, the nature of RBD-targeted Bmem was examined based on the expression of cluster of differentiation (CD) 21, 27, and 71.

Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISA) were performed to evaluate variant-specific S RBD antibody titers and the serum dilution needed for preventing 50% SARS-CoV-2 entry (ID50) values were ascertained. Flow cytometry (FC) was performed to evaluate Bmem counts. Immunoglobulin G (IgG) titers against SARS-CoV-2 nucleocapsid (N) protein RBD and S RBD were evaluated before and post the first and second BNT162b2 vaccination.

Results

In total, 28, 30, and 30 samples were obtained pre-vaccination, after three weeks of the first dose and after four weeks of the second dose, respectively. All the participants remained SARS-CoV-2-naïve throughout the study without anti-SARS-CoV-2 N antibodies. Most participants (n=22) induced NAbs after the first vaccination, and the NAb titers after the second vaccination had IC50 values >100.

Double BNT162b2 vaccination generated robust NAb responses among all study participants. Immunoglobulin G+ (IgG+) and IgM+ RBD-targeted Bmem were generated after the first vaccination, and IgG1+ Bmem counts increased after the second vaccination. Most RBD-targeted Bmem showed binding with Delta and/or Gamma VoCs, which increased significantly after the second vaccination.

The RBD-targeted Bmem compartment comprised mainly IgG1+ or IgM+ cells, and contrastingly, the total Bmem compartment comprised more IgG2+ cells and fewer IgG1+ cells compared to the RBD-targeted Bmem compartment.

After the second vaccination dose, RBD-targeted IgG1, 2 and 3-expressing Bmem populations expanded significantly, although the total Bmem lymphocyte compartment was unaltered.

The number of RBD-targeted IgG+ Bmem correlated positively with RBD-targeted serum IgG post first and second vaccinations. While two subsets of IgM+ Bmem lymphocytes (CD27+ IgM+ and CD27+ IgM+ IgD+) proportionally decreased after the second vaccination dose, the absolute cell counts were identical to those observed post the first vaccine dose. Taken together, BNT162b2 vaccinations particularly affected the antigen-targeted Bmem lymphocyte counts, and the production of IgG1-expressing Bmem lymphocytes was boosted after the second BNT162b2 vaccination.

CD27 was expressed by 95% of anti-RBD and IgG-expressing Bmem lymphocytes, the proportion of which did not differ between the initial and subsequent BNT162b2 vaccination. After the first vaccine dose, 15% of anti-RBD Bmem lymphocytes were CD21lo, the proportion of which was marginally but significantly lower (reduced to 10%) after four weeks of the second vaccination.

CD71 was expressed by 10% of anti-RBD Bmem lymphocytes after the first and second vaccination. In the total population of Bmem lymphocytes, the results after the first and second vaccination did not differ significantly, denoting the Bmem compartment stability. After four weeks of vaccination, anti-RBD Bmem lymphocytes exhibited a nature and resting Bmem lymphocyte immunophenotype.

Anti-Wuhan S RBD- IgG titers exhibited partial recognition of the Beta, Gamma and Delta VoCs with more prominent reductions for Gamma and Beta VoCs than for the Delta VoC. The second vaccine BNT162b2 dose significantly enhanced anti-Wuhan RBD antibody binding to Gamma and Beta VoCs; however, the neutralization potency of vaccine-induced NAbs against Gamma and Beta was lesser than for Delta.

Delta RBD and Gamma RBD were recognized by 50% and 70% of RBD-targeted Bmem lymphocytes after the first and second vaccinations, respectively, and the increase in VoC-recognizing Bmem counts was largely due to elevated IgG1+ Bmem counts.

Conclusion

Overall, the study findings showed that the second BNT162b2 vaccination elevated NAb titers and SARS-CoV-2 RBD-targeted Bmem counts and that double BNT162b2 vaccination was especially needed for Delta and Gamma VoC recognition. The findings indicated that the second vaccine dose improved S RBD-targeted Bmem counts and the Bmem affinity to overcome VoC mutations.

*Important notice

bioRxiv publishes preliminary scientific reports that are not peer-reviewed and, therefore, should not be regarded as conclusive, guide clinical practice/health-related behavior, or treated as established information.

Journal reference:

Adblock test (Why?)



Source link

Continue Reading

Health

B.C. pharmacists to renew, issue prescriptions as part of reworked health plan

Published

 on

VANCOUVER — British Columbia is expanding the power of pharmacists to renew and issue some prescriptions as part of a wide-ranging plan to relieve pressure on the province’s struggling health-care system.

Health Minister Adrian Dix said Thursday the five-year health human resources strategy aims to redesign how health staff work, as well as retain, recruit and train workers through 70 action items.

“We intend to work together with every aspect of the health-care system and with patients to develop solutions that will make a career in health care a more sustainable and rewarding opportunity for people,” Dix told a news conference.

The past three years have added demands to an already overburdened system, Dix acknowledged. The COVID-19 pandemic, toxic drug deaths and aging population contributing to exhaustion and burnout among health workers, he said.

The problem isn’t limited to B.C., with the World Health Organization forecasting a global shortage of 15 million health workers by 2030, he added.

Starting Oct. 14, B.C. pharmacists will be able to administer more vaccines and renew prescriptions for up to a two-year period for people with chronic illnesses whose family doctors have retired or left their practices.

Next spring, pharmacists will begin prescribing drugs for minor ailments like urinary tract infections, allergies and indigestion, as well contraception, meaning patients won’t have to visit a doctor first.

The changes bring B.C. in line with guidelines set out by Health Canada and other provinces.

Jamie Wigston, a practising pharmacist and president of the BC Pharmacy Association, said the shift won’t require new training for pharmacists, whose skills have been underused.

“We’ve been trained to do much more than what we’ve been able to do for a long time,” Wigston said.

Empowering pharmacists to renew prescriptions is especially important for patients with mental health and substance use disorders, who need access to medications in a timely manner, he said.

The announcement will also help patients in rural areas who may have community pharmacies, but where a medical clinic or prescriber may be hours away, he added.

The government said renewing prescriptions for patients without family doctors would be at the discretion of the pharmacist. If uncomfortable, the pharmacist could consult with a doctor by phone or send the patient for a medical assessment.

The move comes amid an ongoing crisis in health care that has seen emergency department closures due to staffing shortages and long wait times to see specialists.

About one in five residents don’t have a family doctor.

The plan will also see paramedic training expanded to include pain management and enhanced airway management techniques. Firefighters and other first responders will be equipped to take blood pressure, use medication for life-threatening allergic reactions and prepare patients for transport by ambulance.

The plan does not cover pay for health workers, but Dix said the province is in ongoing talks with Doctors of BC, representing 14,000 physicians in B.C., to create a new compensation model for family practice doctors. Pay and benefits for workers like paramedics would generally be dealt with during bargaining, he added.

Another action item in the plan includes 128 new seats to the University of B.C.’s faculty of medicine and $1.5 million to help establish a previously announced new medical school at Simon Fraser University in Burnaby.

Redesigning the system will include establishing clear workload standards, using technology more efficiently and adopting team-based models of care, the government said during a technical briefing.

It said it’s also working to lower “artificial barriers” to verify international qualifications for nurses, doctors and other health workers, reducing what is typically an 18-month to two-year process.

Expanding employer-based training will also allow health workers to earn and learn at the same time, officials say.

This report by The Canadian Press was first published Sept. 29, 2022.

 

Amy Smart, The Canadian Press

Continue Reading

Health

Java Burn Reviews – Effective Ingredients for Weight Loss or Bogus Claims – Maple Ridge News

Published

 on


More consumers started consuming Java Burn, and the number is increasing every day. More consumers are pouring product-friendly reviews furnishing relevant information about Java Burn, its ingredients, recommended dosage, price list, complaints, and crucial F&A. Java Burn is a weight loss beverage consisting of green tea extract (300mg), green coffee bean extract (200mg), L-theanine (100mg), vitamin B-12(5mcg), chromium (20mcg), vitamin B6 (1mg) and vitamin D3(20mcg) totaling a 700mg dose. Innovator of this unique formula, John Barban, deems these components will stimulate a state of metabolism called nutritional synergy. This fat-burning supplement dissolves with any beverage without altering its taste and flavor. This morning beverage peps you up all through the day.

Enhance memory power

A healthy diet is crucial for overall well-being, and nutritional synergy fortifies the nutritional value of the foods you eat. The University of Illinois, in a study, found an association between specific nutrients and brain functioning in older individuals. Java Burn supports a weight loss regime without vigorous exercise and a restricted diet and enhances your memory power, intelligence, and brain function associated with global-oriented behavior. This nutritional supplement is organic; the flavorless powder stimulates healthy synergy, a form of metabolism when consumed with a balanced proportion of minerals and vitamins.

Instantly soluble

Java Burn is a weight loss supplement that comes in a tasteless powder form. The product is only available on the official website. A pouch of Java Burn costs $49; its organic ingredients instantly dissipate in coffee or other beverages stimulating metabolism. The product’s creator suggests you put one bag of the supplement in coffee, stir it well and sip. The powder is flavorless, so it does not alter the aroma or taste of brimming coffee. When your body’s metabolism rate increases, it burns the stubborn fat cells rapidly, and you shed that extra body weight.

The components of Java Burn are vegetarian and non-GMO, with no side effects, and a third party examines its effectiveness and safety. A pouch contains thirty sachets; drink one daily with an aromatic brimming cup of coffee.

Non-GMO

The critical elements of Java Burn contain green tea and coffee extracts, L-theanine, and chromium. The powder, when intakes in the morning, enhances metabolism speed and efficiency by 500%, and the fat-burning process continues throughout the day. The product reduces the feeling of hunger and optimizes nutrition synergy. All product ingredients are non-GMO, citing they are not genetically modified. Many scientists and environmentalists advocate that GMO products pose serious health threats. Furthermore, the formula does not use fillers, antibiotics, artificial sweeteners/colors, stimulants, or preservatives. Healthy men and women from the age group of twenty-five to sixty-five can enjoy this supplement for weight loss.

Stimulates metabolism

Genetic, junk food habits, and poor lifestyle are significant reasons for obesity; this fat-burning supplement is the easiest way to eliminate the extra pounds. The product naturally stimulates your metabolism process and kicks up fat burning procedures. The product goes well with any type of coffee, regular, espresso, American, and light, medium, or dark roast. The product is manufactured in the US, complying with GMP guidelines. Java Burn effectively burns the stored fat cells, thus supporting the weight loss program. When you consume the supplement mixed with coffee, its effectiveness increases as it is assimilated into the bloodstream. For an optimal result, the product needs to be consumed within two years from the date of manufacture.

2-3 months

When consumed with coffee, Java Burn suppresses hunger, and you need not count your calorie intake. To get the best result out of the product, you need to consume it for two to three months consecutively. It is the last time your body gets acclimatized to the product and starts burning stored fat by increasing metabolism and efficiency. Till now, no side effects have been reported by consumers, and the possibility is almost nil as all ingredients are non –GMO and natural.

Every manufactured sachet undergoes rigorous testing by a third party ensuring quality, effectiveness, and purity. The reviews submitted by thousands of consumers on the official website testify to the efficacy and safety of the supplement. If any health issue arises after consuming the fat-burning supplement, immediately contact a health care professional and stop taking the supplement.

Basal metabolism

The metabolism rate affects the calorie of fat you burn during exercise, sleep or rest. Metabolism, aka metabolic rate, is a biochemical process in living organisms that breaks up nutrients and fat to generate the energy necessary for survival. In simpler terms, the rate at which your body produces energy or burns calories. The human body burns calories in three ways; when the body is at rest (Basal Metabolism) to keep the body running. BMR (basal metabolic rate) is, to a degree, dependent on genetics. Metabolism occurs when you perform daily activities and exercise.

Factors

As metabolism is partly genetic, to change it, you need outside influence; people with higher metabolism feel more vigorous. On the other hand, people with poor metabolism feel lethargic; the body resists the fat burning process and the stored fat cells in the belly and thigh do not shed. As the body burns fewer calories, less energy is produced, and the person feels sluggish. Java Burn, coupled with coffee, claims it increases the user’s metabolic rate. Consequently, the mulish stored fat starts to disintegrate. If you achieve a higher metabolic rate, the body will burn more calories at rest and daily errands. Lean people are more active than obese ones as their metabolic rate is higher in the no exercise period than the latter.

Money Back Guarantee

The product is only available at the official portal. It is applicable for any number of orders. One pouch containing thirty sachets costs $49. If you order three pouches, the cost is $34 for each unit, and you get a supply for three months. Six pouches cost $29 per pouch plus the shipping charge. A sixty-day money-back guarantee comes with the supplement, so you can return it if not satisfied within the stipulated time. Due to its ongoing popularity, many counterfeit products torment the market, so purchase them online from the official website.

3

Adblock test (Why?)



Source link

Continue Reading

Health

Bad flu season predicted for B.C. – Kamloops This Week

Published

 on


After two years of record-low influenza rates, experts are warning the flu will likely be back in full swing this season.

That’s because of a general lifting of pandemic health measures, such as required masking, gathering size limits and travel restrictions, according to pharmacist Kim Myers.

“It definitely increases the spread of germs and colds,” said Myers, who works in the Greater Victoria area.

Health Canada estimates that in a non-pandemic year, about 12,200 Canadians are hospitalized with the flu or flu-like symptoms. Getting an exact number is difficult as only nine of the country’s provinces and territories report hospitalizations to the national flu surveillance system, FluWatch.

Flu hospitalizations dropped during pandemic

of those which do report — Newfoundland and Labrador, Prince Edward Island, Nova Scotia, New Brunswick, Manitoba, Alberta, Yukon, Northwest Territories and Saskatchewan — 5,176 influenza-related hospitalizations were reported during the 2017-2018 season and 3,657 were reported in 2018-2019.

During the 2019-2020 season, half of which occurred within the COVID-19 pandemic, there were 2,493 hospitalizations. That number dropped to zero in 2020-2021, again not including Ontario, Quebec, B.C. or Nunavut.

Myers said it’s hard to tell whether this year’s flu season will be as bad as pre-pandemic years, but that it will almost certainly be worse than the last year or two. She said the awareness the pandemic has raised around the importance of vaccines makes her hopeful more people will get the flu shot this year. Already, Myers said, people coming into her pharmacy are asking when shots will be available.

Possible correlation between COVID-19 and influenza vaccine uptake

B.C. did see a small spike in flu vaccine uptake in the first year of the pandemic. In 2018, 34.6 per cent of people got the shot, followed by 37.2 per cent in 2019 and 42.1 per cent in 2020, according to Statistics Canada. 2021 rates are not yet available.

A 2021 research paper published in medical journal Vaccine found the primary indicator of whether Canadians will get a vaccination is whether they have been vaccinated before, suggesting those who got the COVID vaccine may be more likely to get the influenza one.

More than 87 per cent of British Columbians have received at least one dose of a COVID vaccine as of Sept. 26.

Beginning in early October, B.C. residents will have the option of receiving COVID vaccine boosters and flu shots at the same time. The province said it will have the capacity to vaccinate about 250,000 people per week that way.

Who is most impacted?

For the majority of people, the flu means up to a week of sickness, but for young children, elderly people and the immunocompromised the virus can make it significantly harder for them to fight off infections.

Health Canada said 3,500 deaths are influenza-related each year, although that number is based off a mathematical estimate, rather than actual yearly data.

Myers said the best thing people can do to stop the spread of the virus and protect those most vulnerable to it is to follow many of the same precautions put in place for COVID-19: get vaccinated, wash your hands, wear a mask, stay home if you’re sick and minimize your number of crowded public outings.

“It’s not just for themselves, it’s trying to do it for those around them who are vulnerable and for those who aren’t able to receive vaccines. It’s important that we try and do that to help protect them,” Myers said.

Adblock test (Why?)



Source link

Continue Reading

Trending