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Exoplanet Characterisation – Trottier Institute for Research on Exoplanets

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Since the discovery of the exoplanet 51 Pegasi b in 1995, which was a hot Jupiter, thousands of other exoplanets of all kinds have been discovered. Thanks in part to massive surveys by space telescopes such as Kepler and TESS, a whole zoo of exoplanets has been populated: lava planets, water worlds, super-Earths and mini Neptunes, “cotton candy” planets, more hot Jupiters, and many more.

Many researchers at iREx are focusing on the census and characterisation of these exoplanets in order to paint a more complete picture of the types of planets populating our Universe. The fact that the most common type of exoplanet appears to be mini Neptune, a type of planet absent from our own Solar System, tells us that we still have much to learn about these worlds.

Observable properties

An artistic representation of several different types of planets. (Credit: NASA)

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Using the various methods of exoplanet detection, our researchers can determine a surprising number of properties of these distant worlds. The transit method can reveal the size and period of the exoplanet as well as the distance to its star. The radial velocity method helps us to determine its mass.

Many other observations tell us more about its temperature, its composition, the shape of its orbit, its habitability, and much more. Astronomers have not necessarily determined each of these properties for each catalogued exoplanet, but the increased observations using a multitude of instruments brings us closer each day to a more global understanding of these exoplanets as extraterrestrial worlds in their own right.

Instruments + Observation campaigns

An artistic representation of the TESS telescope. (Credit: NASA)

The characterisation of exoplanets and the resulting global statistical study depend on observational campaigns and instruments specifically designed for the detection and characterisation of these worlds. Several iREx researchers not only benefit from these catalogues, but also actively contribute to them. NASA’s Kepler Space Telescope alone has led to the discovery of over 2600 exoplanets during its mission between 2009 and 2018. The Transiting Exoplanet Survey Satellite (TESS) mission took over in 2018 and will detect thousands and even tens of thousands of exoplanets.

The Webb Telescope, and in particular its Canadian instrument NIRISS, will be able to make follow-up observations of Kepler and TESS targets to determine the chemical composition of their atmospheres. In addition to these space telescopes, several telescopes and astronomical instruments on Earth such as the TRAPPIST telescope, the SPIRou and NIRPS instruments, and many others allow iREx researchers to further populate our databases characterising the exoplanets that have been discovered.

Exoplanet characterisation at iREx

Several iREx researchers and their students are conducting research projects that include the characterisation of exoplanets. To learn more, we invite you to read their profiles:

  • Étienne Artigau
  • Björn Benneke
  • Nicolas Cowan
  • René Doyon
  • David Lafrenière
  • Jason Rowe

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See the Far Side of the Moon: Incredibly Detailed Pictures From Artemis I Orion Close Lunar Flyby – SciTechDaily

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The Earth is seen setting from the far side of the Moon just beyond the Orion spacecraft in this video taken on the sixth day of the Artemis I mission by a camera on the tip of one of Orion’s solar arrays. The spacecraft was preparing for the Outbound Powered Flyby maneuver which would bring it within 80 miles of the lunar surface, the closest approach of the uncrewed Artemis I mission, before moving into a distant retrograde orbit around the Moon. The spacecraft entered the lunar sphere of influence on Sunday, November 20, making the Moon, instead of Earth, the main gravitational force acting on the spacecraft. Credit: <span class="glossaryLink" aria-describedby="tt" data-cmtooltip="

NASA
Established in 1958, the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) is an independent agency of the United States Federal Government that succeeded the National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics (NACA). It is responsible for the civilian space program, as well as aeronautics and aerospace research. Its vision is &quot;To discover and expand knowledge for the benefit of humanity.&quot; Its core values are &quot;safety, integrity, teamwork, excellence, and inclusion.&quot;

” data-gt-translate-attributes=”["attribute":"data-cmtooltip", "format":"html"]”>NASA

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On the sixth day of the Artemis I mission, Orion made a close flyby of the Moon, passing about 81 miles (130 km) above the surface. During the close flyby, Orion’s optical navigation camera captured black-and-white images of craters on the Moon below. Orion uses the optical navigation camera to capture imagery of the Earth and the Moon at different phases and distances, providing an enhanced body of data to certify its effectiveness under different lighting conditions as a way to help orient the spacecraft on future missions with crew.

The Earth and Moon are tidally locked, which means that the Moon spins on its axis exactly once each time it orbits our planet. Because of this, people on Earth only ever see one side of the Moon. In fact, humans didn’t see the lunar far side until a Soviet spacecraft flew past in 1959. This side we never see is known as the “far side of the Moon.” Sometimes it is called the “dark side of the Moon,” which some people consider a misnomer because it gets just as much sunlight as the near side of the Moon. However, “dark” in this case is referring to unknown, rather than a lack of light.

Here are the detailed images of the Moon captured by Orion’s optical navigation camera:

Orion Far Side of MoonOrion Far Side of Moon 2 Orion Far Side of Moon 3 Orion Far Side of Moon 5 Orion Far Side of Moon 6 Orion Far Side of Moon 7 Orion Far Side of Moon 8 Orion Far Side of Moon 9 Orion Far Side of Moon 10 Orion Far Side of Moon 11 Orion Far Side of Moon 12 Orion Far Side of Moon 13 Orion Far Side of Moon 14 Orion Far Side of Moon 15


NASA’s live coverage of the Artemis I Close Flyby of the Moon.

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Mission Accomplished: UVic Satellite Reaches International Space Station – Abbotsford News

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While the International Space Station was travelling over the Pacific Ocean early Sunday (Nov. 27) morning, a SpaceX Dragon cargo spacecraft carrying a miniature satellite built by University of Victoria students autonomously docked to the space-facing port of the station’s Harmony module.

UVic’s optical reference calibration satellite, known as ORCASat, embarked on its journey into space at 11:20 a.m. on Saturday from NASA’s Kennedy Space Center in Florida.

Witnessing the launch was a major relief for ORCASat project manager Alex Doknjas, who nervously watched from his family’s living room in Campbell River on Saturday morning.

“It was pretty awesome,” Doknjas, a recent graduate of UVic’s engineering program, told Black Press Media. The initial launch scheduled for Tuesday, Nov. 22 was scrapped due to poor weather.

UVic’s ORCASat won a national competition funded by the Canadian Space Agency (CSA), the Canadian CubeSat Project, which saw 15 teams of students from each province and territory design and build their own CubeSat with the guidance of CSA experts and representatives from the Canadian space industry.

As a result, UVic’s satellite was one of two post-secondary projects from Canada chosen to be part of Saturday’s launch, alongside a satellite built by students at Dalhousie University in Halifax, N.S.

“It’s pretty remarkable, especially because UVic isn’t a huge school,” Doknjas said. “I think that’s pretty impressive.”

More than 100 full-time researchers, co-op and volunteer students from UVic Satellite Design, UBC Orbit and Simon Fraser University Satellite Design have all contributed to the project which began in 2018.

Tristan Tarnowski, ORCASat team member and UVic engineering student, during assembly of the UVic satellite. (Courtesy ORCASat)

ORCASat is comparable to the size of a two litre carton of milk or tissue box, and only weighs about two-and-a-half kilograms. Once sent out into earth’s orbit the satellite will act as an artificial star, serving as a reference light source in orbit that can be viewed by telescopes back down on earth, said Doknjas.

“What we’re trying to do is demonstrate this concept of calibrating telescopes,” he said. “If you’re a telescope on the ground observing a star, you’re observing the light that the star emits and that light travels through earth’s atmosphere. The atmosphere is constantly changing and as light passes through it, the light gets scattered, and that effect of how light reacts in the atmosphere is not well understood.”

The difference between ORCASat and an actual star, however, is that scientists on earth can communicate with ORCASat, allowing them to know exactly how bright the satellite is, in addition to how bright it appears through a telescope.

“Now you have two separate measurements. You know exactly how bright it actually is, and you know bright it appeared to you. From those two measurements you can calculate the difference, which is how much of that light is lost in the atmosphere,” explained Doknjas.

Doknjas said that although the concept isn’t new, it’s the first time that a light source capable of performing an experiment like this has been carried on a satellite into space. He added that the technology could be used in the future for earth observation, or even methane detection for climate change.

ORCASat will remain at the International Space Station before being released into earth’s orbit to collect data for approximately one year, but that depends on factors like sun flares and solar radiation that impact the life of the satellite.

ALSO READ: BC Aviation Museum seeking donations for a new exhibit


Do you have a story tip? Email: austin.westphal@saanichnews.com.

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Crack or Survive? YouTuber Mark Rober Just Dropped an Egg from Space for Humanity – News18

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YouTuber Mark Rober Dropped Egg from Space. (Image: Youtube/@MarkRober)

YouTuber Mark Rober, best known for his gadgets and fun science videos has now dropped a couple of eggs from space.

Popular YouTuber Mark Rober, best known for his gadgets and fun science videos has done another experiment. In his recent YouTube video, he dropped a couple of eggs from space that fell in the Victor Valley. This was done earlier this year, however, the “Egg Drop From Space” video was uploaded to YouTube on Black Friday. In the video, the team could be seen driving on Bear Valley Road toward Deadman’s Point in Apple Valley. A shot from the weather balloon in space showed the Victor Valley, including landmarks such as Spring Valley Lake and the Mojave River.

The video, since uploaded, has garnered 9.9 million views. The team included rocket and propulsion specialist Joe Barnard, of BPS Systems. He majorly helped with the rocket’s guidance system and design. Have a look:

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His original plan was to fix an egg on a rocket that would be lifted by a giant weather balloon.

Meanwhile, earlier, the YouTuber talked about his son. He revealed that his son has special needs. This was the first time Mark talked about his son’s condition and explained how children with autism view the world differently. In the video, which is around 10 minutes, Mark shared some intimate moments that showed him and his son engaged in heartwarming conversations. Mark explained that he felt protective about his son, which is why he never shared anything about him.

He had launched a fundraiser in collaboration with Next for Autism organisation where several celebrities will join him to raise funds for autistic adults. Mark explained that there are several organisations that help kids with autism but as they grow up and step into the real world not much support is extended to them. Autistic adults also need special support to get them through education and jobs, and hence with this upcoming fundraiser Mark and several celebrities hope to generate that awareness and money.

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