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Here's why you're suffering a hangover – Scuttlebutt Sailing News



The United States Navy sailors and their families rely on Navy Times as a trusted, independent source for news and information on the most important issues affecting their careers and personal lives. Such as hangovers…

Debaucherous evening last night? You’re probably dealing with veisalgia right now.

More commonly known as a hangover, this unpleasant phenomenon has been dogging humanity since our ancestors first happened upon fermentation.

Those nasty vertigo-inducing, cold sweat-promoting and vomit-producing sensations after a raucous night out are all part of your body’s attempt to protect itself from injury after you overindulge in alcoholic beverages.

Your liver is working to break down the alcohol you consumed so your kidneys can clear it out ASAP. But in the process, your body’s inflammatory and metabolic reactions are going to lay you low with a hangover.

As long as people have suffered from hangovers, they’ve searched in vain for a cure. Revelers have access to a variety of compounds, products and devices that purport to ease the pain.

But there’s a lot of purporting and not a lot of proof. Most have not been backed up well by science in terms of usefulness for hangover treatment, and often their effects don’t seem like they’d match up with what scientists know about the biology of the hangover.

Hangovers are virtually guaranteed when you drink too much. That amount varies from person to person based on genetic factors as well as whether there are other compounds that formed along with ethanol in the fermentation process.

Over the course of a night of heavy drinking, your blood alcohol level continues to rise. Your body labors to break down the alcohol – consumed as ethanol in beer, wine or spirits – forming damaging oxygen free radicals and acetaldehyde, itself a harmful compound.

The longer ethanol and acetaldehyde stick around, the more damage they can do to your cellular membranes, proteins and DNA, so your body’s enzymes work quickly to metabolize acetaldehyde to a less toxic compound, acetate.

Over time, your ethanol levels drop through this natural metabolic process. Depending on how much you consumed, you’re likely to experience a hangover as the level of ethanol in your blood slowly returns to zero. Your body is withdrawing from high levels of circulating alcohol, while at the same time trying to protect itself from the effects of alcohol.

Scientists have limited knowledge of the leading causes of the hangover. But they do know that the body’s responses include changes in hormone levels to reduce dehydration and cellular stress.

Alcohol consumption also affects a variety of neurotransmitter systems in the brain, including glutamate, dopamine and serotonin.

Inflammation increases in the body’s tissues, and the healthy gut bacteria in your digestive system take a hit too, promoting leaky gut.

Altogether, the combination of all these reactions and protective mechanisms activated by your system gives rise to the experience of a hangover, which can last up to 48 hours.

Your misery likely has company
Drinking and socializing are cultural acts, and most hangovers do not happen in isolation. Human beings are social creatures, and there’s a high likelihood that at least one other individual feels the same as you the morning after the night before.

Each society has different rules regarding alcohol use, which can affect how people view alcohol consumption within those cultures.

Drinking is often valued for its relaxing effect and for promoting sociability. So it’s common to see alcohol provided at celebratory events, social gatherings and holiday parties.

In the United States, drinking alcohol is largely embraced by mainstream culture, which may even promote behaviors involving excessive drinking. It should be no surprise that overindulgence goes hand in hand with these celebratory social events – and leads to hangover regrets a few hours later.

Your body’s reactions to high alcohol intake and the sobering-up period can influence mood, too. The combination of fatigue that you experience from sleep deprivation and hormonal stress reactions, in turn, affect your neurobiological responses and behavior. As your body is attempting to repair itself, you’re more likely to be easily irritated, exhausted and want nothing more than to be left alone.

Of course, your work productivity takes a dramatic hit the day after an evening of heavy drinking.

When all is said and done, you’re the cause of your own hangover pain, and you’re the one who must pay for all the fun of the night before. But in short order, you’ll forget how excruciating your last hangover was. And you may very soon talk yourself into doing the things you swore you’d never do again.

Speeding up recovery

While pharmacologists like us understand a bit about how hangovers work, we still lack a true remedy.

Countless articles describe a variety of foods, caffeine, ion replenishment, energy drinks, herbal supplements including thyme and ginger, vitamins and the “hair of the dog” as ways to prevent and treat hangovers.

But the evidence isn’t really there that any of these work effectively. They’re just not scientifically validated or well reproduced.

For example, Kudzu root (Pueraria lobata), a popular choice for hangover remedies, has primarily been investigated for its effects in reducing alcohol-mediated stress and hangover.

But at the same time, Kudzu root appears to inhibit the enzymes that break down acetaldehyde – not good news since you want to clear that acetaldehyde from your system quickly.

To fill this knowledge gap, our lab is working with colleagues to see if we can find scientific evidence for or against potential hangover remedies. We’ve focused on the benefits of dihydromyricetin, a Chinese herbal medicine that is currently available and formulated as a dietary supplement for hangover reduction or prevention.

Dihydromyricetin appears to work its magic by enhancing alcohol metabolism and reducing its toxic byproduct, acetaldehyde. From our findings in mice models, we are collecting data that support the usefulness of dihydromyricetin in increasing the expression and activity of enzymes responsible for ethanol and acetaldehyde metabolism in the liver, where ethanol is primarily broken down.

These findings explain one of the several ways dihydromyricetin protects the body against alcohol stress and hangover symptoms.

We are also studying how this enhancement of alcohol metabolism results in changes in alcohol drinking behaviors. Previously, dihydromyricetin was found to counteract the relaxation affect of drinking alcohol by interfering with particular neuroreceptors in the brain; rodents didn’t become as intoxicated and consequently reduced their ethanol intake.

Through this combination of mechanisms, we hope to illustrate how DHM might reduce the downsides of excessive drinking beyond the temporary hangover, and potentially reduce drinking behavior and damage associated with heavy alcohol consumption.

Of course, limiting alcohol intake and substituting water for many of those drinks during an evening out is probably the best method to avoid a painful hangover.

However, for those times when one alcoholic beverage leads to more than a few more, be sure to stay hydrated and catch up on rest.

Your best bet for a smoother recovery is probably some combination of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug like ibuprofen, Netflix, and a little downtime.

Background on authors:

Dr. Daryl L. Davies is the Associate Dean for Undergraduate Education and a professor in the Titus Family Department of Clinical Pharmacy at the University of Southern California’s School of Pharmacy. He also leads a leads a research team seeking to develop novel therapeutics for the treatment of neurodegenerative diseases and alcoholism and is considered a pioneer by his peers in the field of purinergic receptors and their role in CNS regulation of alcohol-induced changes in alcohol intake and signaling.

Dr. Terry David Church, is an assistant professor in the Department of Regulatory and Quality Sciences, and lecturer for the undergraduate program at the University of Southern California’s School of Pharmacy.

Joshua Silva is a PhD student at the University of Southern California’s School of Pharmacy. His doctoral project is titled “Dihydromyricetin (DHM) Increases Alcohol Metabolism and Reduces Alcohol-Induced Liver Injury.”


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Interactive map shows neighbourhoods with higher and lower rates of COVID-19 – Ottawa Citizen



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The map provides numbers as well as rates per 100,000 people, and also shows significant outbreaks at long-term care homes and retirement homes.

Among the neighbourhoods with the highest cumulative number of cases: Ledbury-Herongate-Ridgemont (123 cases); Overbrook-McArthur (73 cases); Old Barrhaven East (54 cases); Bayshore-Belltown (48 cases); Portobello South (42 cases) and Centretown (40 cases).

The map shows the neighbourhoods where people with confirmed COVID-19 live, and does not necessarily reflect when they were infected. Exposure to COVID-19 can occur anywhere people congregate, such as workplaces or services open to the public.

There are several factors that may be driving the observed rates of COVID-19 in Ottawa neighbourhoods. For instance, the population differences between urban and rural neighbourhoods affects the number of COVID-19 cases per 100,000 people because rural neighbourhoods have smaller populations making rates more sensitive to changes. The Marlborough neighbourhood in the rural south of the city, for example, had seven confirmed cases — but this translates to 363.98 per 100,000 people.

Testing rates have also not been uniform across the city and in some cases certain groups have been prioritized.

Meanwhile, factors such as income can have an effect on disease prevalence. A study released in May by the Institute for Clinical Evaluative Sciences (ICES) found that those tested, and those confirmed positive, were more likely to live in marginalized neighbourhoods.

The ICES researchers found that those confirmed positive for COVID-19 were also more likely to live in neighbourhoods with a relatively greater concentration of immigrants and visible minorities.

The Ottawa Neighbourhood Study’s interactive map is updated monthly and reflects the number and rate of Ottawa residents with confirmed COVID-19. Currently illustrating cases up to Aug 31, 2020.

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More COVID cases in area – Kingston This Week



Holy Cross Catholic School in Kemptville is shown here. Photo credit: Catholic District School Board of Eastern Ontario/Facebook

KEMPTVILLE – Classes resumed on Monday after the Catholic elementary school here closed its doors following a COVID-19 outbreak last week.

The good news came as the regional case count rose by three over the weekend – as did the number of people who have recovered.

Holy Cross Catholic School closed for the day on Friday after officials identified two confirmed cases of COVID-19 on site – the first school-based cases in the region – but promptly reopened after a thorough investigation.

“Contact tracing has been completed by the local health unit and no new cases of COVID-19 have been reported at the school,” the Catholic District School Board of Eastern Ontario wrote on social media.

“We are continuing to work closely with the local health unit and we will notify parents should the circumstances change.”

Of the two cases, one was confirmed to be a staff member and one was a student, according to provincial data.

The school closed for a day because testing and isolation requirements caused a staff shortage, the school board added. This prompted safety concerns, forcing them to close for a day.

According to the Leeds, Grenville and Lanark District Health Unit, an outbreak is defined as “two or more lab-confirmed COVID-19 cases in students and/or staff in a school” that can reasonably be linked to each other.

Susan Healey, a spokeswoman for the health unit, said they have not received any more positive test results from anyone at the school since the initial cases were announced, but they’re still awaiting results for some close contacts of the people who tested positive.

Those people will stay home while they wait for their results, she said.

“In a school, everyone who is identified as a case or a high risk contact of a case is excluded for 14 days,” Healey said on Monday.

“High risk contacts are recommended for testing. They will also remain on isolation for the full 14 days, even if a negative result is obtained, to ensure nothing further develops.”

Provincial guidelines say anyone who tests positive for COVID-19 must isolate for 14 days after the onset of symptoms – or 14 days after a positive test if there are no symptoms – as long as there is “no fever and symptoms have been improving for three days,” Healey added.

The Upper Canada District School Board also confirmed late last week a person at Chimo Elementary School in Smiths Falls tested positive for the virus, the first case in the region’s largest school board.

The letter from the health unit’s Dr. Paula Stewart said they had been in contact with and isolated all students and staff that may have had “high risk exposure.”

The school did not close and an outbreak was not declared. Provincial data indicates the patient is a student.

“This is the first positive case of COVID-19 for our school board and Chimo was able to provide all the necessary information public health needed to do their contact tracing,” school board superintendent Dave Coombs said in a statement.

“Chimo staff take every precaution to ensure the safety of our students, and our students are very good at following the heightened health and hygiene practices that have been put in place. The safety of our students and staff remains a priority for us.”

The news came as the province announced 700 new cases of COVID-19 on Monday – the highest one-day increase ever recorded. Health Minister Christine Elliott said 60 per cent of Monday’s cases were in people under the age of 40.

Locally, the health unit reported three new cases on Monday but the total sits at 11 active cases because three other people also recovered from the virus.

The number of total cases rose from 378 to 381, while the number of patients who have recovered rose from 315 to 318. Since the start of the pandemic, the area has seen 52 COVID-19 deaths.

All 11 active cases are people in the community, as opposed to health-care workers or residents of seniors’ facilities. None of the current patients are in hospital.

The health unit was reporting six active cases in Grenville County, three active cases in West Leeds, and two cases in Lanark.

The numbers are based on data as of 4 p.m. Sunday.

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Canada reports 1,739 new coronavirus cases as global deaths top 1 million – Global News



It took Manitoba Public Health officials five days to notify a Winnipeg woman that she has tested positive for COVID-19.

Global News has agreed to not identify the woman in this story, over concerns of public stigma.

“On the Sunday I went to get a test,” the woman said. “I still had very mild symptoms, definitely didn’t think I had COVID, I just wanted to be careful.”

Read more:
Masks now mandatory in Winnipeg, surrounding areas

The woman said she was experiencing a slight sore throat and sniffles, but thought it could just be a cold.

She waited four days in isolation with no test results, adhering to the public health orders. Because her symptoms got worse, she decided to call health links.

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“I finally got a hold of someone and she took my information, looked up my results, then told me she was having technical difficulties and passed me on to her manager,” she said.

“Then that’s the person that essentially told me that I tested positive. Although she did recommend that I don’t tell anyone until I got the official call from the health nurse, which I did not get the official call from the health nurse until Friday.”

The woman notes up until that point she didn’t think she had contracted the virus.

“We didn’t really have any reason necessarily to think that I was going to test positive for COVID, with all the information that we’ve heard, which is that the positive results are within two days, so the longer it was, the more I was thinking it was going to be negative.”

‘COVID-19 Fatigue’

‘COVID-19 Fatigue’

A public health official called the woman on Friday to notify her of her positive result, five days after her COVID-19 test was administered.

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“What I don’t understand is why a positive result was sitting in their system, but I didn’t know about it,” the woman said.

“I mean, what if I had called that morning, what if I called the day before? Did they have it and just hadn’t told me or did it actually take that long?”

Winnipeg Health Region Authorities did confirm to Global News that the woman’s test results were shared with her five days following her test, but couldn’t go into the details as to why due to patient confidentiality.

Officials pointed to what Manitoba’s Chief Public Health officer said on Monday about delays in positive test result notification.

“Roughly 97 per cent of people, of positives, are getting their results back within 48 hours,” Dr. Brent Roussin said.

“So certainly we want to continue to improve that. We hear of anecdotes of delays of getting positives, so (we are) going to constantly look at why that might be.”

The woman’s symptoms have worsened and she remains insolation with concerns over the province’s delay in relaying critical information.

“I don’t want people who aren’t going to do what I did, which is stay home, to have to wait five days.”

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© 2020 Global News, a division of Corus Entertainment Inc.

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