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How Canada could avoid a 2nd wave of COVID-19 –



The first wave of COVID-19 is subsiding in Canada, with daily case numbers and hospitalizations falling to rates not seen since the beginning of the pandemic.

Predictions on when a second wave of COVID-19 could hit have ranged from the fall and winter months of this year, when flu season traditionally starts, to early next year, similar to the way the pandemic began.

But experts say the likelihood of a second wave isn’t set in stone, and Canada could instead see several smaller waves in the coming months or avoid a second wave altogether — especially if we keep our guard up.

“There’s actually nothing preordained about a second wave,” said Steven Hoffman, director of the Global Strategy Lab and a global health law professor at York University in Toronto who studies pandemics. 

“We might have a second wave, we might have a third, fourth and fifth wave — we might not have a second wave at all.”

Dr. Isaac Bogoch, an infectious disease physician and scientist with Toronto General Hospital, said instead of one cohesive second wave, we’ll likely face smaller outbreaks in the coming months that will need to be clamped down on quickly.

“It’s going to be a game of whack-a-mole,” he said. 

“We’re basically going to be trying to rapidly identify small outbreaks as soon as possible, quelling those small outbreaks and preventing them from snowballing into larger outbreaks and a larger epidemic.”

Workers spray disinfectant in front of a nightclub in Seoul, South Korea, on May 12 following an outbreak of COVID-19. (Yonhap/Reuters)

Israel saw hundreds of new infections after reopening schools, South Korea faced a spike in cases at a nightclub district in Seoul while an outbreak at a meatpacking plant in Germany led to renewed lockdown measures. 

Meanwhile, countries like Singapore, Hong Kong and Taiwan quickly flattened the curve of their first wave and have so far avoided a second wave of infections altogether while keeping strict physical-distancing measures in place.

China moved quickly to quell a new coronavirus outbreak in Beijing this month, raising its emergency level, suspending reopenings and cancelling more than 60 per cent of flights in and out of the capital after reporting at least 256 new cases since early June.

Bogoch said if Canada takes a similar approach to controlling new outbreaks, we can avoid more drastic measures like shutting down nonessential businesses and reimposing lockdown measures across the country for the long term.

“If we jump on it quickly and we have the capacity to do the early identifications, contact tracing and isolation, we can get through this without a big second wave,” he said.

“But if we don’t, if we let our guard down, well, here it comes.” 

Canadians vulnerable to COVID-19 

The largest risk factor for another wave of infection is connected to the fact that most Canadians are susceptible to COVID-19 simply because they haven’t had it.

Canada’s Chief Public Health Officer Dr. Theresa Tam said almost 2.5 million Canadians have been tested for COVID-19, with an average of about four per cent testing positive and more than 100,000 confirmed cases. 

Front-line health-care staff conduct drive-thru COVID-19 testing at a specially built facility near Etobicoke General Hospital in Toronto on April 8. (Evan Mitsui/CBC)

“We have very small penetration of this disease in our society,” said Raywat Deonandan, a global health epidemiologist and an associate professor at the University of Ottawa.

“That means the vast majority are still susceptible, and if they are susceptible, then it doesn’t take a whole lot for something to trigger another explosive growth.”

For that reason, Deonandan said there is a mathematical probability that another wave of infection is possible, but it may be less severe based on what we’ve learned about how to control the virus in the past six months.

“We know that it loves mass indoor gatherings. That seems to be where the super spreading events tend to be: churches, karaoke bars, parties, nightclubs,” he said. 

“So given that, that’s kind of our way of controlling the second wave — if we just really monitor large indoor activities or prevent them entirely.” 

York University’s Hoffman said while physical distancing and lockdown measures have drastically lowered the number of new cases and hospitalizations in Canada, they continue to rise globally — putting us at further risk.

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Isolating COVID-19 cases and quarantining contacts is necessary in the Americas in order to prevent further lockdowns, says the World Health Organization. 2:52 

“It’s just very likely that so long as this virus is circulating around the world, it will at some point come back to Canada,” Hoffman said. “Even if we eliminated it from our country.”

Knowledge of the virus may help fend off future waves

Our understanding of the novel coronavirus and how COVID-19 presents in the human body has increased dramatically in the past six months, and we now know more about how to react to outbreaks quickly and treat the disease itself more effectively. 

“We’ve learned that this is a very strange disease that seems to manifest differently in different populations, different age groups and that the symptomatology is not at all what we might have expected at first,” Deonandan said.

“This idea of losing your sense of smell, for example, that took everyone by surprise. We also learned about asymptomatic and presymptomatic transmission.”

He said it was wrongly assumed early in the pandemic by experts around the world that simply testing symptomatic patients early could control the spread of COVID-19, much like with an influenza outbreak. 

The World Health Organization also recently backtracked on a claim that the spread of COVID-19 from people who do not show symptoms is “very rare,” later conceding that asymptomatic individuals can transmit the virus. 

There were also early concerns about the threat of different modes of transmission, either through surfaces or feces, and Deonandan said that caused confusion about how to prevent infection at a critical time.

“It seems now that almost all of it is being driven by droplets and aerosol, mostly droplets,” he said. 

“So we can direct our efforts toward controlling droplet transmission, and that would help us mitigate a second wave.”

That’s why physical distancing, proper hand hygiene and wearing masks when appropriate are essential tools in fighting the spread of COVID-19.

A woman in a mask walks past a sign in downtown Toronto on May 22. Experts say we now know more about how to react to COVID-19 outbreaks quickly and treat the disease itself more effectively. (Evan Mitsui/CBC)

Jason Kindrachuk, an assistant professor of viral pathogenesis at the University of Manitoba in Winnipeg and Canada Research Chair of emerging viruses, said we can use our increased understanding of transmission to fend off future waves. 

“We’re better prepared than we were the first round because we have a better idea of what this virus is and a little bit more about how it behaves,” he said.

“We’ve learned probably around five to 10 years worth of research in the last six months.” 

Yet while we know more now about the virus in order to prevent infection, Kindrachuk said the first wave has exposed our vulnerabilities, especially in long-term care homes, where more than 6,000 Canadians have died from COVID-19. 

“If the virus hits a resurgence in Canada again,” he said, “as long as we can try and limit the spread within those vulnerable communities, we know that the majority of the rest of the population is manageable.” 

Hoffman said he hopes we’ve learned enough about protecting long-term care home residents and ensuring employees are supported to take necessary precautions in order to prevent more outbreaks in the months ahead.

WATCH | ‘Home is the safest place’ for seniors to be:

Canadians facing old age are looking for ways to safely stay in their own homes longer, especially after the COVID-19 pandemic uncovered the system failures in long-term care facilities. 1:54

“That’s what has allowed this outbreak to continue for longer, affecting more vulnerable people, and as a result has meant that we are only able to start lifting these layers of protection at a later point after other countries have already been able to do so,” he said. 

“It’s just a total disaster and so preventable.”

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Coronavirus infections in Canada surpass 108,100 as global case count tops 13 million –



The number of novel coronavirus case surpassed 108,100 on Monday, as worldwide infections topped 13 million.

Across the country, 366 new cases of COVID-19, and 12 additional deaths linked to the virus, were reported.

Ontario reported the most new cases of COVID-19 on Monday, with 116 new infections. The province also saw three additional deaths.

According to the province’s health authorities, 129 people have also recovered from the virus.

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So far, 1,712,315 people in Ontario have been tested for the novel coronavirus.

Meanwhile, in Quebec — the province hit hardest by the pandemic — 100 new infections were reported on Monday.

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According to provincial health authorities, one more person died.

So far, a total of 25,911 people have recovered from the virus in Quebec.

Saskatchewan reported 56 new cases of COVID-19 on Monday. The province has seen 15 coronavirus-related deaths since the pandemic began, and has tested more than 75,100 people.

So far, 766 people have recovered from the virus in Saskatchewan.

Coronavirus: Toronto officials positive about remaining in stage 2 of provincial reopening plan

Coronavirus: Toronto officials positive about remaining in stage 2 of provincial reopening plan

Health authorities in Alberta reported 72 new cases of COVID-19 on Monday, and said one more person had died, bringing the total death toll to 161.

More than 540,100 people have been tested for the virus, and 7,989 people have recovered from infections

Health officials in B.C reported 62 new cases of COVID-19 in the province over the last 72 hours, and two deaths, both which occurred in long-term care.

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There were 21 cases from Friday to Saturday, 20 cases Saturday to Sunday, and 21 from Sunday to Monday.

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So far the province has conducted 219,601 tests, and 2,718 people have recovered from the virus.

Neither New Brunswick nor Nova Scotia reported new cases of COVID-19 on Monday.

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In New Brunswick, 46,489 people have been tested for the virus and 163 people have recovered from infections.

Two people have died from the novel coronavirus in New Brunswick since the beginning of the pandemic.

A total of 58,741 people have been tested for COVID-19 in Nova Scotia, and 1,000 people have recovered from the virus.

Manitoba reported no new cases of COVID-19 and no new deaths related to the virus on Monday.

So far the province has conducted 71,559 tests for the virus and 317 people have recovered from infections.

Harm reduction advocates claim the coronavirus pandemic has caused a surge in drug overdoses in Montreal

Harm reduction advocates claim the coronavirus pandemic has caused a surge in drug overdoses in Montreal

Health officials in Prince Edward Island said one new case of COVID-19 had been confirmed, but reported no new deaths on Monday.

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Since the pandemic began, 14,810 tests have been conducted and 27 people have recovered from the virus on the island.

Newfoundland reported no new cases of COVID-19 on Monday marking three full days without a new infection.

The province has tested 20,583 people for the virus so far, and 258 have recovered from infections.

According to health authorities, a total of three people have died as a result of COVID-19.

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Neither the Northwest Territories or Nunavut reported new cases of COVID-19 on Monday.

So far, the Northwest Territories has not seen any COVID-19-related deaths, and has tested 2,859 people for the virus.

A total of five people have recovered from infections in the territory.

B.C. health officials use contract tracing in Kelowna COVID-19 outbreak

B.C. health officials use contract tracing in Kelowna COVID-19 outbreak

Meanwhile, in Nunavut, 1,553 tests have been conducted.

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No new cases of COVID-19 or deaths related to the virus were reported in Yukon on Monday.

An update on the Territory’s website says 1,343 people have been tested for the virus, and 11 people have recovered.

Global cases top 13 million

The pandemic reached another grim milestone on Monday, with more than 13 million confirmed cases reported globally.

According to a tally from John Hopkins University, by 8 p.m. ET on Monday, 13,060,239 cases of COVID-19 had been confirmed around the world.

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COVID-19 cases have continued to increase in several places around the globe, including in the United States, which remained the epicentre of the virus on Monday.

The U.S. now has more than 3.3 million confirmed cases of COVID-19.

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Coronavirus: Trump says he has a ‘very good relationship’ with Dr. Fauci

Speaking to reporters outside Rideau Cottage in Ottawa on Monday, Prime Minister Justin Trudeau said the “complex” situation in the U.S. means there is still no firm timetable, at this time, for when the border will be reopened to non-essential travel.

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Since the novel coronavirus was first detected in Wuhan, China, in December it has claimed more than 570,776 lives.

The virus forced mass closures around the globe and devastated the world economy.

In the last several months, however, many countries — including Canada — have made steps to gradually reopen.

© 2020 Global News, a division of Corus Entertainment Inc.

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Where the jobs are: Some sectors rebounding faster as Canada emerges from lockdown – CTV News



Jobs lost during the early stages of the COVID-19 pandemic are coming back – but not all at once, and not in the same order they disappeared.

Statistics Canada reported July 10 that more than 950,000 jobs were added in the country in June. While only a small fraction of the three million or so positions that were lost as lockdowns were imposed in March and April, the number represents a record increase as those measures are lifted.

“There’s a lot of places that are still hiring amidst all the doom and gloom that we’ve been experiencing over the past few months,” Carolyn Levy, president of the technologies division of staffing and recruitment agency Randstad Canada, told on Monday via telephone from Calgary.

Breaking down the numbers by industry yields clues into where the first wave of rebound hiring is taking place. More than 20 per cent of the added jobs were classified as wholesale and retail trade – with 16 per cent in accommodation and food services, 12 per cent in health care and social assistance, and eight per cent apiece in construction and manufacturing.

This suggests that the retail and restaurant workers who were among the first to be let go when their establishments were ordered to close were also among the first to be hired back when limited activity was allowed to resume.

There is still a long way to go before those sectors can be back to normal, though. In food services alone, it is believed that 400,000 Canadian jobs eliminated during the pandemic have yet to return. Many businesses in the broader service sector say they do not expect to ever return to pre-pandemic staffing levels.

Also notable, StatCan found, is that there were more wholesale jobs in Canada in June than there were in February, before the pandemic hit. Levy chalked this increase up to the surge in online shopping, which has left companies needing extra staff in warehouses and other parts of the supply chain.

On manufacturing, Levy said the increase could be due to companies retooling their lines to produce personal protective equipment or other items suddenly in demand due to the pandemic.


For the nearly 2.5 million Canadians who remain unemployed, though, knowing where hiring has recently happened only paints part of the picture. More helpful is information about where hiring is happening now.

According to the federal government’s job bank, the most in-demand jobs right now are sales associates, administrative assistants and customer service representatives, followed by truck drivers, general farm workers and light-duty cleaners.

A popular website used by job-seekers to connect with employers is seeing similar patterns. Brendon Bernard, an economist with the Indeed Hiring Lab, wrote July 7 that retail and customer service jobs are among those that saw the biggest drop in new postings on Indeed earlier in the pandemic, and have since seen some of the biggest rebounds.

“Sectors narrowing the gap relatively quickly in recent weeks include ones featuring lower-paying positions, like retail, and customer service,” he wrote.

“Areas posting roles with many mid-wage jobs have also seen noticeable bounce-backs, like construction, as well as education and instruction.”

Levy said that some employers are also creating new roles as they look to respond to their customers’ needs during and after the pandemic. Opportunities created by this include more positions for financial advisers, she said, as well as an even greater demand for tech workers.

Postings on Indeed for higher-paying jobs have been slower to bounce back, Bernard said. Indeed has tracked two categories where new job postings have fallen off since early May – security and public safety, and aviation.

Bernard reported that the number of new job postings on Indeed as of July 3 was 21 per cent lower than it had been one year earlier. That gap had been as large as 70 per cent in mid-April. Smaller provinces, which have generally been less affected by COVID-19, have kept job posting levels closer to where they were in 2019 than larger provinces.

Levy said she is seeing employers increasingly show interest in hiring for temporary contract positions. This benefits them because it allows them to avoid making long-term commitments in an uncertain environment, she said, but can also be good for those looking for jobs because it gives them a chance to find work that they might not otherwise have.

“Companies have had to take a step back and start to reimagine how they have to work in this new normal,” she said.

“Businesses have to look at what do we need to do to reskill, what do we need to do to retrain, given the way we operated our business four months ago is not the way it’s going to be … from now on.”

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Talks to extend Canada-U.S. border closure "ongoing," Trudeau says after call with Trump – CTV News



With just one week to go until the current Canada-U.S. border closure agreement expires, Prime Minister Justin Trudeau says border discussions with the U.S.  are “ongoing,” adding that he expects to have more to say later in the week.

This comes as Trudeau spoke to U.S. President Donald Trump on Monday morning, though the border was not among the range of topics the prime minister said the two world leaders discussed — despite the looming July 21 deadline.

“Every month we have been able to extend the border closures to all but essential goods and services and those discussions are ongoing with the United States right now as we are a week from the next deadline for closures,” Trudeau said.

“We’re going to continue to work hard to keep Canadians safe and to keep our economies flowing, we will have more to say later this week I’m sure.”

Canada has been under renewed pressure to reopen the shared border, despite surging COVID-19 case numbers in the United States. At the end of June, the U.S. became home to the world’s highest number of reported infections: more than 2.2 million. That number has since soared to more than 3.3 million, according to the New York Times, with more than 134,000 deaths.

Despite these figures, 29 bipartisan members of U.S. Congress penned an open letter to Public Safety Minister Bill Blair calling on the Canadian government to plan a phased reopening of the Canada-U.S. border and to consider easing existing measures.

“We are asking that the United States and Canada immediately craft a comprehensive framework for phased reopening of the border based on objective metrics and accounting for the varied circumstances across border regions,” read the letter, which was published on Western New York Congressman Brian Higgins’ website on July 3.

The members of Congress, who represent the northern states along the border, also implored the Canadian government to consider easing restrictions on family members and property owners impeded by the restrictions.

The Canadian government pushed back on the request, with Deputy Prime Minister Chrystia Freeland’s office telling in a statement that the health and safety of Canadians is “absolutely priority.”

“Decisions about Canada’s border are made by Canadians, for Canadians,” Freeland’s spokesperson Katherine Cuplinskas said  in the statement on Friday.

The suggestion was also unpopular with non-politician Canadians, who took to social media to express their staunch opposition.

In response to a tweet from Higgins, who had shared the open letter on his Twitter account, hundreds of Canadians slammed the suggestion.

“No thank you…clean up your backyard before you attempt to enter ours..sincerely Canada,” wrote a user who goes by the name @MichelletypoQ.

Another user, @rachelinTO, wrote that “most of our earliest cases came from the U.S. So……that’s a firm ‘no’. Sorry, eh.”

Users called the request “disastrous” and multiple accounts said they’d only be comfortable easing restrictions after seeing improvement in the number of COVID-19 cases in the U.S.


While Trudeau did not give any indication in his press conference that he and Trump had touched on the border issue during their phone call on Monday, he did confirm that the two discussed a host of other issues — including China and the two detained Canadians, the Black Lives Matter movement, and the U.S. president’s renewed aluminium tariff threat.

“I impressed upon him that it would be a shame to see tariffs come in between our two countries at a time where we’re celebrating NAFTA , and at a time where we want our businesses and our manufacturers to get going as quickly as possible,” Trudeau said.

“We pledged to keep working on it together.”

Trudeau also said he told Trump that the pandemic had disrupted the usual supply chains and manufacturing processes, but that this disruption is slowly subsiding.

“That is starting to realign itself, given the economies are starting up again and manufacturing is getting going,” Trudeau said.

CTV News confirmed the possibility of the U.S. slapping another set of tariffs on Canada at the end of June. The tariffs would fall under Section 232 of the U.S. Trade Expansion Act, and the threat comes amid U.S. claims that their aluminum market is being flooded by Canadian product.

Two Canadian sources told CTV News at the time that the announcement is possible in the coming weeks, though to date no formal announcement of tariffs has transpired.

Should the U.S. decide to re-impose tariffs on Canada, it would reopen a trade rift between the two countries that had been healing since a spat just over a year ago, that saw the U.S. impose tariffs on steel and aluminum and Canada answer with tariffs on a wide array of U.S. products including quiche, mayonnaise, and toilet paper.

Trudeau has been outspoken in his defence of Canada’s aluminum industry, noting when the possibility of the U.S. imposing new tariffs emerged recently, that the U.S. “needs Canadian aluminum” and would only be hurting its own economy.

“Our economies are so interlinked that punitive actions by the United States administration end up hurting Americans the same way they end up hurting Canadians,” Trudeau said at the time.

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