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Marijuana use during pregnancy can negatively affect baby, landmark Western University study finds – The London Free Press

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Marijuana use during pregnancy can have a significant impact on the health of unborn babies, a new joint study by Western University and Queen’s University researchers says.

By studying rats and human placenta cells in lab, researchers found regular exposure to tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), the main psychoactive ingredient in marijuana, during pregnancy has significant impact on the development of placenta and fetus.

Maternal exposure to THC also has an impact on both organ development in the fetus and gene instructions essential to the function of the placenta.

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“This is the first study to definitively support the fact that THC alone has a direct impact on placental and fetal growth” study co-author and Schulich School of Medicine and Dentistry associate professor Dan Hardy said in a statement.

“This data supports clinical studies that suggest cannabis use during pregnancy is associated with low birth weight babies. Clinical data is complicated because it is confounded by other factors such as socioeconomic status.”

In lab rats, researchers showed regular exposure to a low dose of THC — meant to mimic daily use of pot during pregnancy — led to an eight per cent drop in birth weight and a more than 20 per cent decrease in brain and liver growth in the fetus.

The research team also showed how THC can prevent oxygen and nutrients from crossing the placenta and reaching the unborn baby. By looking at human placental cells, the team found THC exposure reduced the amount of an important protein that transports glucose — a key nutrient used in human energy production — into cells.

The researchers also found a reduced network of blood vessels in rat placentas exposed to THC, a feature that could cause reduced blood flow from mother to baby.

The team believes both factors are likely contributing to the growth restrictions they’ve seen in babies exposed to THC in the uterus.

“Marjiuana has been legalized in Canada and in many states in the U.S., however, its use during pregnancy has not been well studied up until this point,” Queen’s associate professor and study co-author David Natale said in a statement.

“This study is important to support clinicians in communicating the very real risks associated with cannabis use during pregnancy.”

The study is particularly noteworthy in Canada, where the purchase and possession of marijuana for personal use has been legal since late 2018.

The joint study is published in the journal Scientific Reports.

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Deadly fungal infections a concern in patients post-COVID-19, flu | CTV News – CTV News Calgary

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While fungi are not about to start turning the human race into zombies, like in the HBO blockbuster series The Last of Us, the World Health Organization (WHO) says invasive fungal infections are an increasing threat to human health.

Aspergillosis is one fungal infection common in our environment but, in some circumstances, it can turn deadly. In an average day, most of us will inhale hundreds to thousands of Aspergillus spores with no adverse effects, but for people with weakened immune systems it can cause deadly infections. That includes people undergoing cancer treatments, or bone marrow transplants, but it is now recognized that some viral infections, like influenza (flu) and SARS-CoV-2 (COVID-19) increase the risk of deadly fungal infection even in otherwise healthy people.

“When these kinds of things happen in the ICU, it can be devastating because even advanced medicines still can’t treat these infections,” said Dr. Bryan Yipp, an intensive care physician and researcher at the University of Calgary.

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“Once many of these infections really get ingrained and take over, clearing them with medications alone, antifungal or anti microbials, can be very difficult.”

Dr.Yipp began studying Aspergillus — a type of fungus that is a common mould — and its connection to viral infections in 2019, following three deaths in intensive care units of patients initially admitted for influenza, but who subsequently died of the fungal infection.

“It was very much a surprise when people first started identifying the fungus in the lung.  There was a lot of discussion around the table of ICU doctors, infectious disease doctors, asking ‘Was Aspergillosis really the cause of death, or was this just a secondary finding?'” said Yipp. “The pathologists who looked at the samples and the autopsies, were convinced that it was Aspergillosis that was the main problem.”

UCalgary researchers have determined exposure to Aspergillus, a common fungal mould, can lead to a potentially dangerous Aspergillosis infection in people with weakened immune systems.

Working in Yipp’s lab, lead researcher Nicole Sarden, a PhD candidate, isolated the mechanism by which the immune system starts failing to prevent fungal infections.

“In healthy humans. specific immune cells, called B cells, produce molecules (antibodies) that basically tag invaders so that other cells in the immune system, called neutrophils, can recognize them, eat them, and clear the infection,” said Sarden

“But when you have infections with viruses, such as influenza, or if you get COVID, these molecules are no longer present, which means that the immune systems that are trying to eat, and clear the fungi cannot do it because they cannot see it.”

Working with both mice and human blood and tissue samples, the researchers discovered that following a viral infection, neutrophils could identify a fungal infection and surround it but did nothing to destroy it.  

“The virus kills the B cells, no messenger molecules exist, so the neutrophils that would normally attack, the fungus, are blinded. They sit there and don’t know what to do,” said Sarden.

The research team also discovered that reintroducing Aspergillosis reactive antibodies can protect infected mice, leading to hopes a similar treatment will be available in the near future for humans with Aspergillosis infections.

While Yipp and Sarden focused on Aspergillus, it is not the only fungus that can cause serious, or fatal infections. It is estimated fungal infections kill an estimated 1.5 million people worldwide every year. Most of those are due to four different fungi; Cryptococcus, Candida, Aspergillus, and Pneumocystis.  Since the advent of COVID, a previously rare infection of the fungus Mucormycosis has been increasing rapidly in India. It affects the sinuses, brains and lungs of its victims. The rise in Mucormycosis has also been seen in patients who are recovering or have recently recovered from COVID.

Yipp is hopeful the research being conducted at Calgary’s Cumming School of Medicine could lead to treatments for these infections as well.

“We have some hunches that that could be a similar mechanism to what we see here with what we have found.” said Yipp. “So we think that this could be applied to multiple different types of fungi around the world.”

The research team, led by Sarden, published their findings in the journal Science Translational Medicine.

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Barrie hospital declares COVID outbreak in transitional care unit – BarrieToday

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Royal Victoria Regional Health Centre (RVH), in collaboration with the Simcoe Muskoka District Health Unit, declared a COVID-19 outbreak in the Barrie hospital’s transitional care unit on Friday, Jan. 27.

According to RVH, eight patients have tested positive for COVID-19 and have been isolated.

“Enhanced cleaning measures are underway, as well as swabbing of patients and staff,” RVH said in a news release Monday afternoon. 

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Admissions to the unit are on hold at this time, and visitors are not permitted. However, RVH says some exceptions may apply.

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Guidance for diagnosing and managing migraine – News-Medical.Net

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Migraine is a major cause of disability, affecting about 12% of people. A 2-part series published in CMAJ (Canadian Medical Association Journal) on diagnosing and managing the condition with both acute and preventive therapy provides guidance for clinicians. https://www.cmaj.ca/lookup/doi/10.1503/cmaj.211969.

“The goal of treatment of migraine attacks is to provide rapid relief from pain and other migraine-related symptoms, to restore patient function and to prevent recurrence,” writes Dr. Tommy Chan, Department of Clinical Neurological Sciences, Western University, London, Ontario, with coauthors.

“A stratified approach to treatment that empowers patients to choose from different options, depending on attack symptoms and severity, and encourages them to combine medications from different classes (e.g., nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs and triptans) for severe or prolonged attacks, is preferred.”

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Part 2 of the review, which will be published February 6, focuses on preventive treatment to reduce the frequency and severity of migraine attacks.

Journal reference:

Tzankova, V., et al. (2023) Diagnosis and acute management of migraine. Canadian Medical Association Journal. doi.org/10.1503/cmaj.211969.

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