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MRIs show brains of teens struggling with mental illness wired differently: University of Alberta study – Edmonton Sun

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Brains of teens grappling with mental illness are structurally different than those of healthy peers, shows new research from University of Alberta neuroscientists.

The collaborative research led by Anthony Singhal, professor and chair in the Department of Psychology, involved adolescents between the ages of 14 and 17 who had a history of mental-health problems, including depression, anxiety, and ADHD.

The teens received magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scans to examine the white matter of their brains. Those scans were then compared to scans from a second set of adolescents in the same age range who did not have a history of mental health issues, said a Friday news release from the university.

The results clearly showed differences in connective neural pathways between the two groups.

“We saw pathways that were less structurally efficient in the patients compared to the healthy controls,” said Singhal, also a member of UAlberta’s Neuroscience and Mental Health Institute (NHMI).

“Moreover, those observations correlated with attentional control test scores. In other words, less neural efficiency in key pathways was associated with an overall reduced tendency to focus attention.”

The study is one of the first to show results with adolescents, mapping onto previous studies with adult participants.

“We can’t paint with broad strokes that we are talking about differences between people’s brains,” explained Singhal. “It’s just not that simple. But we do have to start somewhere, and this is a great jumping-off point.”

The study is one part of a large research program conducted with researchers in the Faculty of Science, the Faculty of Medicine & Dentistry, facilitated by NHMI, and colleagues at the University of Illinois at Urbana Champaign.

The paper, “Differences in Attentional Control and White Matter Microstructure in Adolescents with Attentional, Affective, and Behavioral Disorders,” has been published in Brain Imaging and Behavior.

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Double mRNA COVID-19 vaccination found to increase SARS-CoV-2 variant recognition – News-Medical.Net

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In a recent study posted to the bioRxiv* preprint server, researchers evaluated the impact of double BNT162b2 messenger ribonucleic acid (mRNA) vaccination in recognition of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) variants of concern (VoCs).

Study: Double-dose mRNA vaccination to SARS-CoV-2 progressively increases recognition of variants-of-concern by Spike RBD-specific memory B cells. Image Credit: CKA/Shutterstock

Background

Studies have reported that double coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) vaccinations generate high titers of SARS-CoV-2 S-targeted antibodies (Ab), Bmem and T lymphocytes; however, VoCs with SARS-CoV-2 S receptor-binding domain (RBD) mutations can evade humoral immune responses.

Booster doses have been reported to enhance VoC recognition by Abs; however, it is not clear whether VoC recognition is enhanced due to higher Ab titers or due to the increased capacity of Ab binding to S RBDs.

About the study

In the present study, researchers evaluated the benefit of double BNT162b2 vaccinations on SARS-CoV-2 VoC recognition.

Healthy and SARS-CoV-2- naïve persons (n=30) without immunological or hematological diseases were enrolled in the study to assess their peripheral blood B-lymphocyte subsets between February and June 2021.  Samples were obtained before the BNT162b2 vaccination, after three weeks of the first vaccination, and four weeks following the second vaccination.

Serum memory B lymphocytes (Bmem) counts and Ab titers were assessed using recombinant SARS-CoV-2 spike (S) protein RBDs of the Wuhan, Gamma, and Delta strains. Neutralizing Ab (NAb) titers were evaluated using 293T-ACE2 cells and SARS-CoV-2 pseudotyped viral assays. Further, the nature of RBD-targeted Bmem was examined based on the expression of cluster of differentiation (CD) 21, 27, and 71.

Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISA) were performed to evaluate variant-specific S RBD antibody titers and the serum dilution needed for preventing 50% SARS-CoV-2 entry (ID50) values were ascertained. Flow cytometry (FC) was performed to evaluate Bmem counts. Immunoglobulin G (IgG) titers against SARS-CoV-2 nucleocapsid (N) protein RBD and S RBD were evaluated before and post the first and second BNT162b2 vaccination.

Results

In total, 28, 30, and 30 samples were obtained pre-vaccination, after three weeks of the first dose and after four weeks of the second dose, respectively. All the participants remained SARS-CoV-2-naïve throughout the study without anti-SARS-CoV-2 N antibodies. Most participants (n=22) induced NAbs after the first vaccination, and the NAb titers after the second vaccination had IC50 values >100.

Double BNT162b2 vaccination generated robust NAb responses among all study participants. Immunoglobulin G+ (IgG+) and IgM+ RBD-targeted Bmem were generated after the first vaccination, and IgG1+ Bmem counts increased after the second vaccination. Most RBD-targeted Bmem showed binding with Delta and/or Gamma VoCs, which increased significantly after the second vaccination.

The RBD-targeted Bmem compartment comprised mainly IgG1+ or IgM+ cells, and contrastingly, the total Bmem compartment comprised more IgG2+ cells and fewer IgG1+ cells compared to the RBD-targeted Bmem compartment.

After the second vaccination dose, RBD-targeted IgG1, 2 and 3-expressing Bmem populations expanded significantly, although the total Bmem lymphocyte compartment was unaltered.

The number of RBD-targeted IgG+ Bmem correlated positively with RBD-targeted serum IgG post first and second vaccinations. While two subsets of IgM+ Bmem lymphocytes (CD27+ IgM+ and CD27+ IgM+ IgD+) proportionally decreased after the second vaccination dose, the absolute cell counts were identical to those observed post the first vaccine dose. Taken together, BNT162b2 vaccinations particularly affected the antigen-targeted Bmem lymphocyte counts, and the production of IgG1-expressing Bmem lymphocytes was boosted after the second BNT162b2 vaccination.

CD27 was expressed by 95% of anti-RBD and IgG-expressing Bmem lymphocytes, the proportion of which did not differ between the initial and subsequent BNT162b2 vaccination. After the first vaccine dose, 15% of anti-RBD Bmem lymphocytes were CD21lo, the proportion of which was marginally but significantly lower (reduced to 10%) after four weeks of the second vaccination.

CD71 was expressed by 10% of anti-RBD Bmem lymphocytes after the first and second vaccination. In the total population of Bmem lymphocytes, the results after the first and second vaccination did not differ significantly, denoting the Bmem compartment stability. After four weeks of vaccination, anti-RBD Bmem lymphocytes exhibited a nature and resting Bmem lymphocyte immunophenotype.

Anti-Wuhan S RBD- IgG titers exhibited partial recognition of the Beta, Gamma and Delta VoCs with more prominent reductions for Gamma and Beta VoCs than for the Delta VoC. The second vaccine BNT162b2 dose significantly enhanced anti-Wuhan RBD antibody binding to Gamma and Beta VoCs; however, the neutralization potency of vaccine-induced NAbs against Gamma and Beta was lesser than for Delta.

Delta RBD and Gamma RBD were recognized by 50% and 70% of RBD-targeted Bmem lymphocytes after the first and second vaccinations, respectively, and the increase in VoC-recognizing Bmem counts was largely due to elevated IgG1+ Bmem counts.

Conclusion

Overall, the study findings showed that the second BNT162b2 vaccination elevated NAb titers and SARS-CoV-2 RBD-targeted Bmem counts and that double BNT162b2 vaccination was especially needed for Delta and Gamma VoC recognition. The findings indicated that the second vaccine dose improved S RBD-targeted Bmem counts and the Bmem affinity to overcome VoC mutations.

*Important notice

bioRxiv publishes preliminary scientific reports that are not peer-reviewed and, therefore, should not be regarded as conclusive, guide clinical practice/health-related behavior, or treated as established information.

Journal reference:

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First West Nile virus-positive mosquitoes of the year confirmed in Peel Region – CP24

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Mississauga, Brampton, and Caledon residents are being reminded to protect themselves from mosquito bites and remove any standing water from their property after the first West Nile virus-positive mosquitoes of the year were confirmed in Peel Region.

The infected insects were recently collected from three traps in Brampton, near the intersections of Chinguacousy Road and Williams Parkway, Hurontario Street and Steeles Avenue, and The Gore Road and Cottrelle Boulevard.

Peel’s public health unit monitors West Nile virus activity through 33 mosquito traps set across the region. Trapped mosquitoes are collected and tested weekly from late June to September.

The health unit also surveys public areas for stagnant water that could serve as breeding sites for mosquitoes. Identified locations are treated with larvicide, they said in an Aug. 9 news release.

So far this year, there are no confirmed human cases of the mosquito-borne illness, which is passed to humans through the bite of an infected mosquito, in the Region of Peel.

While the risk of acquiring the virus is low, the Region of Peel is urging people to protect themselves against mosquito bites by applying a Health Canada approved insect repellent containing an ingredient effective against mosquitoes, like as DEET or icaridin, to exposed skin and clothing.

They’re also advising people to wear light-colored, tightly woven, loose-fitting clothing like long pants, a long-sleeved shirt, shoes, and socks to protect exposed skin and avoid shaded or wooded areas with high mosquito populations, especially at dusk and dawn when mosquitoes are most active.

Residents should also ensure all windows and door screens fit securely and are free of tears and holes.

Further, people can help prevent mosquito bites by removing stagnant water or draining items on their property. Water stagnant for more than seven days is an ideal breeding site for mosquitoes, the region noted.

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Health Unit has limited number of monkeypox vaccine doses – BayToday.ca

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The North Bay Parry Sound District Health Unit says it has received a very limited number of monkeypox PrEP vaccine doses.

PrEP is a vaccine that is administered prior to contact with the virus.

“Due to low supply, appointments for the monkeypox vaccine for eligible individuals will be booked on a first come first served basis,” says a news release.

“We recognize the issues with such limited access to the monkeypox PrEP vaccines and regret that offering an equitable booking approach is difficult to do at this time,” explains Dr. Carol Zimbalatti, Public Health Physician at the Health Unit. “We continue to work with the province to advocate for additional supply, but understandably, with no evidence of transmission of monkeypox locally, we expect most of the vaccine to continue to go to public health districts with more monkeypox cases.”

Should more vaccine become available, the public will be notified.

To get on the list, call 1-800-563-2808 ext. 5252 and leave a message Wednesday between 9. to 10 a.m.   

Monkeypox is a rare disease not common in North America. It spreads through close contact with a person infected with the virus, or their clothing or linens. Monkeypox can enter the body through skin-to-skin contact with body fluids and through mucus membranes or respiratory droplets during prolonged face-to-face contact.

Anyone, regardless of sexual orientation, age, or gender can spread monkeypox through contact with body fluids, monkeypox sores, or by sharing contaminated items.

For more information on monkeypox and its symptoms visit myhealthunit.ca/monkeypox. If you believe you may have monkeypox, please call the Health Unit at 1-800-563-2808 ext. 5229.

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