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NASA Awards Contracts To 14 Companies for Artemis Operation To the Moon and Beyond



NASA has recently awarded a total of $370 million to 14 companies in different areas, in support of the agency’s upcoming space missions to the Moon under the Artemis project.

In a press release on Wednesday, October 14, NASA announced the contracts awarded, grouped by their respective topic areas: Cryogenic Fluid Management Technology Demonstration, Lunar Surface Innovation Initiative Technology Demonstration, and Closed-Loop Descent and Landing Capability Demonstration.

The awarded contracts are from the agency’s fifth competitive Tipping Point solicitation, optimizing its existing public-private partnerships to advance its programs.


Largest Contracts Awarded to Lockheed Martin, ULA, SpaceX

(Photo: Photo by Aubrey Gemignani-NASA/Getty Images)
GREENBELT, MARYLAND – MAY 31: In this handout provided by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), NASA Associate Administrator, Science Mission Directorate, Thomas Zurbuchen, second from right, speaks to Astrobotic CEO, John Thornton, second from left, and Astrobotic Mission Director, Sharad Bhaskaran, left, about their lunar lander, May 31, 2019, at Goddard Space Flight Center in Maryland. Astrobotic is one of the recipients of the new series of contracts awarded by NASA for future Artemis missions.

The largest contract, according to the breakdown presented by NASA in its press release, was awarded to Lockheed Martin, to the tune of $89.7 million. The North Bethesda, Maryland-headquartered aerospace and defense contractor is tasked to conduct an “in-space demonstration mission using liquid hydrogen,” with the material being described as the most challenging among the cryogenic propellants.

Hydrogen burns with extreme intensity, reaching temperatures of 5,500 degrees Fahrenheit. However, it is notoriously difficult to store and transport, being liquefied only at extremely low temperatures – at minus 423 degrees Fahrenheit.

Lockheed Martin is also expected to use their liquid hydrogen research to develop and test management technologies for the fuel with future space missions in mind. It is followed by the United Launch Alliance (ULA), set to use its Vulcan Centaur lift-launch vehicle for a smart propulsion system using a mix of liquid hydrogen and oxygen.

SpaceX, Elon Musk’s aerospace manufacturing company, is tasked with “large-scale flight demonstration,” essentially lifting the cryogenic propellant liquid oxygen and transferring it between tanks in a Starship launch vehicle.

Investments in Communication, Power, and Safety

Other awardees of the recent tranche of NASA five-year projects include Nokia of America Corporation. The communications manufacturer has proposed to deploy what would be the first communications system based on Long Term Evolution (LTE) and 4G technology, receiving a $14.1 million award from NASA. Based on existing terrestrial communication tech, Nokia seeks to deploy the same protocols to support future communications on the lunar systems – requiring greater transfer speeds over greater distances, with more reliability than existing technologies.

Potentially revolutionizing the power source attachments of future spacecraft, Masten Space System is set to work on a $2.8 million project that will demonstrate the potential of a “universal chemical heat and an electrical power source.” If successful, it would allow payloads like rovers and landers to survive the extreme environments – like lunar nights, or the side of the moon not facing the sun – most likely awaiting astronauts on the Moon’s surface.

On the other hand, the Astrobotic Technology of Pittsburgh is set to develop a fast and wireless charging system. Awarded a $5.8 million contract, the Pennsylvania-based space robotics firm will also create flight units that might be integrated on commercial robotic landers.

NASA has also announced that its Space Technology Mission Directorate (STMD) is set to meet with the companies and negotiate for the generation of “milestone-based firm-fixed-price contracts” that would extend its respective contracts for up to five years.

Source: – Science Times

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What you need to know about the rare Halloween full moon – Global News



This will be the first time a full moon has fallen on Halloween since 1974 and it won’t happen again until 2039, but there are a few other reasons why this October full moon will be extra spooky.

“You could call it a Boo-Blue-Super Mini-Hunter Full Moon,” said Rick Stankiewicz, publicity director for the Peterborough Astronomical Association.

READ MORE: Full Hunter’s Blue Moon to rise on Halloween before clocks fall back

Here is why Stankiewicz might say that: 

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  • Boo: Full moon falls on Halloween
  • Blue: Second full moon in the month.
  • Super Mini: Furthest from Earth and appearing as the smallest full moon of 2020. The apogee — that is, when the moon’s orbit takes it furthest from Earth — technically occurs on Oct. 30, when the Moon will be 406,394 km away.
  • Hunter Moon: The full moon that follows the Harvest Moon (Oct. 1, 2020), which is always the first Full Moon closest to the Fall Equinox. The Hunter Full Moon will usually be in October or November.

Stankiewicz said the blue moon part of the name is a bit deceiving. “It won’t look blue,” he said. “At moonrise, 6:24 p.m., it might look yellowish or orange if we are lucky.”

Click to play video 'A rare blue moon will light up the sky on Halloween'

A rare blue moon will light up the sky on Halloween

A rare blue moon will light up the sky on Halloween

He said the best time to see the Moon is shortly after moonrise, low in the eastern sky. That’s because it will be closer to the horizon. “The Moon will look a little bigger then,” he said. “The odds of having a hint of colour is always better when it is near the horizon because of the atmosphere it has to shine through.”

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If you miss the view this time around, you’ll have to wait until 2039 to see it again.

“It is not the rarest celestial event because it does repeat itself every 19 years,” Stankiewicz said. “But let’s face it, there are lots of ‘stars aligning’ for all these moon-types to be coming together on a Halloween night.”

© 2020 Global News, a division of Corus Entertainment Inc.

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NASA plans to send a mission to an asteroid that is… – AlKhaleej Today



NASA is planning a mission to a massive metallic asteroid valued at 7,700 quadrillion pounds ($ 10,000 quadrillion). The diameter of the asteroid, called 16 Psyche, About 140 miles, and it’s one of the most massive objects in the main asteroid belt orbiting between Mars and Jupiter.

Dr. Tracy Baker, planetary researcher at the Southwest Research Institute, said, “We have seen meteorites, most of them metal, but 16 Psyche It might be unique in that it is an asteroid made entirely of iron and nickel in that planet Earth is a metal core, cap, and crust and it is possible that during the formation of a first planet with one another object collided in our solar system and lost its mantle and shell.

Experts predict that iron alone accounts for 16% Psyche It could be worth $ 10,000 quadrillion – if it could be brought to earth for comparison, the global economy was valued at $ 80,934,771,028,340 (£ 62,388,972,921,051.02) in 2017.

This means the asteroid could be worth 123,556.29 times the economy Global news In 2017 she said Lindy Elkins-Tanton NASA mission senior scientist and director of the College of Earth and Space Exploration at Arizona State University: “Even if we could take a big coin and move back here, what would you do?” Could you sit down and hide it and the Control global resources as diamonds are institutionally controlled – and protect your market? What if you decide to return it one more time and solve mankind’s mineral resource problems at any time? It is clear that this is wild speculation.

NASA plans to visit the asteroid in 2022 in hopes of understanding how terrestrial planets like Earth first formed.

The spacecraft is scheduled to launch in 2022 before it reaches orbit Psyche In 2026, to orbit the asteroid for 21 months, map and study properties PsycheBefore they send their results back to Earth.

And NASA stated, “In the depths of the rocky and terrestrial planets – including the Earth – scientists infer the presence of metal cores, but these are far fetched under the rocky crusts of the planets and since we cannot see the heart of the planets Earth or measure it directly, Psyche It provides a unique window into the violent history of collisions and agglomerations that created the planets of the earth. ”

These were the details of the news NASA plans to send a mission to an asteroid estimated to be … for the day. We hope that we managed to give you all the details and information. To keep up with all of our news, you can subscribe to the notification system or one of our various systems to receive everything new.

It’s also worth noting that the original news has been published and is available at AlKhaleej Today’s editorial team has confirmed this and it has been changed and it may have been fully retransmitted or quoted and you can read it and follow this news from its main source.

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Arctic sea ice at record low October levels: Danish institute – Hurriyet Daily News



COPENHAGEN-Agence France-Presse

Arctic sea ice at record low October levels: Danish institute

Sea ice in the Arctic was at record lows for October, as unusually warm waters slowed the recovery of the ice, Danish researchers said on Oct. 28.    

Diminishing sea ice comes as a reminder about how the Arctic is hit particularly hard by global warming.    

Since the 1990s, warming has been twice as fast in the Arctic, compared to the rest of the world, as a phenomena dubbed “Arctic amplification,” causes air, ice and water to interact in a reinforcing manner.    

“The October Arctic sea ice extent is going to be the lowest on record and the sea ice growth rate is slower than normal,” Rasmus Tonboe, a scientist at the Danish Meteorological Institute (DMI), told AFP, noting that the record was unequaled for at least 40 years.    

According to preliminary satellite data used by the institute, sea ice surface area was at 6.5 million square kilometers (2.5 million square miles) on 27 October.    

Every year, some of the ice formed in the Arctic waters melts in the summer.    

It usually reaches a low point of about five million square kilometers, but then re-forms to cover about 15 million square kilometers in winter. Warmer temperatures are now reducing both the summer and winter extent of the ice.    

Satellite data has been collected to monitor the ice precisely since 1979, and the trend towards a reduction is clear.

For the month of October, measurements show an 8.2 percent downward trend in ice over the last 10 years.

Already in September, researchers noted the second-lowest extent of sea ice recorded in the Arctic, though not quite hitting the low levels recorded in 2012.    

But warmer-than-normal seawater slowed the formation of new ice in October.        

Water temperatures in the eastern part of the Arctic, north of Siberia, were two to four degrees warmer than normal, and in Baffin Bay, it was one to two degrees warmer, DMI said in a statement.    

The institute said this was following a trend observed in recent years, which was described as a “vicious spiral.”

“It’s a trend we’ve been seeing the past years, with a longer open water season making the sun warm the sea for a longer time, resulting in shorter winters so the ice doesn’t grow as thick as it used to,” Tonboe said.    

Since the melting ice is already in the ocean it does not directly contribute to the rise in sea levels.    

But as the ice disappears sunlight “gets absorbed in the ocean, helping to further warm the Earth,” Claire Parkinson, a climate scientist at NASA, told AFP in September.    

Thus, with less ice reflecting sunlight, oceans are heated directly.    

Over the last 40 years, the Arctic has also become more of a strategic interest to world powers.    

Less ice in certain areas opened up new maritime routes, which are destined to play a larger role in international trade, meaning a larger financial stake for Arctic state actors.    

The region is also estimated to house 13 percent of the world’s oil reserves and 30 percent of undiscovered natural gas deposits.    

Germany’s Potsdam Institute for Climate Impact Research (PIK) said on Oct. 27 that under current levels of atmospheric CO2 – roughly 400 parts per million – the melting of Arctic sea ice would raise global temperatures by 0.2C.    

That’s on top of the 1.5C of warming our current emissions levels have rendered all but inevitable, and the safer cap on global warming aimed for in the Paris climate accord. 

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