Connect with us

Science

NASA Releases Basic Principles for Moon Exploration Pact – TOLOnews

Published

on


NASA on Friday set the stage for a global debate over the basic principles governing how humans will live and work on the moon, as it released the main tenets of an international pact for moon exploration called the Artemis Accords.

The accords seek to establish ‘safety zones’ that would surround future moon bases to prevent what the US National Aeronautics and Space Administration called “harmful interference” from rival countries or companies operating in close proximity.

They would also permit companies to own the lunar resources they mine, a crucial element in allowing NASA contractors to convert the moon’s water ice for rocket fuel or mine lunar minerals to construct landing pads.

The accords are a key part of NASA’s effort to court allies around its plan to build a long-term presence on the lunar surface under its Artemis moon program.

“What we’re doing is we are implementing the Outer Space Treaty with the Artemis Accords,” NASA administrator Jim Bridenstine told Reuters, referring to a 1967 international pact that emphasizes that space should be used for peaceful rather than military uses.

The framework will be used as an incentive for nations to adhere to US norms of behavior in space, he added.

“It applies to low Earth orbit, it applies to the moon as well,” Bridenstine said. The accords also require countries to adopt standards of the United Nations Space Debris Mitigation Guidelines — which govern the prevention of hazardous space debris — and the Registration Convention, which would require countries to provide orbital details of their “space objects.”

The US Congress passed a law in 2015 allowing companies to own the resources they mine in outer space, but no such laws exist in the international community. The Artemis Accords, consistent with the Trump administration’s space policy, appear to clear the way for companies to mine the moon under international law and urge countries to enact similar national laws that would bind their private sector’s space operations.

“Why would private companies take the risk of going to mine resources if the legal situation was they could be kept from owning them?” Lori Garver, former deputy administrator of NASA, said to Reuters. “So, anything this does to clear any of that up could really help advance progress in space development.”

China and Russia

Reuters reported earlier this month that the administration of US President Donald Trump was drawing up the Artemis Accords.

In response, Russia’s space agency chief Dmitry Rogozin criticized Washington for excluding Russia from early negotiations over the space exploration pact, drawing parallels with US foreign policy in the Middle East.

“The principle of invasion is the same, whether it be the Moon or Iraq. The creation of a ‘coalition of the willing’ is initiated,” Rogozin wrote on Twitter. “Only Iraq or Afghanistan will come out of this.”

China said it was willing to cooperate with all parties on lunar exploration “to make a greater contribution in building a community with shared future for mankind,” a spokesperson for China’s foreign ministry said in a statement faxed to Reuters.

The safety zones — while intended to encourage coordination — have prompted questions on whether the accords align with the Outer Space Treaty, which states the moon and other celestial bodies are “not subject to national appropriation by claim of sovereignty, by means of use or occupation, or by any other means.”

The size of the safety zones would vary depending on the nature of the site they surround and would not constitute appropriation, Bridenstine said.

They would follow the principle that “basically says I’m gonna stay out of your way, you’re gonna stay out of my way, and we can all operate in this space,” he added.

However, there is a question over who determines the sizes of the safety zones, said Ram Jakhu, associate professor at McGill University’s Institute of Air and Space Law in Canada. “Safety zones are necessary, but they can also be abused in a way that it may become appropriation.”

But Mike Gold, NASA’s associate administrator for international relations, told Reuters the language on moon mining shouldn’t worry other nations.

“The principles that are being put forward here is nothing that we believe any responsible spacefaring nation would disagree with,” he said.

“Via the Artemis Accords, we hope that the future will look a lot more like “Star Trek,” and a lot less like “Star Wars” by getting ahead of these issues,” Gold said.

Let’s block ads! (Why?)



Source link

Continue Reading

Science

Musk's SpaceX set for debut astronaut mission, renewing NASA's crewed launch program – Cape Breton Post

Published

on


By Joey Roulette

CAPE CANAVERAL, Fla. (Reuters) – Entrepreneur Elon Musk’s SpaceX is set to launch two American astronauts to the International Space Station on Wednesday from NASA’s Kennedy Space Center in Florida, ending the U.S. space agency’s nine-year hiatus in human spaceflight.

California-based SpaceX’s Crew Dragon capsule carrying astronauts Doug Hurley and Bob Behnken and its Falcon 9 rocket is due to lift off at 4:33 p.m. EDT (2033 GMT) on Wednesday from the same launch pad used by NASA’s last space shuttle mission in 2011.

President Donald Trump and Vice President Mike Pence will view the launch in person, a White House spokesman said.

For Musk, SpaceX and NASA, a safe flight would mark a milestone in the quest to produce reusable spacecraft that can make space travel more affordable. Musk is the founder and CEO of SpaceX and CEO of Tesla Inc.

“Bob and I have been working on this program for five years, day in and day out,” Hurley, 53, said as he and Behnken, 49, arrived at the Kennedy Space Center from Houston last week. “It’s been a marathon in many ways, and that’s what you’d expect to develop a human-rated space vehicle that can go to and from the International Space Station.”

NASA, hoping to stimulate a commercial space marketplace, awarded $3.1 billion to SpaceX and $4.5 billion to Boeing Co to develop dueling space capsules, experimenting with a contract model that allows the space agency to buy astronaut seats from the two companies. 

Boeing’s CST-100 Starliner capsule is not expected to launch its first crew until 2021.

NASA Administrator Jim Bridenstine declared the mission a “go” last week at Kennedy Space Center after space agency and SpaceX officials convened for final engineering checks.

SpaceX successfully tested Crew Dragon without astronauts last year in its first orbital mission to the space station. That vehicle was destroyed the following month during a ground test when one of the valves for its abort system burst, causing an explosion that triggered a nine-month engineering investigation that ended in January.

(Reporting by Joey Roulette in Washington; Editing by Greg Mitchell and Will Dunham)

Let’s block ads! (Why?)



Source link

Continue Reading

Science

SpaceX on the verge of sending astronauts into orbit – Financial Times

Published

on


If Elon Musk’s SpaceX succeeds in sending two astronauts into orbit for the first time this week, it will do more than just boost the bragging rights of one of the world’s best-known billionaires.

As the first human test flight on a commercial rocket to reach the International Space Station, it will also signal a breakthrough for the private space industry as a whole, and an important moment in the opening up of low earth orbit to the commercial sector.

The first manned test for the Crew Dragon capsule, carrying two Nasa astronauts on top of one of SpaceX’s Falcon 9 rockets, is scheduled to lift off from the Kennedy Space Center in Florida on Wednesday morning.

If the flight to the ISS is successful, Nasa is expected to buy four seats on a follow-up flight later this year, the first time its astronauts will have become paying passengers on a commercially owned and operated space vehicle.

This week’s launch marks the moment when the private sector starts to lift humans off the face of the planet “reliably and cheaply”, said Peter Diamandis, founder of the X Prize, the competition which led to the first private manned flight to the edge of space 16 years ago. “It’s the first, fully commercially built, entrepreneurial capability,” he said. “What Elon Musk has done is nothing short of extraordinary, outpacing the US government-backed industries, Russia and China.”

Many of the technologies that SpaceX is relying on were pioneered by government space programmes over the past 60 years, meaning that the company is “standing on the shoulders of giants”, said Greg Autry, a former White House liaison to Nasa and an expert on the private space sector.

He compared the commercialisation of human space flight with the moment when the internet, which was created by the US Defense department, was handed over to the private sector. That makes the test flight a “tipping point we’ve been waiting for in the commercial space industry for a number of years”, he said.

Nasa, which commissioned both SpaceX and Boeing seven years ago to build human launch systems, is counting on commercial incentives and market competition to drive down the price of getting into space. It has estimated that the $400m SpaceX spent to develop its Falcon 9 rocket, which has become the workhorse for lifting cargo to the ISS, was only a tenth what it would have cost Nasa itself to build a similar rocket.

Since the Space Shuttle was retired in 2011 and the US was forced to buy seats on Russian rockets to propel its astronauts to the ISS, the cost of getting into space has risen sharply. Dennis Tito, the first space tourist, paid $20m in 2001 for a ride to the ISS on a Russian rocket. The price of a seat has now ballooned to more than $90m.

A competitive commercial market could quickly push that price back below $50m, said Mr Autry. Boeing’s rival space capsule suffered a setback earlier this year because of software glitches but is expected to make its first manned test launch next year. Other companies, including Jeff Bezos’s Blue Origin and Sierra Nevada, a Californian company that has built a space vehicle with wings, also hope to cash in.

As competition increases and the process for mounting human flights becomes more streamlined, the price for a trip into orbit could fall below $10m over the next decade, Mr Autry predicted.

All of this remains theoretical, however, until private companies prove they can launch humans into orbit safely, and return them to earth. The thought of entrusting astronauts to a fully commercial rocket company was jarring for many in the US space programme when it was first proposed in 2011, said Janet Kavandi, a former Nasa astronaut and now an executive at Sierra Nevada.

Nasa worked hard to make sure companies such as SpaceX are ready, she added. That meant doing everything from sharing the data from its Columbia shuttle disaster to teaching them everything it had learnt about crew survivability, down to the way seats are attached to the craft. By opting for a capsule, rather than a winged craft such as the Space Shuttle, SpaceX has also reduced the complexity of its launches.

Technical illustration showing some of the details of spaceX's Crew Dragon capsule and Falcon 9 launcher

Many in the private space industry believe demand is pent up to support the new human launch companies in their early years, though few are prepared to guess at the ultimate size of the market.

Countries that have space programmes but don’t have their own launch systems are already waiting to buy seats on private rockets, said Laura Forczyk at Astralytical, a US space consultancy. A boom in space tourism is likely to follow, she added, particularly if prices fall as fast as some expect.

Nasa, which objected to Mr Tito’s private flight nearly two decades ago, has since become a strong backer of space tourism as a way to share some of its own costs and shift more of its budget to reach the moon and, eventually, Mars. Last year it went as far as to publish a detailed price list for use of its facilities on the ISS, including $11,250 a day for private astronauts to access the station’s life support system and toilet.

The next step in commercialising space will need more accommodation for private astronauts, particularly since the ISS is due to be retired sometime this decade. The first private company to launch a module designed to attach to the ISS, Axiom, hopes to launch in 2024, on the way to a fully freestanding space station. The full potential of low earth orbit also depends on the private sector seizing on the chance to carry out materials research and manufacturing in zero-gravity — an idea that has barely been tested.

For Mr Musk, meanwhile, the first private trip some 250 miles up to the ISS is only a small step to a far more ambitious goal. Turning humanity into an interplanetary species is still his overriding ambition in life, said Mr Diamandis. “It means that we now have an entrepreneurial company that will also get us to the moon, and eventually to Mars,” he said.

Let’s block ads! (Why?)



Source link

Continue Reading

Science

Excited Scientists Find ‘Cosmic Ring Of Fire’ Galaxy By Peering 11 Billion Light-Years Back In Time – Forbes

Published

on


An Australian-led team of astronomers has unearthed a previously unknown type of galaxy just three billion years after the Big Bang. Variously described as both a “cosmic ring of fire” and a “titanic donut,” the finding could change what we know about how the first galaxies formed.

Announced today in the journal Nature Astronomy, this “collisional ring galaxy”—named R5519—is 10. billion light-years distant and the first of its kind found in the early Universe.

“It is a very curious object that we’ve never seen before,” said lead researcher Dr. Tiantian Yuan, from the Centre for Astrophysics and Supercomputing at Swinburne University of Technology, and the ARC Centre of Excellence for All Sky Astrophysics in 3 Dimensions (ASTRO 3D). “It looks strange and familiar at the same time.”

The publishing of Dr. Yuan’s paper, “A giant galaxy in the young Universe with a massive ring” was accompanied by an incredible video put together by Swinburne University’s astro-animator James Josephides.

Where is R5519?

R5519 is 10.8 billion light-years distant. It was imaged as it existed 11 billion years ago. Does that make it like “looking back in time?” Yes—all astronomy is looking back in time because the light that enters your eyes when stargazing/or a telescope has traveled vast distances through space at light-speed to reach us. Even sunlight is 8 minutes 20 seconds old.

The Big Bang took place around 13.8 billion years ago; R5519 was imaged just three billion light years later.

How big is R5519?

Supermassive. The hole in R5519’s “cosmic ring” has a diameter is two billion times that of the Earth-Sun distance, which astronomers call an astronomical unit (au), though the galaxy itself has a similar mass to our Milky Way.

R5519 is also three million times bigger than the diameter of the supermassive black hole in the galaxy M87, which was the first ever to be directly imaged last year.

MORE FROM FORBESHas NASA Found A Parallel Universe ‘Where Time Flows Backwards?’ The Truth Behind The Headlines

Why is R5519 such an incredible discovery?

This giant galaxy with a massive hole in the middle is a super-rare type of galaxy—a “collisional ring galaxy”—that could shake-up theories about how the earliest galaxies formed after the Big Bang, and how galaxies evolve. “It is making stars at a rate 50 times greater than the Milky Way,” said Dr. Yuan. “Most of that activity is taking place on its ring—so it truly is a ring of fire.”

How was R5519 discovered?

Working alongside colleagues from Australia, US, Canada, Belgium and Denmark, Dr. Yuan used spectroscopic data gathered by the W. M. Keck Observatory in Hawaii and images recorded by NASA’s Hubble Space Telescope to identify R5519’s unusual structure.

MORE FROM FORBESIs It Time To Dethrone The Big Bang Theory?

Why is R5519 such an important discovery?

R5519 is the first known “collisional ring galaxy” ever found in the early Universe, and it’s likely the result of a violent encounter with other galaxies. Its discovery has implications for understanding how spiral galaxies like our own Milky Way formed.

That’s because ring galaxies like R5519 are very rare in the local Universe. In fact, they account for a mere 0.01% of galaxies, and are formed by head-on collisions. This paper suggests that massive collisional rings are as rare 11.8 billion years ago as they are today.

“The collisional formation of ring galaxies requires a thin disk to be present in the “victim” galaxy before the collision occurs,” said co-author Professor Kenneth Freeman from the Australian National University. “The thin disk is the defining component of spiral galaxies: before it assembled, the galaxies were in a disorderly state, not yet recognisable as spiral galaxies.”

“In the case of this ring galaxy, we are looking back into the early Universe by 11 billion years, into a time when thin disks were only just assembling,” said Freeman. “This discovery is an indication that disk assembly in spiral galaxies occurred over a more extended period than previously thought.”

For comparison, the thin disk of our Milky Way galaxy began to come together only about nine billion years ago.

Wishing you clear skies and wide eyes.

Let’s block ads! (Why?)



Source link

Continue Reading

Trending