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Study Uncovers How Covid-19 Kills, Offers Possible Ways To Stop It | newkerala.com Health News – New Kerala

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IANS | 16 hours ago

Toronto, Aug 27 : In the fight against the novel coronavirus, researchers have made significant progress in understanding the Covid-19 virus and offered possible ways to stop the pandemic.

“While the findings need to be validated with larger groups of patients, they could have important implications for treating and studying this disease,” said study author Douglas Fraser from the Lawson Health Research Institute in Canada.

According to the study published in the journal Critical Care Explorations, a major complication occurring in most critically ill Covid-19 patients is clotting in the lung’s small blood vessels which leads to low oxygen levels in the body.

“The reason for this clotting has been unclear. Most suspect the clotting mechanisms in our blood are put into overdrive and so many clinicians have been treating with anticoagulant therapies like the drug heparin,” Fraser said.

“But we’ve uncovered an entirely different mechanism,” Fraser added.

In a first study, the team measured 1,161 plasma proteins from the blood of 30 participants 10 Covid-19 patients and 10 patients with other infections admitted to ICU, as well as 10 healthy control participants. Blood was drawn on set days of ICU admission, processed in a lab and then analysed using statistical methods and artificial intelligence.

The team noted that predicting a patient’s disease severity can help in a number of ways. It could allow for medical teams to have important conversations with family members, setting goals of care based on the patient’s health and personal wishes. In a second study, the team further analysed the blood samples from the 30 participants and found evidence to suggest that the inner linings of small blood vessels are becoming damaged and inflamed, making them a welcoming environment for platelets (small blood cells) to stick. They discovered that Covid-19 patients had elevated levels of three molecules (hyaluronic acid, syndecan-1 and P-selectin.)

The first two molecules are products broken down from small hair-like structures (the glycocalyx) which line the inside of the blood vessels. Their presence suggests the glycocalyx is being damaged with its breakdown products sent into the bloodstream. The presence of P-selectin is also significant as this molecule helps to make both platelets and the inner lining of blood vessels adhere to one another.

“The glycocalyx keeps platelets from touching the inside wall of the blood vessel and helps facilitate the production of nitric oxide, which has an important role in preventing platelets from sticking,” explained Fraser.

“We suspect the body’s immune response is producing enzymes that shear off these little hair-like structures, inflaming blood vessels and making them a welcoming environment for platelets to form clots,” Fraser said.

The team suggests that two therapies may hold promise for treating blood clots in Covid-19 patients platelet inhibitors to stop platelets from sticking and molecules to protect and restore the inner lining of blood vessels.

Study uncovers how Covid-19 kills, offers possible ways to stop it

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Long-term care system in British Columbia minimizes SARS-CoV-2 transmission – News-Medical.Net

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British Columbia found that BC was better prepared for the pandemic and responded in a more coordinated and decisive manner, leading to far fewer deaths than in Ontario.

The article is published in CMAJ (Canadian Medical Association Journal).

As of September 10, 2020, Ontario had reported 5965 resident cases in LTC homes and 1817 resident deaths from COVID-19, compared with just 466 cases and 156 deaths in BC homes.

“The BC long-term care system before the pandemic was better prepared to minimize SARS-CoV-2 transmission and respond to outbreaks,” says lead author Michael Liu, medical and graduate student at Harvard University, Boston, Massachusetts, and the University of Oxford, Oxford, United Kingdom.

In a comparison of the two provinces’ preparedness and response to COVID-19, the authors found that BC’s health system had several strengths over Ontario’s.

For example, before the pandemic, the average combined per diem funding per LTC resident in BC was $222 compared with $203 in Ontario. Long-term care residents were more likely to live in shared rooms in Ontario (63%) than in BC (24%).

Links between hospitals, LTC and public health were stronger in BC, and the organizational structure of the health system was relatively stable compared with Ontario, which was undergoing significant change with the merging of regional entities and several provincial agencies into Ontario Health.

BC overall was better prepared for the pandemic, and elected leaders and public health officials responded faster and more decisively with measures to limit transmission of SARS-CoV-2 into long-term care homes.”

Dr. Irfan Dhalla, Physician, St. Michael’s Hospital, Unity Health Toronto & the University of Toronto

The authors recommend governments should ensure clear, consistent communications; respond rapidly and proactively; ensure disparities between for-profit and non-profit homes do not affect quality of care; move to single rooms; ensure infection prevention and control teams can support LTC homes during outbreaks; and consider organizational structures to support integration between LTC, public health and hospitals.

“Residents of long-term care homes will always be vulnerable to infections,” says Dr. Dhalla. “Our analysis highlights policies and practices that, if implemented, could help protect these vulnerable seniors from a second wave of COVID-19 as well as other infectious diseases.”

Journal reference:

Liu, M., et al. (2020) COVID-19 in long-term care homes in Ontario and British Columbia. Canadian Medical Association Journal. doi.org/10.1503/cmaj.201860.

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Moderna's Covid-19 vaccine won't be ready by US election: Report – Times of India

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WASHINGTON: US biotech firm Moderna won’t seek an emergency use authorization for its coronavirus vaccine before November 25, its CEO told the Financial Times on Wednesday.
The news deals a blow to President Donald Trump‘s hopes of having an injection ready before the election to give his campaign a much-needed boost.
Stephane Bancel told the newspaper: “November 25 is the time we will have enough safety data to be able to put into an EUA file that we would send to the FDA (Food and Drug Administration) – assuming that the safety data is good, i.e. a vaccine is deemed to be safe.”
Trump, whose approval has taken a hit over his handling of the Covid-19 crisis, has frequently hinted a vaccine could be ready before the November 3 vote.
This has raised concern among experts that his administration may attempt to interfere with the regulatory process for political reasons.
The Republican repeated his claim on Tuesday night, during a debate with his Democratic rival, former vice president Joe Biden.
“It’s a possibility that we’ll have the answer before November 1,” he said.
Moderna’s vaccine is one of 11 experimental vaccines in final stage trials.
Another is being developed by Pfizer, whose CEO Albert Bourla has taken the position that his company may have a clear answer about whether their shot works by October.
Most experts are skeptical of the claim, believing that the ongoing trials will not have sufficient statistical data to prove the drug’s safety and effectiveness by that time.
Speaking to the Washington Post on Tuesday, Bourla denied he was attempting to curry favor with the president by making his October claim.
“For me, the election day is an artificial day. The end of October is an artificial day. This is how we operate. If we can bring it earlier, we will,” he said.

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Moderna COVID-19 vaccine appears safe, shows signs of working in older adults: study – Reuters

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CHICAGO (Reuters) – Results from an early safety study of Moderna Inc’s MRNA.O coronavirus vaccine candidate in older adults showed that it produced virus-neutralizing antibodies at levels similar to those seen in younger adults, with side effects roughly on par with high-dose flu shots, researchers said on Tuesday.

The study, published in the New England Journal of Medicine, offers a more complete picture of the vaccine’s safety in older adults, a group at increased risk of severe complications from COVID-19.

The findings are reassuring because immunity tends to weaken with age, Dr. Evan Anderson, one of the study’s lead researchers from Emory University in Atlanta, said in a phone interview.

The study was an extension of Moderna’s Phase I safety trial, first conducted in individuals aged 18-55. It tested two doses of Moderna’s vaccine – 25 micrograms and 100 micrograms – in 40 adults aged 56 to 70 and 71 and older.

Overall, the team found that in older adults who received two injections of the 100 microgram dose 28 days apart, the vaccine produced immune responses roughly in line with those seen in younger adults.

Moderna is already testing the higher dose in a large Phase III trial, the final stage before seeking emergency authorization or approval.

Side effects, which included headache, fatigue, body aches, chills and injection site pain, were deemed mainly mild to moderate.

Slideshow ( 3 images )

In at least two cases, however, volunteers had severe reactions.

One developed a grade three fever, which is classified as 102.2 degrees Fahrenheit (39°C) or above, after receiving the lower vaccine dose. Another developed fatigue so severe it temporarily prevented daily activities, Anderson said.

Typically, side effects occurred soon after receiving the vaccine and resolved quickly, he said.

“This is similar to what a lot of older adults are going to experience with the high dose influenza vaccine,” Anderson said. “They might feel off or have a fever.”

Norman Hulme, a 65-year-old senior multimedia developer at Emory who took the lower dose of the vaccine, said he felt compelled to take part in the trial after watching first responders in New York and Washington State fight the virus.

“I really had no side effects at all,” said Hulme, who grew up in the New York area.

Hulme said he was aware Moderna’s vaccine employed a new technology, and that there might be a risk in taking it, but said, “somebody had to do it.”

Reporting by Julie Steenhuysen; Editing by Bill Berkrot

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