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The sixth science: embarking on the far reaches of the universe – Vaughan Today

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Forget the regulatory ten kilometers of travel during different confinement periods. Let’s see now much more.

Journey to the farthest galaxy

A grand tour of the farthest galaxy 13.4 billion light-years away, anyone? On episode 54, Sixième Science, the science podcast for Science and the future And the 20 minutesIt takes you on a journey to the limits of the universe. At the microphone, Fabrice Nicot, journalist at Science and the future Specialist in astronomy and physics, answers questions from Romain Gouloumès 20 minutes.

The journey was made possible by Hubble

Welcome to the most distant galaxy ever explored, which finally reveals its contours! The flight is clearly made possible thanks to the famous Hubble space telescope. So, what was just a foggy mission in 2014 is actually called “GN-z11” and opens the door to the farthest reaches of the universe. Welcome here to the gigantic clouds of gas, those in a galaxy like never before.

But Hubble is not the only tool available for this kind of exploration. The JWST (James Webb Spacetelescope), which should be launched in the fall, is also an instrument that specialists are eagerly awaiting. “We go from a 2.4-meter mirror with Hubble to 6.5 meters”, was reported to Fabrice Nicot Daniel Scherer, an astronomer at the University of Geneva (Switzerland). That is, the surface area is seven times larger and an increase in size makes it possible to discover hundreds of galaxies of this type from GN-z11″The world expects. Without a doubt, it is a guaranteed ticket for upcoming intergalactic trips.

In the meantime, you can find the entire file in the June issue or dive in here, Unlimited and Free, in the Sixth Science Archives.

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'Eye of Sauron' volcano and other deep-sea structures discovered in underwater 'Mordor' – Livescience.com

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Researchers exploring the Indian Ocean have discovered the remains of a collapsed underwater volcano with an uncanny resemblance to the all-seeing “Eye of Sauron” from J.R.R. Tolkien’s famous fantasy series “The Lord of the Rings,” as well as two other seafloor structures named after places in Tolkien’s Middle-earth. 

The eye is actually an oval-shaped depression measuring 3.9 miles (6.2 kilometers) long by 3 miles (4.8 km) wide. Called a caldera, this giant divot is left over from the ancient collapse of a deep-sea volcano. The caldera is surrounded by a 984-foot-tall (300 meters) rim, giving the impression of eyelids, and an equally tall cone-shaped peak at the center, which looks like a pupil, according to The Conversation. The unusual structure is located 174 miles (280 km) southeast of Christmas Island ― an Australian external territory off mainland Australia ― at a depth of 10,170 feet (3,100 m).

A team of researchers discovered the structure while onboard the ocean research vessel Investigator, owned by Australia’s Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation (CSIRO), on the 12th day of an expedition to Australia’s Indian Ocean Territories. The researchers used multibeam sonar to create 3D maps of the caldera and the surrounding seafloor.

Related: 5 colossal cones: Biggest volcanoes on Earth 

Like other calderas, this one formed when the peak of the original volcano collapsed, according to the researchers.

“The molten magma at the base of the volcano shifts upwards, leaving empty chambers [below],” chief scientist Tim O’Hara, senior curator at Museums Victoria in Australia, wrote in The Conversation. “The thin, solid crust on the surface of the dome then collapses, creating a large, crater-like structure.”

The area surrounding the volcanic crater is also home to two other noteworthy structures.

“Our volcanic ‘eye’ was not alone,” O’Hara wrote. “Further mapping to the south revealed a smaller sea mountain covered in numerous volcanic cones, and further still to the south was a larger, flat-topped seamount.”

Continuing the connection to Tolkien’s fantasy epic, the researchers named the cone-covered mountain Barad-dûr, after Sauron’s main stronghold, and the seamount Ered Lithui, after the Ash Mountains, both of which are found alongside the Eye of Sauron in the evil realm of Mordor. 

A map showing off the locations of all three features named after places in Mordor. (Image credit: 3D imagery courtesy of CSIRO/MNF, GSM)

The Ered Lithui seamount is part of a cluster of seamounts thought to date back about 100 million years, O’Hara wrote. The Ered Lithui seamount was once above the water’s surface, giving it its flat top, and it has gradually sunk to around 1.6 miles (2.6 km) below sea level.

Over millions of years, sand and sinking detritus — particulate matter, including plankton, excrement and other organic matter — have coated the seamount in a thick layer of sediment around 328 feet (100 m) deep. However, the caldera remains relatively uncovered, suggesting it may be significantly younger, O’Hara said. 

“This sedimentation rate should have smothered and partially hidden the caldera,” O’Hara wrote. It also “looks surprisingly intact for a structure that should be 100 million years old.”

This freshness suggests that the volcano was created, and subsequently collapsed, after the seamount began sinking into the ocean.

“It is possible that volcanoes have continued to sprout long after the original foundation,” O’Hara wrote. “Our restless Earth is never still.”

Originally published on Live Science.

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Europe's robotic arm and Russian's Nauka on their way to ISS – SpaceWatch.Global

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Source: ESA

Paris, 23 July 2021. – The European Robotic Arm (ERA) is on its way to the International Space Station (ISS) after its launch from the Baikonur Cosmodrome in Kazakhstan, the European Space Agency (ESA) said.

The 11-m-long robot is travelling folded and attached to what will be its home base – the Multipurpose Laboratory Module, also called ‘Nauka’, ESA said. The Proton-M booster placed Nauka and ERA into orbit around ten minutes after liftoff, nearly 200 km above Earth, the agency said.

ERA is capable of ‘walking’ around the Russian parts of the orbital complex. It can handle components up to 8000 kg with 5 mm precision, and it will transport astronauts from one working site to another.

The Russian Nauka module (‘nauka’ means ‘science’ in Russian) was delayed for years due to technical problems that Roscosmos, the Russian space agency, finally solved.

Space News quoted Russian sources yesterday that Nauka suffered further problems after reaching orbit. The space agencies – NASA and Roscosmos – did not comment these rumors.

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New 3D images of shark intestines show they work like Tesla valves – CTV News

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TORONTO —
Despite sharks being frequently cast as the ‘scary creature with large teeth’ in our collective imagination, not a lot is known about what sharks actually eat and how they can go so long between meals.

But new 3D imaging may have unravelled some of those digestive mysteries by creating a better picture of what a shark’s intestines look like.

According to a new study published in the journal Proceedings of the Royal Society B, researchers have made images using CT scans that allow a closer look at the animal’s spiral intestines, which may allow it to digest food slowly.

“It’s high time that some modern technology was used to look at these really amazing spiral intestines of sharks,” Samantha Leigh, assistant professor at California State University and lead author of the study, said in a press release. “We developed a new method to digitally scan these tissues and now can look at the soft tissues in such great detail without having to slice into them.”

Researchers took CT scans of around three dozen shark species from specimens preserved at the Natural History Museum of Los Angeles. This process involved taking a series of X-rays from different angles and then combining those flat images to produce a 3D one.

This meant researchers didn’t have to dissect a shark and disturb the organs involved.

“Intestines are so complex, with so many overlapping layers, that dissection destroys the context and connectivity of the tissue,” co-author Adam Summers, a professor based at UW Friday Harbor Labs, explained in the release. 

“It would be like trying to understand what was reported in a newspaper by taking scissors to a rolled-up copy. The story just won’t hang together.”

By examining these 3D images, researchers were able to theorize that the spiral shape of the sharks intestines actually help them retain food for longer. The spiral shape of the gut slows down the progress of food through the shark, moving based on gravity and the contraction of the intestines.

The release explained that the sharks’ intestines function similarly to a one-way valve designed by Nikola Tesla more than 100 years ago, in that it allows fluid to move in one direction without any backflow or external help from other moving parts.

Contrary to how often the shark in Jaws was seen chowing down, sharks often go for days or even weeks between meals, so these spiral intestines may help them stretch out one large meal, researchers say.

The next step for researchers is to create these structures themselves using a 3D printer, and see what happens when material passes through them in real time. The release also mentioned that these structures could serve as inspiration for technology and things such as wastewater treatment or filtering out microplastics from water.

As sharks eat a wide variety of things in the ocean and are frequently top predators, understanding more about how they digest could help us understand more about the ocean ecosystem in general.

“The vast majority of shark species, and the majority of their physiology, are completely unknown,” Summers said, adding that new things are discovered every time they look closely.

“We need to look harder at sharks and, in particular, we need to look harder at parts other than the jaws, and the species that don’t interact with people.”

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