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A giant red star is acting weird and scientists think it may be about to explode – CTV News

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A young, bright star has been acting a little erratic lately.

The star, Betelgeuse, is suddenly dimming. It may be a sign, astronomers say, that the star is about to explode. Another possibility is the red supergiant may just be going through a phase.

Ed Guinan, an astronomy professor at Villanova University, was the lead author on a December 8 paper entitled “The Fainting of the Nearby Supergiant Betelgeuse.”

He told CNN that Betelgeuse (pronounced: BAY-tel juice) been declining in brightness sharply since October, and was now about 2.5 times fainter than usual. Once the ninth brightest star in the sky, Betelgeuse has fallen now to about the 23rd brightest.

Guinan and his colleagues have been closely observing the star for decades, with “continuous coverage since 1980,” he said.

In the last half-century, the star has never dimmed so aggressively, and that could mean we’re on the verge of something extraordinary.

“What causes the supernova is deep inside the star,” Guinan said. And because the star is so huge, it’s impossible to tell what’s going on so far down.

It could be a prelude to a supernova

Betelgeuse is the star at the shoulder of Orion, the iconic constellation in the shape of a hunter wielding a bow in the night sky. Its name is derived from the Arabic for “hand of Orion.”

The star, which is about 700 light years away from Earth, is a relatively close neighbor within our galaxy.

“What’s special about this is how close it is,” Guinan said.

Guinan said it’s the most likely nearby supernova candidate. It’s about nine million years old, and stars as large as Betelgeuse don’t usually have lifespans past 10 million years. Though its time is nigh, it probably won’t explode in your lifetime.

“It’ll probably happen in the next 200,000 or 300,000 years,” Guinan said.

It’s a variable star, which means it regularly dims and brightens, in cycles that can last about 420 days. Betelgeuse has been in a normal dimming period over the past few months, but it’s just dramatically accelerated compared to past years.

The dimming process should end by mid-January, according to mathematical models. But Betelgeuse often follows its own rules, he says.

“I personally think it’s going to bounce back, but it’s fun to watch stars change,” Guinan said. However, he adds, “If it continues dimming, then all bets are off.”

If it exploded, it would be be bright enough to see during the day

That might mean we’re on the verge of a brilliant light show, because if a star this close exploded, it would make an impact.

Stars rapidly fuse various elements in their cores. And if Betelgeuse burns down to an iron core, which won’t fuse, that core could collapse rapidly, leading to a supernova.

The red supergiant would glow a vibrant blue for three of four months, and would take about a year to fade out.

“It would be a really bright star visible in the daytime,” Guinan said.

There wouldn’t be any direct danger to life on earth, but ultraviolet radiation from the celestial blast could scorch ozone in our atmosphere.

Betelgeuse has been acting strangely for years

Betelgeuse’s curious behavior has stuck out in other ways over the decades.

In 2009, the late astronomer and Nobel Laureate Charles Townes told CNN he had observed Betelgeuse shrinking 15% since the mid 1990s.

Back then, Townes and his colleagues were puzzled because as stars usually get brighter as they shrink. Betelgeuse, however, was dimming.

The star has been acting differently in the past few months, and it’s anyone guess what all the unusual readings may mean.

“It might then be a very small bright star, or it might even be a black hole. An explosion would be very surprising,” Townes said at the time.

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Talk like you: Scientists discover why humans evolved to talk while other primates can’t – Euronews

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Why did humans evolve to talk, while monkeys were left to hoot, squeak and grunt to communicate?

The question has long puzzled scientists, who blamed our closest primate cousins’ inability to reproduce human speech sounds on their vocal anatomy.

Until now, researchers could not quite underpin what happened exactly during our evolution to make us able to speak while apes and monkeys can’t, given our vocal structures look almost identical to other primates.

Now, a new study published on Thursday in the journal Science claims to have the answer – and it’s not what anyone expected.

Analysing the phonal apparatus – the larynx – of 43 species of primates, a team of researchers based mainly in Japan found that all non-human primates – from orangutans to chimpanzees – had an additional feature in their throat that humans do not have.

Ability to speak and develop languages

While both humans and non-human primates produce sounds by forcing air through their larynges, causing folds of tissue to vibrate, monkeys and apes have an additional feature, a thin flap of tissue known as vocal membranes, or vocal lips.

Compared to apes and monkeys, humans were found to lack this anatomical vocal membrane – a small muscle just above the vocal cords – as well as balloon-like laryngeal structures called air sacs which apes and monkeys use to produce the loud calls and screams we’re not quite capable of.

According to the researchers, humans have lost this extra vocal tissue over time, somehow simplifying and stabilising the sounds coming out of our throat, and allowing us, in time, to develop the ability to speak – and eventually develop very complex sophisticated languages.

Monkeys and apes, on the other hand, maintained these vocal lips which don’t really allow them to control the inflection and register of their voice and produce stable, clear vocal fold vibrations.

“Paradoxically, the increased complexity of human spoken language thus followed simplification of our laryngeal anatomy,” says the study.

Communication through sign language

It’s unclear when humans lost these extra tissues still present in apes and monkeys and became able to speak, as the soft tissues in the larynx are not preserved in fossils, and researchers could only study living species.

We know that it must have happened sometime after the Homo Sapiens lineage split from the other primates, some 6-7 million years ago.

The fact that apes and monkeys haven’t developed the ability to speak like humans doesn’t mean that they are not able to clearly communicate with each other.

Though their vocal anatomy doesn’t allow them to form vowel sounds and proper words, non-human primates have a complex communication system based primarily on body language rather than oral sounds.

But monkeys and apes have also proven to be able to communicate with humans.

In the not-often-happy history of the interaction between non-human primates and humans, researchers have been able to teach apes and monkeys to communicate with people.

Koko the gorilla, for example, became famous for being able to use over 1,000 hand signs in sign language, while the bonobo Kanzi was reportedly able to communicate using a keyboard.

But when it comes to having a chat, monkeys and humans might never be able to share one.

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When Summer 'Supermoons' Hit Your Eye: Spectacular Photos – Forbes

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When the moon takes the celestial stage during the summer, the spectacle is simply amazing: Currently topping the program is the Sturgeon Supermoon, shining in all its splendor.

In July, it was the Buck Supermoon, the biggest and shiniest of the year. That one followed the Strawberry Supermoon that delighted sky watchers in June.

They have other stage names. This Sturgeon Moon, which derives its principal name from the giant sturgeon fish season in the Great Lakes, is known also as Thunder Moon, Mead Moon and Hay Moon, among others, and is the last supermoon of the year.

July’s Buck Moon, which drew that name because the antlers of male deer — bucks — are in full-growth mode at the time, is also called Salmon Moon and Berry Moon.

The Strawberry supermoon of June gets its name from fruit harvest seasons. It’s also known as Blooming Moon, Honey Moon and the Mead Moon.

The full moon names collected by the iconic Old Farmer’s Almanac come mainly from Native American tribes, Colonial American, and European sources.

“A full moon doubles as a supermoon when it’s near perigee, or the point in the moon’s orbit that is closest to Earth,” the Almanac explains, making it larger and brighter.

August’s Sturgeon Moon is the fourth and final supermoon of the year and it happens to coincide with the Perseid meteor shower, considered by many as “the best meteor shower of the year,” according to NASA. It will peak on August 13 and will remain active through August 24.

And if you happen to notice a bright-looking “star” near the moon, you’re looking at Saturn.

Lunar lovers and star seekers have been enjoying the summer’s stunning celestial performances and here are some of the best photos taken around the globe:

July’s Buck Supermoon

June’s Strawberry Supermoon of June

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Tips on how to spot the 2022 Perseid meteor shower – StrathmoreNow.com

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The Perseid meteor shower will peak this year early Saturday morning over Cochrane. 

Local photographer, Dylan Kaniski is gearing up for some sleepless nights to ensure the perfect shot. “I’m always really excited for this meteor shower, it is one of the biggest of the year and we always get a lot of great meteors.”

Meteor showers are clouds of debris left when comets zoom past Earth on their way around the sun. The Perseids come from the comet Swift-Tuttle, which was last visible in 1992. While Cochranites won’t be seeing the comet again until 2125, in the meantime, sky gazers can enjoy the yearly shower from the debris. 

“It does change every year and some years are better than others. But this one is special because the Perseids are pretty consistent from year to year. I usually get a really good shot and that’s why people are really excited about this.”

Unfortunately, a full moon will make it trickier to see this year but Kaniski has plenty of tips for people looking to experience the Perseids for the first time.

“The best way to view the meteor shower is to first get somewhere dark. It doesn’t have to be anywhere super far. I personally like going to the mountains but anywhere around Cochrane, you can go to the countryside just 10 minutes out of town.”

“If you can’t make it out of town, just go into a local park or even turning your back to any streetlights and just letting your eyes adjust is going to help out.”

He also believes you don’t need top-of-the-line photography equipment to get breathtaking shots.

“You don’t need any fancy equipment or anything special. Meteors do move quite fast and they’re usually quite bright so you don’t really have any struggles capturing them with any-level cameras.”

“For advice on cameras, I like to do a higher ISO around like 6,400 and usually a 20-second exposure time. If people are heading out and want to capture it with their cameras, I suggest using a focal length that’s a little bit tighter because a lot of meteors can be a bit smaller, and having a tighter focal length will allow you to emphasize the size of the meteor. Something like 20 to 35 millimeters is what I would recommend.”

”I’d stay away from the super wide angle lenses that you see a lot of nighttime and landscape photographers using.”

While the 2022 Perseid meteor shower will peak early on August 13, 2022, meteors could be visible on clear nights leading up to and past Saturday morning.

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