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Do e-cigarettes contain more nicotine that regular cigarettes? – The Globe and Mail

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‘What we do know is that both smoking and vaping can be addictive,’ says Dr. Peter Selby, chief of medicine and psychiatry at the Centre for Addiction and Mental Health in Toronto. (File Photo).

David Mercado/Reuters

The question: I’ve heard that e-cigarettes may contain far more nicotine than regular cigarettes. Does that mean vaping is more addictive than smoking?

The answer: It’s true that some vaping devices can deliver more nicotine than cigarettes. But there are many different types of electronic cigarettes, and how they are used can affect the amount of nicotine that ends up in the bloodstream, and eventually the brain, says Dr. Robert Schwartz, a professor in the Dalla Lana School of Public Health at the University of Toronto.

The battery-powered e-cigarettes heat up a liquid containing nicotine to produce an aerosol, or vapour, which can be inhaled. (Flavourings and other chemicals may also be added to the fluid mixture.)

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A lot depends on the nicotine concentration in the fluid and the power, or heat, generated by the e-cigarette. Other variables include how hard, how long and how often a person inhales. “Unless you know how to puff on the thing properly, and for long enough to heat the liquid sufficiently, you are not going to get huge amounts of nicotine,” says Schwartz.

So, it isn’t clear-cut whether cigarettes or e-cigarettes deliver more nicotine. But one thing is clear:

“What we do know is that both smoking and vaping can be addictive,” says Dr. Peter Selby, chief of medicine and psychiatry at the Centre for Addiction and Mental Health in Toronto

In fact, any amount of inhaled, chewed or snorted nicotine can be problematic – meaning that a person is likely to progress to daily use following a period of experimentation. “Nicotine is one of the most addictive substances we are aware of. It’s as addictive as heroin,” says Schwartz.

Originally, many public health experts looked upon vaping as potentially less harmful than smoking cigarettes, which produce about 7,000 toxic chemicals – including carcinogens – by burning tobacco. Some hope the devices might serve as quitting aids – or, at the very least, help reduce the number of harmful substances that smokers inhale.

But the recent surge in vaping among teens has set off alarm bells in the public-health community. And those concerns are intensified by reports of lung injuries among some vapers.

“My biggest concern is that we have already addicted a whole new generation of people to nicotine,” says Schwartz.

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Teenagers – whose brains are still developing – are especially vulnerable to the addictive powers of nicotine, according to a growing body of research.

Nicotine attaches to receptors in the brain, thereby triggering the release of dopamine – a chemical messenger involved in pleasure and a wide range of other neurological functions. It basically produces a feel-good high.

When teens smoke or vape, it is believed that their brains create more receptors to handle the influx of nicotine. As the number of receptors increases, they need higher levels of nicotine to get the same buzz.

Some researchers have dubbed this effect the “nico-teen” brain. They also speculate that these neurological changes may have long-term consequences for mood and mental focus.

In the debate over vaping, much of the recent attention has been about the spate of serious lung injuries. Many of these cases appear to be linked to the vaping of cannabis oils such as tetrahydrocannabinol or THC. The latest evidence suggests that vitamin E acetate, a filler sometimes added to black-market THC, might be causing the injuries.

But even without THC, routine vaping – and the other chemicals in vaping liquids – may lead to long-term health problems.

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Vaping-related illnesses have been in the spotlight recently amid accusations the makers of the products are targeting them at youth. Dr. James MacKillop outlines some strategies to use at home in conversations with your children about vaping. MacKillop is the director of the Peter Boris Centre For Addictions Research and co-director of the Michael G. Degroote Centre For Medicinal Cannabis Research. The Globe and Mail (staff)

“Kids who vape have almost twice the rate of coughing and wheezing as kids who don’t vape,” says Schwartz. Are these symptoms the early warning signs of chronic respiratory conditions such as asthma? Or, might vaping contribute to the development of cardiovascular disease? “We don’t yet know for sure,” says Schwartz. He adds that it will likely take some time to establish a clear picture of the risks.

Selby is also concerned that young people who have never used tobacco are now being drawn to vaping. He says better government regulations are needed to safeguard adolescents. However, he thinks vaping should not be vilified to the point where the devices are actually banned.

“Some individuals are going to take up tobacco smoking anyway, and they will be better off if they have the option to vape,” says Selby. “It’s all about relative risks between combustible cigarettes and vaping devices that deliver fewer dangerous chemicals.”

Indeed, despite the various problems linked to e-cigarettes, “there is very broad consensus in the scientific community that smoking is the most harmful way to use nicotine and it’s known to cause premature death in at least half of users,” says Schwartz.

According to Selby, “it would be completely ridiculous to ban the sale of vaping devices, while giving free reign to the most dangerous form of nicotine delivery – cigarettes.”

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What is the Delta variant of coronavirus with K417N mutation?

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 India said on Wednesday it has found around 40 cases of the Delta coronavirus variant carrying a mutation that appears to make it more transmissible, and advised states to increase testing.

Below is what we know about the variant.

WHAT IS DELTA PLUS?

The variant, called “Delta Plus” in India, was first reported in a Public Health England bulletin on June 11.

It is a sub-lineage of the Delta variant first detected in India and has acquired the spike protein mutation called K417N which is also found in the Beta variant first identified in South Africa.

Some scientists worry that the mutation, coupled with other existing features of the Delta variant, could make it more transmissible.

“The mutation K417N has been of interest as it is present in the Beta variant (B.1.351 lineage), which was reported to have immune evasion property,” India’s health ministry said in a statement.

Shahid Jameel, a top Indian virologist, said the K417N was known to reduce the effectiveness of a cocktail of therapeutic monoclonal antibodies.

WHERE ALL IT HAS BEEN FOUND?

As of June 16 https://assets.publishing.service.gov.uk/government/uploads/system/uploads/attachment_data/file/994839/Variants_of_Concern_VOC_Technical_Briefing_16.pdf, at least 197 cases has been found from 11 countries – Britain (36), Canada (1), India (8), Japan (15), Nepal (3), Poland (9), Portugal (22), Russia (1), Switzerland (18), Turkey (1), the United States (83).

India said on Wednesday around 40 cases of the variant have been observed in the states of Maharashtra, Kerala and Madhya Pradesh, with “no significant increase in prevalence”. The earliest case in India is from a sample taken on April 5.

Britain said its first 5 cases were sequenced on April 26 and they were contacts of individuals who had travelled from, or transited through, Nepal and Turkey.

No deaths were reported among the UK and Indian cases.

WHAT ARE THE WORRIES?

Studies are ongoing in India and globally to test the effectiveness of vaccines against this mutation.

“WHO is tracking this variant as part of the Delta variant, as we are doing for other Variants of Concern with additional mutations,” the World Health Organization (WHO) said in a statement sent to Reuters.

“For the moment, this variant does not seem to be common, currently accounting for only a small fraction of the Delta sequences … Delta and other circulating Variants of Concern remain a higher public health risk as they have demonstrated increases in transmission,” it said.

But India’s health ministry warned that regions where it has been found “may need to enhance their public health response by focusing on surveillance, enhanced testing, quick contact-tracing and priority vaccination.”

There are worries Delta Plus would inflict another wave of infections on India after it emerged from the world’s worst surge in cases only recently.

“The mutation itself may not lead to a third wave in India – that also depends on COVID-appropriate behaviour, but it could be one of the reasons,” said Tarun Bhatnagar, a scientist with the state-run Indian Council for Medical Research.

(Reporting by Shilpa Jamkhandikar in Pune, Bhargav Acharya and Ankur Banerjee in Bengaluru and Alistair Smout in London; Editing by Miyoung Kim and Giles Elgood)

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Colon Cancer Rates Have Increased: How Can You Improve Your Gut Health?

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The majority of colon cancer cases are more common among older citizens. However, research has found that colorectal cancer rates have been rising in healthy people under 50. The rate has increased over the ten years. Medical professionals recommend screening from age 45. A colorectal screening test is done to ensure that the individual does not have any signs of cancer.

A study found that there has been a surge in colorectal cancer in younger generations and could become the dominant cause of cancer-related deaths by 2030. Since the risk is alarming, everyone needs to take their gut health seriously. Here are some things that people can do to improve their well-being.

Consider Hydrotherapy

Hydrotherapy is a type of colon cleanse that treats digestive issues such as constipation and bloating. Chronic constipation can lead to colon cancer, so it is vital to deal with the issue before it worsens. Colon hydrotherapy is offered at a few places, including a wellness colonic clinic in Toronto where the staff is committed to providing solutions for their clients’ digestive health.

Cleansing your colon can help improve digestion, relieve constipation, reduce gas, rejuvenate skin, and increase energy. The process involves flushing the colon with a large volume of water. It can be beneficial to speak to the professionals at the clinic and discuss your concerns with them. They will educate you about the process and answer any concerns you may have. The treatment can seem overwhelming but can also be helpful for your gut health.

 

Consume Sensibly

Your food intake plays a significant role in your gut health. If you have gut problems, it may be worthwhile to speak to a doctor and change your diet. You should also consider finding out if you have any food intolerance. There may be trigger foods such as oil or dairy that could be causing discomfort.

Even if you do not have any problems with your food consumption, it is never wrong to watch what you eat. Foods with probiotics or high fibre content can be good for you. Eating the right foods can improve your overall health too.

Stay Hydrated

Water almost seems like a magical drink sometimes. From skin problems to digestive issues, it can improve many situations. Consuming a good amount of water every day can balance good bacteria in the gut and promote your health. Hydration can also help your organs function properly and improve cognitive function.

Say Goodbye to Extreme Stress

It can be challenging to bid farewell to stress forever. However, chronic high levels of stress can impact your abdomen and your overall health. There is a connection between the brain and gut, and stress can cause your stomach to become anxious.

Long-term stress can trigger several gut problems such as indigestion, constipation, or diarrhea. Look for ways to reduce stress levels so that your gut can remain healthy.

Some health problems are inevitable with age, but you can do your best to stay healthy and deal with any issues you face. Prepare yourself to fight any disease beforehand, and your body will thank you.

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Biden’s vaccine pledge ups pressure on rich countries to give more

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The United States on Thursday raised the pressure on other Group of Seven leaders to share their vaccine hoards to bring an end to the pandemic by pledging to donate 500 million doses of the Pfizer coronavirus vaccine to the world’s poorest countries.

The largest ever vaccine donation by a single country will cost the United States $3.5 billion but Washington expects no quid pro quo or favours for the gift, a senior Biden administration official told reporters.

U.S. President Joe Biden‘s move, on the eve of a summit of the world’s richest democracies, is likely to prompt other leaders to stump up more vaccines, though even vast numbers of vaccines would still not be enough to inoculate all of the world’s poor.

G7 leaders want to vaccinate the world by the end of 2022 to try to halt the COVID-19 pandemic that has killed more than 3.9 million people and devastated the global economy.

A senior Biden administration official described the gesture as a “major step forward that will supercharge the global effort” with the aim of “bringing hope to every corner of the world.” “We really want to underscore that this is fundamentally about a singular objective of saving lives,” the official said, adding that Washington was not seeking favours in exchange for the doses.

Vaccination efforts so far are heavily correlated with wealth: the United States, Europe, Israel and Bahrain are far ahead of other countries. A total of 2.2 billion people have been vaccinated so far out of a world population of nearly 8 billion, based on Johns Hopkins University data.

U.S. drugmaker Pfizer and its German partner BioNTech have agreed to supply the U.S. with the vaccines, delivering 200 million doses in 2021 and 300 million doses in the first half of 2022.

The shots, which will be produced at Pfizer’s U.S. sites, will be supplied at a not-for-profit price.

“Our partnership with the U.S. government will help bring hundreds of millions of doses of our vaccine to the poorest countries around the world as quickly as possible,” said Pfizer Chief Executive Albert Bourla.

‘DROP IN THE BUCKET’

Anti-poverty campaign group Oxfam called for more to be done to increase global production of vaccines.

“Surely, these 500 million vaccine doses are welcome as they will help more than 250 million people, but that’s still a drop in the bucket compared to the need across the world,” said Niko Lusiani, Oxfam America’s vaccine lead.

“We need a transformation toward more distributed vaccine manufacturing so that qualified producers worldwide can produce billions more low-cost doses on their own terms, without intellectual property constraints,” he said in a statement.

Another issue, especially in some poor countries, is the infrastructure for transporting the vaccines which often have to be stored at very cold temperatures.

Biden has also backed calls for a waiver of some vaccine intellectual property rights but there is no international consensus yet on how to proceed.

The new vaccine donations come on top of 80 million doses Washington has already pledged to donate by the end of June. There is also $2 billion in funding earmarked for the COVAX programme led by the World Health Organization (WHO) and the Global Alliance for Vaccines and Immunization (GAVI), the White House said.

GAVI and the WHO welcomed the initiative.

Washington is also taking steps to support local production of COVID-19 vaccines in other countries, including through its Quad initiative with Japan, India and Australia.

(Reporting by Steve Holland in St. Ives, England, Andrea Shalal in Washington and Caroline Copley in Berlin; Writing by Guy Faulconbridge and Keith Weir;Editing by Leslie Adler, David Evans, Emelia Sithole-Matarise, Giles Elgood and Jane Merriman)

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