(Reuters Health) – People who eat oatmeal for breakfast instead of eggs and white toast may be lowering their risk of stroke, a Danish study suggests.
Consuming breakfast every day, and oatmeal in particular, has long been linked to reduced stroke risk. But research to date hasn’t offered a clear picture of how substituting oatmeal for common breakfast foods like eggs, toast and yogurt might impact stroke risk, the study team notes in the journal Stroke.
Researchers examined dietary data on about 55,000 adults in Denmark who were 56 years old, on average, with no history of stroke. At the start, each week, participants consumed an average of 2.1 servings of eggs, 3 servings of white bread, 1 serving of yogurt, and only 0.1 serving of oatmeal.
Researchers followed half of the participants for at least 13.4 years. During the follow-up, 2,260 people had a stroke.
Using a statistical model, the researchers calculated that a person who replaced one serving of eggs or white bread with oatmeal would have a 4% lower risk of stroke compared to someone who stayed with eggs or bread for breakfast. Eating oatmeal instead of yogurt didn’t appear to impact stroke risk.
“Our results indicate that shifting more people to choose oatmeal instead of white bread or eggs might be wise for population-level prevention of stroke, but the modest association means that for individuals, it is quite possible that other factors might be more important,” said senior study author Christina Dahm of Aarhus University in Denmark.
While the study wasn’t designed to prove whether or how oatmeal might lower stroke risk, oats may do this by helping to lower cholesterol, Dahm said by email.
“Cholesterol is a risk factor for ischemic strokes, and our results were stronger for ischemic stroke, which could indicate that the cholesterol-lowering effect of eating oats may have long-term impact on risk of ischemic stroke,” Dahm added.
Most ischemic strokes occur when a clot blocks an artery carrying blood to the brain.
To minimize that risk, the American Heart Association (AHA) recommends not smoking, getting regular exercise, maintaining a healthy weight, keeping blood pressure, cholesterol and blood sugar in check, and eating a diet rich in whole grains, fruits, vegetables and lean protein with limited sweets and fats.
Replacing one weekly serving of eggs or white bread with oatmeal was specifically associated with a 5% lower risk of ischemic stroke from blockages in small arteries, the researchers note.
Overall, study participants who ate more eggs and white bread tended to have less healthy eating habits than people who ate more oatmeal.
“Perhaps patients who eat oatmeal take better care of themselves in other ways, and this accounts for the observed effect,” said Dr. Michael D. Hill, a researcher at the University of Calgary, in Alberta, Canada, who wasn’t involved in the study.
“If true, this would mean that eating oatmeal just identifies a population of people who are healthy, rather than having a direct effect on the pathological processes leading to stroke,” Hill said by email.
Portion sizes and diet quality are also important for stroke prevention, said Dr. Amytis Towfighi of the Keck School of Medicine at the University of Southern California, in Los Angeles.
The AHA recommends the Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension (DASH) diet or a Mediterranean-style diet to help prevent cardiovascular disease. Both diets emphasize cooking with vegetable oils with unsaturated fats, eating nuts, fruits, vegetables, low-fat dairy products, whole grains, fish and poultry, and limiting red meat and added sugars and salt.
“This study provides additional support of a Mediterranean diet, which includes daily consumption of whole grains,” Towfighi, who wasn’t involved in the study, said by email.
The judge granted the boy’s father sole decision-making when it came to getting vaccinated
Author of the article:
An Ottawa mom has been legally banned from telling her 14-year-old son not to get the COVID-19 vaccines and prohibited by court order from showing him online information that calls into question the safety or efficacy of the vaccines.
In her family court decision released Oct. 18, Ontario Superior Court Justice Jennifer Mackinnon granted the boy’s father sole parental decision-making authority regarding the vaccine. The judge said the boy was entitled to be vaccinated and sided with the father’s lawyer, Linda Hanson, who presented the court with supporting information from reputable organizations and doctors who recommend getting vaccinated.
The parents share custody of the boy and decision-making.
The boy’s father petitioned the court for sole decision-making authority when it came to getting his son vaccinated.
The mother opposed the motion and retained Dr. Mary E. O’Connor, who wrote a supporting letter saying the boy should not be vaccinated because he has asthma, the vaccine is experimental and there’s no evidence of benefits to children.
The judge noted: “Dr. O’Connor does not refer to medical or scientific support for her conclusion that there is no evidence of any benefits to children from the vaccine other than she has heard of ill effects in her practice. This statement is too general to be given weight.”
The doctor, who has not yet responded to voice mails and text messages for comment, also wrote that the vaccines have many adverse effects, “including deaths.”
The Ottawa doctor finished off the letter, writing: “Anyone who administers such a vaccine will be held responsible and liable for any adverse effects that would occur immediately, or in the years to come.”
The judge decided that it was in the best interests of the boy to be vaccinated against COVID-19.
The judge also noted that it seemed the boy had been influenced about his apparent position on not getting vaccinated.
“I find that the current views expressed by the child are not independent, rather are the result of influence by his mother and the doctor she retained to oppose the motion. The mother will be ordered … not to provide the child with any information directly or indirectly about COVID-19 vaccines contrary to what is provided by the Canadian, Ontario and Ottawa public health authorities.”
In a Sept. 18, 2021, letter filed in court, O’Connor wrote that she had already discussed the “concerns about the risks of this needle.” The doctor said the boy “definitely said that he does not want this vaccination.”
The judge decided otherwise and granted the boy’s father sole decision-making when it came to getting vaccinated.
This newspaper is not naming the parents in this case to protect the identity of the boy.
This is an excerpt from Second Opinion, a weekly roundup of health and medical science news emailed to subscribers every Saturday morning. If you haven’t subscribed yet, you can do that by clicking here.
Antibodies, your first line of defence against COVID-19 infection, do decline — and may even be doing so as you’re reading this — but that’s not unexpected.
While one aspect of your vaccine-induced immunity to COVID-19 is technically “waning” in the weeks and months after vaccination, that’s not necessarily a bad thing — because it’s not your immune system’s only form of protection against the virus.
“I don’t even like the term,” said University of Toronto immunologist Jennifer Gommerman. “And the reason I don’t like the term is that it implies that the immune response in its entirety is declining.”
It’s “entirely normal” for antibody levels to drop initially after vaccination and your immune response to the virus to become “contracted” over time, she said. But your body is also creating “highly efficient” memory B cells to fight off COVID-19 long term.
B cells work quickly to generate large quantities of antibodies in the weeks after vaccination, but they typically produce more effective antibodies as time goes on, helping sharpen the long-term response to a virus.
So while reports of waning immunity may sound concerning, that initial decrease in antibody levels may also be necessary in the fight against COVID-19, as it helps fine-tune the immune system’s plan of attack.
A new study published in the journal Science found “robust cellular immune memory” from B cells for at least six months after mRNA vaccination against all circulating strains of the virus — even the highly contagious delta variant.
The researchers found those memory cells, unlike the initial wave of antibodies, continue to learn how to fend off the virus months after vaccination and are actually getting better at it over time.
“That doesn’t sound like ‘waning’ to me,” Gommerman said. “There’s a natural contraction, but waning implies that something bad is happening.”
Breakthrough infections don’t tell the whole story
Reports of waning immunity and breakthrough infections have sporadically emerged across Canada in places like the Northwest Territories and New Brunswick, but lack important context and data on who is seriously affected and why.
The N.W.T. has been in the midst of a COVID-19 outbreak since mid-August that started in the Sahtu region before spreading to Yellowknife and its surrounding communities. It has infected 1,584 residents.
During that time, there have been 54 hospitalizations attributed to the outbreak, about 17 of which were among fully vaccinated people. A government spokesperson declined to comment on how many of the nine deaths in the territory were among those fully vaccinated.
WATCH | Concerns over waning immunity leads to expansion of boosters in N.W.T.:
Northwest Territories Chief Public Health Officer Dr. Kami Kandola talks about the impact of the fourth wave and why the territory is offering COVID-19 booster shots to residents as young as 50. 2:58
“New Brunswick has not identified confirmed evidence of waning immunity among COVID-19 cases,” a government spokesperson said in a statement.
In terms of national numbers, 94.7 per cent of all COVID-19 cases in Canada since Dec. 14 have been among those not fully vaccinated, as well as 95.8 per cent of hospitalizations and 94.3 per cent of deaths, according to the Public Health Agency of Canada (PHAC).
That means a total of 520 fully vaccinated Canadians have died of COVID-19 in the nearly 10 months since our vaccine rollout started, compared with 8,520 who were not considered fully vaccinated during that same time period.
“If we have 100 per cent or 95 per cent of the population vaccinated, almost all the cases that we see, including severe cases, will be in vaccinated people — just because most everyone’s vaccinated,” said Dr. Lynora Saxinger, an infectious diseases physician and associate professor at the University of Alberta.
“So that very rare outcome becomes the majority of the outcomes, and seeing an increasing number of cases in vaccinated people over time doesn’t actually mean that the vaccine works less well, necessarily.”
Underlying conditions key to breakthrough infections
PHAC says fully vaccinated Canadians who do get COVID-19 are also 79 per cent less likely to be hospitalized and 64 per cent less likely to die, backing up new Canadian data showing strong vaccine protection from infection, hospitalization and death.
But key information on the age, underlying health conditions or specific vaccine combination administered to those who were hospitalized or died from COVID-19 two weeks after their second shot is not available in Canada due to health privacy laws.
Older, frailer Canadians living with comorbidities in congregate settings, such as long-term care facilities, are at increased risk of breakthrough infections because their antibody levels drop “much faster” than in the general population, said Gommerman.
A recent preprint study from the Toronto-based Lunenfeld-Tanenbaum Research Institute at Sinai Health analyzed 119 Ontario long-term care residents and 78 staff over four months, finding much lower levels of neutralizing antibodies in the elderly patients.
Gommerman also stresses there’s an important difference between infections and disease.
“We expect people to get infected — even healthy people to get infected — as antibody levels decline, because the only thing that can protect you against a breakthrough infection are antibodies,” she said.
“But we have to think about who we’re looking at, and what underlying comorbidities might be there in people who experienced breakthrough disease.”
Other immunocompromised groups, such as transplant patients, have shown declining protection from COVID-19 vaccines, as evidenced in the New England Journal of Medicine from researchers at the University Health Network (UHN) in Toronto.
WATCH | NACI recommends COVID-19 booster shots for long-term care residents:
Amid a global debate over COVID-19 vaccine boosters, the National Advisory Committee on Immunization is recommending third doses for Canada’s most vulnerable, especially seniors in long-term care homes. 1:58
“If you are a healthy person and you’ve been fully vaccinated, you don’t need to worry about getting severe COVID-19,” Gommerman said.
“If you are worried about getting infected with SARS-CoV-2, you should worry because you have people around you who are not vaccinated or who are under-immune.”
Boosters for general population ‘premature’ in Canada
New data from researchers at the Institute for Clinical Evaluative Sciences (ICES) in Toronto, which has not yet been peer-reviewed, found fully vaccinated people over 16 in Ontario were highly protected against both infection and severe COVID-19 after eight months.
ICES’s vaccine estimates, which have not yet been published, show that protection against symptomatic infection does drop — from 94 per cent to 81 per cent — but protection against severe outcomes remained high, at more than 90 per cent.
“The main takeaway is that we don’t need to do boosters at this time for the general population. We can hold off and wait and see — and when we start seeing the waning, then that’s when we should use the boosters,” said Dr. Jeff Kwong, an epidemiologist and senior scientist at ICES.
“It would be premature to do it at this time and not in our best interest, because we’re allowing other variants to emerge potentially if we let the pandemic spread uncontrolled in other parts of the world [where] they’re not vaccinated.”
WATCH | PHAC reviewing data supporting COVID booster shots in Canada:
Chief Public Health Officer Dr. Theresa Tam says Canada’s Public Health Agency is reviewing the data supporting third doses of a COVID vaccine and will issue recommendations soon. 1:23
Saxinger said the vast majority of Canadians who get severely ill or hospitalized after full vaccination are the very elderly, the immunocompromised, transplant patients and people with certain types of cancers.
“That group of people, of course, they should get a third dose,” she said. “But even with a third dose, they still are going to remain vulnerable as long as we have circulating virus in the community.”
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