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Too early to discuss ‘immunity passports’ for COVID-19 recoveries, Trudeau says – Global News

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Prime Minister Justin Trudeau says it’s premature to talk of so-called “immunity passports” for Canadians because the science is unclear about whether people who have recovered from COVID-19 are protected from catching it a second time.

As provinces begin opening up their economies from COVID-19 lockdowns, Trudeau said on Saturday none of those recovery plans hinge on people being immune to catching COVID-19 twice.

Trudeau said he spoke to premiers Friday and they discussed a basic framework that provinces will use as they reopen businesses, schools and other institutions. The focus, he said, is on preventing the spread of the virus through physical distancing and personal protective equipment.


READ MORE:
WHO says ‘no evidence’ that recovered COVID-19 patients cannot be re-infected

“It is very clear that the science is not decided on whether or not having had COVID once prevents you from having it again,” he told reporters. “It’s something we need to get clearer answers to and until we get those clearer answers, we need to err on the side of more caution.”

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Trudeau was responding to a recent World Health Organization brief stating there is no evidence that people who have recovered from the virus have antibodies that protect them from getting infected again.

The WHO issued the brief in the context of certain countries announcing the possibility of providing so-called “immunity passports” or “risk-free certificates” to citizens who have already been infected.






1:43
Coronavirus outbreak: Canada’s top doctor says it’s not yet known if ‘immunity passport’ could be effective


Coronavirus outbreak: Canada’s top doctor says it’s not yet known if ‘immunity passport’ could be effective

Provinces have varying approaches to relaxing public health orders that were put in place to limit the spread of the novel coronavirus.

Newfoundland and Labrador and Nova Scotia, for instance, continue to urge citizens to stay home as much as possible, while New Brunswick announced Friday low-risk outdoor activities such as golf, hunting and fishing were permitted to resume.

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Ontario and Quebec announced they would present their recovery plans next week. Quebec Premier Francois Legault said his government would detail separate plans for schools and then for businesses.

Legault and the province’s director of public health, Dr. Horacio Arruda, have been pushing the idea of “herd immunity” as an approach to re-opening schools. That strategy involves exposing a large proportion of Quebecers to the novel coronavirus in a measured, gradual way, to help them develop a natural immunity.






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Coronavirus outbreak: Herd immunity ‘not a concept that should be supported’, Tam says


Coronavirus outbreak: Herd immunity ‘not a concept that should be supported’, Tam says

That theory follows the logic of a vaccination program. When people receive a vaccine, they are given a weakened form of the virus, allowing their immune system to build antibodies to kill it.

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“The idea is to go very gradually so that people who are less at risk can develop antibodies to be able to become immune,” Legault told reporters earlier in the week.

But Dr. Theresa Tam, Canada’s Chief Public Health Officer, warned against that approach Saturday. She said the federal government has put in place an immunity task force that will investigate how people’s immune systems are responding to COVID-19.


READ MORE:
Coronavirus: What is herd immunity and what does it mean for COVID-19?

She said that since many Canadians have followed physical distancing orders, the percentage of the immunized population is “quite low.” And despite evidence that the virus is particularly dangerous to older people and those with underlying health conditions, younger people are still at risk.

“So the idea of generating natural immunity is actually not something that I think should be undertaken,” she said. “I personally think that as medical officers, we would be extremely cautious about that kind of approach.”

The case count in Canada topped 45,000 on Saturday. The global death toll, meanwhile, went above 200,000.

Many of the deaths in Canada have been people in senior homes and long-term care facilities, which have struggled to manage outbreaks among residents and staff.






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Coronavirus outbreak: Canada’s top doctor says education on vaccine important ahead of potential COVID-19 treatment


Coronavirus outbreak: Canada’s top doctor says education on vaccine important ahead of potential COVID-19 treatment

Five of the six deaths connected to COVID-19 that were reported Saturday in Nova Scotia, for example, occurred at the Northwood long-term care home in Halifax Regional Municipality. There are 10 licensed long-term care homes and unlicensed seniors’ facilities in Nova Scotia with cases of COVID-19, involving 191 residents and 90 staff.

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The situation is far worse in Quebec, where 65 per cent of the province’s 1,446 COVID deaths have occurred at long-term care facilities, many of which are severely understaffed. Another 15 per cent of the province’s death total comes from senior homes.

In Ontario, frontline health care workers in facilities such as long-term care homes, will receive a raise of $4 per hour for the next four months, Premier Doug Ford announced Saturday.






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Coronavirus outbreak: Canada death toll hits 2,350 deaths as cases pass 44,000


Coronavirus outbreak: Canada death toll hits 2,350 deaths as cases pass 44,000

Aside from the long-term care homes, the premier said the bonus will be available for workers in senior residences, emergency shelters, supportive housing, social services congregate care settings, corrections institutions and youth justice facilities, home and community care providers and some staff in hospitals.

The premier made the announcement as dozens of protesters took to the provincial legislature to defy physical distancing measures set by the province.

“It just burns me up,” said Ford, who called the protesters “reckless” and “selfish.”

“We have health-care people working tirelessly, but then we have a bunch of yahoos sitting there protesting as they’re breaking the law and putting workers in jeopardy.”

© 2020 The Canadian Press

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Passengers at 11 more Canadian airports face mandatory temperature checks – CTV News

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TORONTO —
Transport Canada is expanding mandatory temperature screening to all passengers in 11 additional airports across the country.

The department announced on Tuesday that temperature screening has begun at airports in St. John’s, N.L. Halifax, Quebec City, Ottawa, Toronto (Billy Bishop), Winnipeg, Regina, Saskatoon, Edmonton, Kelowna, B.C. and Victoria.

“Since the beginning of the pandemic, Canadians have come together, made sacrifices, and done their part to help limit the spread of the virus,” Transport Minister Marc Garneau said in a news release.

“Our government has expanded temperature screenings to major airports across the country to support these efforts and as another measure in our multi-layered approach to help protect the safety of the travelling public and air industry workers.”

This is an expansion of the temperature screening program that began on June 30 at four of Canada’s busiest airports: Montreal, Calgary, Vancouver and Toronto (Pearson).

Any passenger found to have an elevated temperature without a medical certificate with a reason for this elevation will not be allowed to continue their travel and will be told to book another flight at least 14 days later.

All employees who work within the restricted area of an airport will also be subject to temperature screening.

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Feds announce plan to buy 7.9 million rapid COVID tests – CBC.ca

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Public Services and Procurement Minister Anita Anand today announced a plan to buy roughly 7.9 million rapid point-of-care COVID-19 tests from U.S.-based Abbott Laboratories.

The purchase is meant to offer other testing options to Canadians at a time when the country’s testing apparatus is being severely strained, with coronavirus caseloads spiking in some regions.

To date, the vast majority of tests have been done at public health clinics, with samples then sent to laboratories for analysis — a process that can take days.

A point-of-care test could be administered by trained professionals in other settings. The molecular test Canada is looking to buy — the ID NOW — can produce results from a nasal swab in as little as 13 minutes.

While Canada has announced this purchase from a well-regarded U.S. firm, the test itself has not yet been approved by Health Canada for distribution.

Proactive purchasing

“As with many of our agreements for equipment, tests and vaccines, we have pursued an advanced purchase agreement to secure Canada’s access to these tests conditional on Health Canada’s regulatory approval,” Anand said.

“These rapid tests will aid in meeting the urgent demands from provinces and territories to test Canadians and reduce wait time for results, which is key to reducing the spread of the virus.”

The U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) first issued an emergency use authorization (EUA) to Abbott for the ID NOW device in March.

Since then, some researchers have said the device has led to false positives in a small number of cases. The FDA re-issued a revised EUA on Sept. 18, saying that the test should be administered within the first seven days of the onset of symptoms.

Anand said that, beyond the Abbott deal, Canada will proactively purchase other rapid tests in bulk to supply the country.

With tens of thousands of tests being done each day, the demand is high.

The announcement comes as Health Canada bureaucrats in charge of regulating new testing devices are defending the government’s response to this point.

A lab technician dips a sample into the Abbott Laboratories ID Now testing machine at the Detroit Health Center in Detroit. Illinois-based Abbott Laboratories says its test delivers results within minutes. (Carlos Osorio/AP Photo)

Health experts — including Dr. David Naylor, the co-chair of the federal government’s COVID-19 task force — have for weeks been urging regulators to approve rapid testing to take the pressure off testing centres.

While other major Western countries such as the U.S. have authorized a number of point-of-care tests, Health Canada regulators have been slow to give the necessary approvals to deploy these devices.

Regulators approved Cepheid’s Xpert Xpress SARS-CoV-2 device in late March, a test that can be used in both lab and point of care settings.

The next approval for a point-of-care device — one that could be used in a doctor’s office or a walk-in clinic — only came last week.

On Sept. 23, Health Canada approved for use in Canada the Hyris bCube — a portable device that its Guelph, Ont.-based distributor says can be used “wherever people are — anytime, anywhere.”

The regulator hasn’t yet approved any antigen tests — a different form of testing that can be easily deployed to high-risk workplaces and schools to help identify positive COVID-19 cases.

In fact, Health Canada only posted guidance for antigen device manufacturers to its website today, seven months into the pandemic.

The antigen tests — which, depending on the device, use matter collected from a nasal or throat swab — don’t require the use of a lab to generate results.

While much faster, these tests are considered by some to be less accurate than the “gold standard” — the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) testing process currently in use across Canada.

U.S. President Donald Trump opens a box containing the ID NOW testing device during a coronavirus briefing at the White House in March. (Alex Brandon/AP Photo)

Antigen testing devices like Quidel Corporation’s Sofia 2 SARS, which received emergency authorization from the U.S. FDA in May, can produce results in less than 20 minutes. As of Tuesday, Quidel’s device was listed as “under review” by Health Canada.

Antigen tests have been used in thousands of U.S. long-term care homes for months.

Speaking to reporters on teleconference about Health Canada’s progress, Dr. Supriya Sharma, senior medical adviser to the department’s deputy minister, said she doesn’t think the authorization process has been slow to this point.

She said Canada’s regulatory regime is different from what’s in place in the U.S. and the department has been focused on approving lab-based PCR testing devices.

“I don’t think we’re slow. We’ve got staff working flat out,” she said. “There’s no file sitting on anyone’s desk not being looked at.”

Sharma said it’s difficult to state exactly when the Abbott test or an antigen test will be approved for use in Canada.

“Antigen testing is our number one priority and we are doing everything that we can to review these tests to ensure they are available to Canadians,” she said.

“We have increased the efficiency and we’re streamlining those review processes. We’re committed to getting a company a decision within 40 days,” she said, adding that the pre-pandemic process often would take months to complete.

She said regulators will not be rushed, citing the risk of approving a faulty test that tells people they’re clear of COVID-19 when they’re actually infected.

“A test that doesn’t meet this criteria could have devastating consequences for Canadians,” Sharma said.

When asked if the department was reluctant to approve new devices because of past missteps, Sharma conceded Health Canada’s early decision to authorize a device from Ottawa-based Spartan Bioscience — a test that later proved faulty — resulted in some “lessons learned” for regulators. In May, the National Microbiology Lab found problems with the test that made it unreliable.

While Canadian regulators have not yet given the green light, the World Health Organization (WHO) announced on Monday a plan to send 120 million COVID-19 antigen tests to low- and middle-income countries over the next six months to dramatically expand access to testing in places where PCR isn’t viable due to limited laboratory capacity.

The WHO touted these tests as “highly portable, reliable and easy to administer, making testing possible in near-person, decentralized healthcare settings.”

“High-quality rapid tests show us where the virus is hiding, which is key to quickly tracing and isolating contacts and breaking the chains of transmission,” Dr. Tedros Adhanom Ghebreyesus, the director general of the WHO, said in announcing the plan.

“The tests are a critical tool for governments as they look to reopen economies and ultimately save both lives and livelihoods.”

Asked about the WHO plan after a meeting with UN officials, Prime Minister Justin Trudeau told reporters Canada would rely on its own scientists to determine which devices should be used here at home.

WATCH: Trudeau is asked about rapid COVID-19 tests

Prime Minister Justin Trudeau appeared in a United Nations video conference on the COVID-19 crisis 0:47

“As much as we’d love to see those tests as quickly as possible, we’re not going to tell our scientists how to do their job and do that work. We are, however, ensuring that as soon as those approvals happen, we are ready to deliver these tests across the country,” he said.

Raywat Deonandan, an associate professor at the University of Ottawa and an expert in epidemiology, said that while antigen tests can be less sensitive than PCR tests, they can be useful for “reassurance” purposes.

“If someone needs a negative test to go back to work, we’ll use this,” Deonandan said in an interview.

“We need more creative tools on the table and this is one creative tool — again, with the caveat that it matters entirely how you use it, where you use it and by whom,” he said, adding that he believes antigen tests shouldn’t be a primary diagnostic tool.

While antigen tests can be less accurate, they’re also cheap to produce and easy to administer. That means they can be used multiple times to ensure a more accurate reading — not unlike a home pregnancy test.

“The advantage of these types of tests is that you can do them frequently,” said Ashleigh Tuite, an assistant professor at the University of Toronto and an infectious disease researcher.

“You could do it the day that you were going to visit the person who you cared about and it would basically tell you at that point in time, are you infectious? That’s incredibly powerful information.

“It just makes common sense — use every tool you have.”

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COVID-19 in Canada will get worse before it gets better, and here's why – CBC.ca

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Cases of COVID-19 will likely continue to climb in Canada’s most populous provinces for a while even if people start to hunker down, experts say, because of the nature of the infection.

Epidemiologists look at the effective reproductive number of COVID-19, which describes how many other people an infected person will pass the coronavirus onto on average.

Public health experts like to see the value significantly below one so cases don’t snowball and spread out of control.

The effective reproductive number of COVID-19 in Canada continues to hover at 1.4, the Public Health Agency of Canada reported on Friday. That means for every 10 people who test positive for COVID-19, they’ll likely infect 14 others who then pass it on to 20 others and so on.

Christopher Labos, a physician in Montreal with an epidemiology degree, said the effective reproductive number also varies depending on the population in which a virus is spreading.

“If nothing changes, certainly it’ll keep rising and may even surpass a number of cases we had before,” Labos said. 

The doubling time depends on how contagious someone is, the likelihood they’ll contact and infect another susceptible person and the frequency of contact.

But Labos said there’s another important factor: individual changes in behaviour.

WATCH | Flattening Canada’s COVID-19 curve again:  

New COVID-19 infections are emerging at double the rate of just two weeks ago. Experts say the curve is getting steeper and the only way to bend it back is to change behaviours — fast. 3:28

“We probably will see rising case numbers in the next few days, maybe in the next few weeks. But if we take action now and control stuff, we might see this virus plateau before the end of the year. And that’s really what we’re trying to hope for.”

To that end, Quebec’s premier announced on Monday partial shutdowns in areas with high case counts, namely Montreal, Quebec City and Chaudière-Appalaches, south of the provincial capital.

“We see that our hospitals are in a fragile situation,” Premier François Legault said.

As of Thursday for 28 days, visiting those in other households won’t be allowed (with exceptions), restaurants will be serving delivery and takeout only and other gathering places such as bars, concert halls, cinemas, museums and libraries in the affected regions will close, he said

To explain why, Legault said protecting people in school communities, hospitals and long-term care homes is a priority.

Sacrifices required to change course

“None of this is a given. We can change the outcome,” Labos said. “It simply requires us to sacrifice a little bit.”

Nicola Lacetera, a behavioural economist at the University of Toronto, first studied compliance with physical distancing during the start of the pandemic in Italy. He found that the more frequently governments extended lockdown dates, the more disappointed the public tended to get, which could lessen co-operation.

“People say, ‘Well, I don’t know anybody who has COVID,'” Lacetera said. “From a statistical point of view, it makes no sense. But people tend to over-weigh what’s closer to them, like having known someone who got COVID.”

When the public can’t see the health consequences of COVID-19 directly in their daily lives then Lacetera said making hygiene, distancing and wearing masks more of a habit, alongside consistent messaging from different levels of government and communicating the science, could help.

A woman wears a face mask as she walks by a sign instructing people to wear masks at a market in Montreal on Sept. 13. The city’s restaurants will face new restrictions this week. (Graham Hughes/The Canadian Press)

‘Targeted’ measures

Ontario’s Chief Medical Officer of Health, Dr. David Williams, suggested “targeted” measures are under consideration. His Toronto counterpart, Dr. Eileen de Villa, called for new limits in restaurants on Monday, such as reducing the number of patrons from 100 to 75 and requiring establishments to collect contact information from those attending.

De Villa also said the extent of spread of the infection in the city means the concept of the bubble or a social circle “no longer reflects the circumstances in which we live.” 

Jacob Wharton-Shukster said his Toronto restaurant would stay open until 2 a.m. before the pandemic. He voluntarily chose to close at 11 p.m. after watching what can happen elsewhere in the world late at night when people have been drinking alcohol.

“The numbers are doubling from last week, and this is all reasonably foreseeable,” he said. ” We would have had to have taken a mitigation strategy a month ago to see any result now.”

Epidemiologists agree, saying the effects of measures only become apparent two weeks down the road because of the lag when someone is newly infected, develops symptoms, gets tested and receives the result.

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