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World needs to up game against emerging infectious diseases: Tam – Vancouver Sun

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Dr. Theresa Tam’s comments come as Canada has now confirmed 77 cases of monkeypox, with 71 in Quebec, five in Ontario and one in Alberta.

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OTTAWA — Canada’s chief public health officer says the world must erect better defences against transmissible viruses as climate change and other factors raise the risk we will see more emerging infectious diseases in the years to come.

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Dr. Theresa Tam’s comments come as Canada has now confirmed 77 cases of monkeypox, with 71 in Quebec, five in Ontario and one in Alberta.

Globally, there are at least 550 confirmed cases in 30 non-endemic countries where the virus has not usually been found. It is the largest outbreak ever outside West and Central Africa, where it is endemic now in at least 10 countries.

The World Health Organization has not pinpointed where this current outbreak began, but WHO director general Tedros Adhanom Ghebreyesus said Wednesday “the sudden appearance of monkeypox in many countries at the same time suggests there may have been undetected transmission for some time.”

Tam said the cases in Canada currently involve a specific group of individuals that have close, intimate sexual contact, but that could change.

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“At the moment it hasn’t gone much beyond the initial risk groups, but it could happen and we need to be ready for that,” she said.

Public health officials have said while everyone is susceptible to the virus, clusters of cases have been reported among men who have sex with men.

Tam’s deputy, Dr. Howard Njoo, has said he’s mindful of the potential for stigma and discrimination and emphasized that the virus’s spread isn’t limited to any specific group.

Tam said from a broader perspective, Canada and the rest of the world need to be better equipped when outbreaks like this occur.

“Emerging infectious disease can always hit us,” she said. “And we should be as prepared as we can, which means reinforcing the global public health capacity.”

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Tam said improving capacity in every country “is really important” because with climate change and other factors there is more human and animal interaction, which is often how animal-borne viruses turn into human pandemics.

“I think we’ll see an increase in numbers of these types of emerging infectious diseases, and with good capacity, not just in Canada, but globally we can help to manage them and reduce their impact as much as possible,” Tam said.

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The first non-endemic cases of monkeypox were confirmed in the United Kingdom in early May. The first cases were confirmed in Canada May 19.

African scientists and doctors are weary about the sudden interest in monkeypox as it infects western countries, which largely have ignored the virus as it spread around parts of Africa.

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Tam on Friday called it a “neglected tropical disease.”

“We need to have better international collaboration and support in order to collectively learn together globally,” she said.

Monkeypox got its name because it was first found in monkeys in a laboratory in Denmark in 1958, but in the wild it is found mainly in small rodents such as rats, squirrels and shrews.

A global population exhausted following two years of the COVID-19 pandemic view the arrival of monkeypox with alarm and fear, though the virus does not spread through the air like the one that causes COVID-19 does.

Instead, the monkeypox virus spreads mainly through close contact with the virus on other humans or objects such as bed linens. While it can be fatal, it is most often not, causing symptoms such as fever, headache and muscle aches, and pox-like lesions on the skin.

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It can take one to two weeks for an infected person to show symptoms, and Tam warned that while we know a lot about how the monkeypox virus behaves in countries where it is endemic, we know little about how it may behave in populations that are both mostly unvaccinated against it and have no natural levels of immunity.

A vaccine created for smallpox is also approved for use against monkeypox and Canada has a supply of the vaccine. Some doses were already sent to Quebec to vaccine close contacts of known cases, and Tam said conversations with every province are ongoing to determine whether some should be “prepositioned” all over the country.

She said contact tracing is proving difficult and while there is no expectation of a wide-scale public vaccination campaign for monkeypox, the existing campaign may be expanded to try and bring the outbreak in Canada to a close.

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Kingston, Ont., area health officials examining future of local vaccination efforts – Global News

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More than 455,000 people in the Kingston region have been vaccinated against COVID-19.

Now health officials say they’re using the summer months, with low infection rates, to look ahead to what fall might bring, urging those who are still eligible to get vaccinated do so.

Read more:

Kingston Health Sciences Centre to decommission COVID-19 field site

“Large, mass immunization clinics, mobile clinics, drive-thru clinics and small primary care clinics doing their own vaccine,” said Brian Larkin with KFL&A Public Health.

Infectious disease expert Dr. Gerald Evans says those who are still eligible for a third and fourth dose should take advantage and roll up their sleeves during the low-infection summer months.

“Now in 2022, although you still might get COVID, you’re probably not going to be very sick. You are less likely to transmit and ultimately that’s one of the ways we’re going to control the pandemic,” added Evans.

He expects another wave of COVID-19 to hit in late October to early November and that a booster may be made available for those younger than 60 who still aren’t eligible for a fourth dose.

Read more:

Kingston, Ont. COVID assessment centre cuts hours for the summer

“The best case scenario is a few more years of watching rises in cases, getting boosters to control things and ultimately getting out of it with this being just another coronavirus that just tends to cause a respiratory infection and worst-case scenario is a new variant where all the potential possibilities exist to have a big surge in cases and hopefully not a lot more serious illness,” said Evans.

Public Health says they’re still waiting for direction from the province on what’s to come this fall.

“We’re expecting that we would see more age groups and younger age groups be eligible for more doses or boosters but about when those ages start, we have yet to have that confirmed,” said Larkin.

The last 18 months of vaccines paving the way for the new normal could mean a yearly COVID booster alongside the annual flu shot.

© 2022 Global News, a division of Corus Entertainment Inc.

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Monkeypox detected in Norfolk County | TheSpec.com – Hamilton Spectator

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The monkeypox virus has found its way to Norfolk County.

The health unit announced on Friday that a Norfolk resident has tested positive and is currently isolating at home.

Contacts of the infected resident have been notified, according to a media release from the health unit.

“There is no increased risk of monkeypox to the general public stemming from this case,” acting medical officer of health Dr. Matt Strauss said in the release.

“Outside of an emergency situation, if you have symptoms of monkeypox, it is important to stay home and call your doctor to be assessed. When seeking medical care, you should wear a high-quality medical mask and cover up all lesions and open sores.”

Monkeypox is spread by direct physical contact, most often by touching a rash on an infected person’s skin but sometimes through “respiratory secretions” if in close proximity for a prolonged period, the health unit said.

“Most people infected with monkeypox will have mild symptoms and recover on their own without treatment,” said the release.

Symptoms lasting between two and four weeks can include fever, headache, swollen lymph nodes, low energy, muscle aches, skin rash or lesions, sometimes starting on the face or genitals and spreading elsewhere.

The health unit says symptoms usually start between six and 13 days of exposure to the virus.

The Halton region recorded its first confirmed case of monkeypox earlier this month.

Close contacts of monkeypox patients are eligible to receive the smallpox vaccine, which also provides protection against monkeypox.

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Mass vaccination campaign against Monkeypox needed, experts say – Global News

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As the World Health Organization calculates whether to declare monkeypox a global health emergency, infectious disease experts are urging health officials to be more proactive and start ramping up vaccinations and surveillance — especially in African nations where the virus is most prevalent.

The WHO convened its emergency committee Thursday to consider whether the spiralling outbreak of monkeypox should be declared a “public health emergency of international concern,” the WHO’s highest level of alert.

But the United Nations agency is facing criticism over its treatment of monkeypox — jumping into action only after the disease started to spread in rich western nations.

Read more:

WHO to discuss declaring monkeypox outbreak a global health emergency

The viral disease that causes flu-like symptoms and skin lesions is endemic in parts of Africa, which means it is consistently present in certain regions. The continent has registered just over 1,500 suspected cases since the start of 2022, of which 70 have been fatal, according to the WHO.

By comparison, Canada has confirmed over 200 cases, the majority of which are in Quebec, and has had no deaths.

“There are more cases that occur in Africa on a yearly basis than have already been reported outside of Africa right now. And there are more deaths that have occurred in Africa from monkeypox than have occurred in the rest of the world,” said Dr. Sameer Elsayed, an infectious disease physician and professor of epidemiology and biostatistics at Western University.

Read more:

Monkeypox in Canada: 211 confirmed cases reported across the country

That’s why he believes Africa should be getting the lion’s share of resources to deal with monkeypox — and that should include mass vaccinations, he says.

“I think Africa needs to be looked at with high, high priority,” he said.

“It needs to be a mass vaccination campaign for monkeypox with the newer vaccines for people in the African continent, especially in the high endemic areas.”

He’s not alone.

Dr. Monica Gandhi, a physician and infectious disease expert at the University of California, San Francisco, says she also believes more people living in regions where monkeypox is more prevalent should be vaccinated.

“That will actually stop it in endemic regions in this non-endemic outbreak.”

That the WHO is only now taking monkeypox seriously is “profoundly problematic,” Gandhi says, given that the disease has been spreading and killing people in Central and West Africa for years.


Click to play video: 'Monkeypox has about half of Canadians worried, but most confident with health response: poll'



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Monkeypox has about half of Canadians worried, but most confident with health response: poll


Monkeypox has about half of Canadians worried, but most confident with health response: poll – Jun 17, 2022

“It’s been circulating since 1958. There are increasing outbreaks — a severe one in Nigeria, for example in 2017 — and it’s only really essentially when this has affected high-income countries that the WHO is jumping on it.”

Experts who have worked on monkeypox in places like the Democratic Republic of Congo have long taken note of rising cases while population immunity to pox viruses has been decreasing, due to lack of vaccination. This is why the world shouldn’t be surprised at the current outbreaks, said Anne Rimoin, an epidemiology professor at UCLA in California, who has studied monkeypox for two decades.

The COVID-19 pandemic has demonstrated how quickly a deadly virus can spread across the globe when the right conditions are present, so health officials ought to learn from this and start being more proactive, she said.

“When it comes to infectious diseases, in particular those viruses that have the potential for global spread, it’s much easier to stay out of trouble than it is to have to get out of trouble.”

In addition to providing vaccines, health officials should also be ramping up resources to study this disease and do more surveillance to get a better understanding of monkeypox and learn why it is spreading in new and unusual ways, Rimoin said.

Read more:

Monkeypox outbreak: Case count rises to more than 3,200 globally, says WHO

“We’ve given this virus a lot of runway to be able to spread. We have not been looking for it as vigilantly as we should be,” she said.

“I think we have to learn the lessons that we’ve learned with COVID-19 and that it is much better to invest ahead of time to get in front of these viruses, to do the kind of surveillance it’s necessary to be regularly updating our knowledge about viruses.”

Good disease surveillance is just as important in poorer countries as it is in “high-resource settings,” she added.

Like many countries around the world, Canada and the United States stopped vaccinating the general population against smallpox by around 1972, which means many on this continent are highly susceptible to pox viruses like monkeypox.

Given that scientists expect to see more emerging infectious diseases due to factors such as climate change, deforestation and globalization, the world should start getting better prepared for new outbreaks, Elsayed said.

Read more:

Monkeypox has Canadian researchers scrambling. Why, and how contagious is it?

This is why, in addition to calling for vaccinations and more resources to fight monkeypox in Africa, Elsayed believes governments in developed nations should also consider more options to protect citizens from pox viruses, including possibly re-introducing mass smallpox vaccinations.

“I believe that these vaccines should come on board again for the general population … but not (just) for monkeypox, but also to protect the world against perhaps a smallpox pandemic that can happen in the future, or even another virus that’s closely related to monkeypox but hasn’t reached humans,” Elsayed said.

He stressed this should only be considered after addressing the more pressing needs in Africa first.


Click to play video: 'WHO looks into reports of traces of monkeypox found in semen'



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WHO looks into reports of traces of monkeypox found in semen


WHO looks into reports of traces of monkeypox found in semen – Jun 15, 2022

Rimoin noted that when the world stopped vaccinating against smallpox, it opened a “gap of immunity” for populations to once again be vulnerable to it. And with the emergence of a number of new pox viruses in different parts of the globe, including mousepox, cowpox and camelpox, the world is not immune to new outbreaks, she said.

“We now have to really think about, How important is it for us to be able to keep pox viruses out of the population?” she said. “What are the stakes of allowing this virus to spread? And then acting accordingly.”

-With files from Global News reporter Reggie Checcini and Reuters.

© 2022 Global News, a division of Corus Entertainment Inc.

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