Our seemingly calm Sun can have a nasty temper that comes in the form of powerful explosions. The star’s unpredictable outbursts can disrupt satellites in orbit and be dangerous for astronauts. Though the flares are well-documented, researchers have never been able to pinpoint the cause of the erratic behavior. Now, the Sun’s incredible multi-staged “tantrum” may help scientists get closer to solving the long-standing mystery.
Solar eruptions come in three forms: Coronal Mass Ejections (CME), jets, and partial eruptions. CMEs and jets are both explosive and spew out a large amounts of energy and solar material into space. Partial eruptions start strong but fail to garner enough power for the particles to leave the Sun’s surface. Since the events have usually been observed separately, experts were not sure if they were related.
But the solar eruption observed in March 2016 had elements of all three explosions! It began with the Sun spewing out scorching solar material that was too large for a jet but too narrow to be classified as a CME. The violent eruptions were followed by a less intense partial explosion in the same location.
NASA researchers, who revealed their findings at the American Astronomical Society meeting on June 7, 2021, say the never-before-seen eruption indicates that all three explosions are triggered by the same mechanism. They speculate that the mechanism also helps reduce the intensity of the explosions in the Sun’s corona, resulting in the partial eruption. NASA has dubbed the phenomenon the “Rosetta Stone” solar explosion, after the Egyptian artifact featuring the same script in three languages: hieroglyphics, ancient Egyptian demotic, and ancient Greek.
“This event is a missing link, where we can see all of these aspects of different types of eruptions in one neat little package,” Emily Mason, a solar scientist at NASA’s Goddard Space Flight Center, said in a statement. “It drives home the point that these eruptions are caused by the same mechanism, just at different scales.”
However, Mason and her team are still unsure what causes the eruptions or why some are more explosive than others. Getting to the bottom of that mystery will enable scientists to predict these events hours in advance, providing astronauts, space agencies, and corporations time to take precautionary measures.
Resources: NASA.gov, Business Insider.com
A Mystery Rocket Left A Crater On The Moon – Forbes
While we think of the moon as a static place, sometimes an event happens that reminds us that things can change quickly.
On March 4, a human-made object (a rocket stage) slammed into the moon and left behind a double crater, as seen by NASA’s Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO) mission.
Officials announced June 23 that they spotted a double crater associated with the event. But what’s really interesting is there’s no consensus about what kind of rocket caused it.
China has denied claims that the rocket was part of a Long March 3 rocket that launched the country’s Chang’e-5 T1 mission in October 2014, although the orbit appeared to match. Previous speculation suggested it might be from a SpaceX rocket launching the DISCOVR mission, but newer analysis has mostly discredited that.
On a broader scale, the value of LRO observations like this is showing how the moon can change even over a small span of time. The spacecraft has been in orbit there since 2009 and has spotted numerous new craters since its arrival.
It’s also a great spacecraft scout, having hunted down the Apollo landing sites from orbit and also having tracked down a few craters from other missions that slammed into the moon since the dawn of space exploration.
It may be that humans return to the moon for a closer-up look in the coming decade, as NASA is developing an Artemis program to send people to the surface no earlier than 2025.
LRO will also be a valuable scout for that set of missions, as the spacecraft’s maps will be used to develop plans for lunar bases or to help scout safe landing sites for astronauts.
A new planet hunter awakens: NIRPS instrument sees first light – News | Institute for Research on Exoplanets
The Near InfraRed Planet Searcher (NIRPS) instrument, developed in part at the Université de Montréal and the Université Laval, has successfully performed its first observations. Mounted on ESO’s 3.6-m telescope at the La Silla Observatory in Chile, NIRPS’s mission is to search for new exoplanets around stars in the solar neighbourhood.
“NIRPS has been a long time in the making, and I’m thrilled with how this mission has come together!” says René Doyon, Director of the Observatoire du Mont-Mégantic and Institute for Research on Exoplanets, Université de Montréal, and co-Principal Investigator of NIRPS. “This incredible infrared instrument will help us find the closest habitable worlds to our own Solar System.”
The instrument will focus its search on rocky worlds, which are key targets for understanding how planets form and evolve, and are the most likely planets where life may develop. NIRPS will search for these rocky exoplanets around small, cool red dwarf stars — the most common type of stars in our Milky Way galaxy, which have masses from about two to ten times smaller than our Sun.
NIRPS will search for exoplanets using the radial velocity method. As a planet orbits a star, its gravitational attraction causes the star to “wobble” slightly, causing its light to be redshifted or blueshifted as it moves away from or towards Earth. By measuring the subtle changes in the light from the star, NIRPS will help astronomers measure the mass of the planet as well as other properties.
NIRPS will search for these spectral wobbles using near-infrared light as this is the main range of wavelengths emitted by such small, cool stars. It joins the High Accuracy Radial velocity Planet Searcher (HARPS) in the hunt for new rocky worlds. HARPS, which has been installed on ESO’s 3.6-m telescope at the La Silla Observatory in Chile since 2003, also uses the radial velocity method, but operates using visible light. Using both instruments simultaneously will provide a more comprehensive analysis of these rocky worlds.
Another key difference between the two instruments is that NIRPS will rely on a powerful adaptive optics system. Adaptive optics is a technique that corrects for the effects of atmospheric turbulence, which cause stars to twinkle. By using it, NIRPS will more than double its efficiency in both finding and studying exoplanets.
“NIRPS joins a very small number of high-performance near-infrared spectrographs and is expected to be a key player for observations in synergy with space missions like the James Webb Space Telescope and ground-based observatories,” adds François Bouchy, from the University of Geneva, Switzerland, and co-Principal Investigator of NIRPS.
Discoveries made with NIRPS and HARPS will be followed up by some of the most powerful observatories in the world, such as ESO’s Very Large Telescope and the upcoming Extremely Large Telescope in Chile (for which similar instruments are in development). By working together with both space- and ground-based observatories, NIRPS will be able to gather clues on an exoplanet’s composition and even look for signs of life in its atmosphere.
NIRPS was built by an international collaboration led by the Observatoire du Mont-Mégantic and the Institute for Research on Exoplanets team at the Université de Montréal in Canada and the Observatoire Astronomique de l’Université de Genève in Switzerland. Much of the mechanical and optical assembly and testing of the instrument was performed over the last few years at Université Laval’s Centre for Optics, Photonics and Lasers (COPL) laboratories by Prof. Simon Thibault and his team. The National Research Council of Canada’s Herzberg Astronomy and Astrophysics Research Centre contributed to the conception and construction of the spectrograph.
“After two years of integrating and testing the instrument in the lab, it is amazing for the optical engineering team to see NIRPS on the sky.” mentions Prof. Simon Thibault who is affiliated with the COPL and iREx and who overviewed optical integration and test phases at Université Laval.
Many Canadian members of the NIRPS have been working on site at La Silla for the instrument’s commissioning period and will continue to do so over the next several months to ensure the NIRPS’s scientific operations. The NIRPS science team, which includes several Canadian astronomers, is guaranteed 720 nights on the instrument during its first 5 years of operations due to their important contribution to the project. While the whole team was excited for NIRPS’s first light, it is safe to say that the best is yet to come!
The institutes involved in the NIRPS consortium are the Université de Montréal, Canada; the Université de Genève, Observatoire Astronomique, Switzerland; the Instituto de Astrofísica e Ciências do Espaço, Porto, Portugal; the Instituto de Astrofísica de Canarias, Spain; the Université de Grenoble, France; and the Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte, Brazil.
The Canadian NIRPS team, led by Université de Montréal/The Institute for Research on Exoplanets/Observatoire du Mont-Mégantic and including Université Laval, the National Research Council of Canada’s Herzberg Astronomy and Astrophysics Research Centre, and the Royal Military College, was awarded funding by the Canadian Fund for Innovation to build the NIRPS instrument.
Professor, NIRPS co-Principal Investigator
Institute for Research on Exoplanets and Observatoire du Mont-Mégantic — Université de Montréal
Tel: +1 514 343 6111 x3204
Professor, NIRPS optical engineering team
Centre for Optics, Photonics and Lasers — Université Laval
Tel: +1 418 656 2131 x 412766
Research Associate, NIRPS optical engineering team
Centre for Optics, Photonics and Lasers — Université Laval
Tel: +1 418 656 2131 x 404646
Rocket Lab’s CAPSTONE mission to the moon is key to establishing a lunar space station – TechCrunch
It may look like Rocket Lab is just launching a microwave-sized hunk of metal to the moon — but it’s crucial for our future in space
“Going to the moon is no joke.” So said Rocket Lab CEO Peter Beck, just days before the planned launch of CAPSTONE, a watershed mission for both NASA and the private space industry.
The mission is important, though you might not assume so based on the stats of the CAPSTONE CubeSat on its own: It’s about the size of a microwave oven and weighs in at just 55 pounds. But the end goal of the spacecraft’s roughly six-month stint in lunar orbit is to chart a favorable trajectory for a crewed station that will orbit the moon. Once established, that platform, dubbed Gateway, could unlock a whole new chapter in human space exploration.
Consider CAPSTONE (which stands for Cislunar Autonomous Positioning System Technology Operations and Navigation Experiment) the first in-space step in NASA’s Artemis program, an ambitious plan to return humans to the moon by the middle of this decade. The Gateway platform could be used as a way station for lunar landers, a resupply junction for astronauts exploring the moon — or even a transfer point for missions to Mars and beyond.
The mission isn’t just a big deal for the Artemis program and public space exploration: Notably, it’s the result of a patchwork of collaboration between private industry and the space agency. The list of partners on NASA’s website for the mission includes:
And, of course, Rocket Lab for the launch services.
CAPSTONE is launching aboard a Rocket Lab Electron rocket from the company’s site on New Zealand’s remote Māhia Peninsula. “This is the highest mass and the highest performance Electron has ever had to fly by quite some margin,” Beck said. “The vehicle is absolutely stretched to its limits with respect to performance.”
In addition to actually launching the mission, Rocket Lab developed a special variant of its Photon spacecraft for this endeavor, which it’s calling the Lunar Photon. That spacecraft will conduct a series of orbits over a period of around six to eight days, increasing the velocity and apogee of the orbit over time. Then, Photon will perform the final burn, called the trans-lunar injection, which will set it on its course to the moon. Around 20 minutes after the injection, Photon and CAPSTONE will separate and the CubeSat alone will conduct the remaining maneuvers to reach its target orbit around the moon.
“The moon is a long way away,” Beck said, referring to the complexities of Photon’s maneuvers. “You’re traveling at huge velocities. So it only takes a smallest fraction of an angle error or a velocity error, and you just shoot way past where you need to be.”
“It’s like firing a bullet millions of kilometers, and it’s got to be exactly in the right place.”
An unusual orbit
The exact orbit that CAPSTONE will be exploring is called a near-rectilinear halo orbit (NRHO). That orbit, in the shape of a necklace, will bring CAPSTONE as close as 1,000 miles to the moon’s surface and as far away as 40,000 miles. Although the shape is odd, it’s a very stable orbit, which means greater efficiency and less use of propellant. NRHO was up against competing orbits, including low lunar orbit and distant retrograde orbit, as the ideal trajectory for Gateway; but as NASA explains, NRHO is a “best of both worlds” option that’ll provide astronauts with easy access to the lunar surface, a continuous line of sight to (and communication with) Earth and access to deep space.
But testing the NRHO orbit is not the only point of the mission. The CubeSat will also help NASA understand navigation, or how to generate an accurate estimation of Gateway’s trajectory, and station-keeping.
“Because the NRHO is marginally stable, Gateway and CAPSTONE will both require a gentle ‘nudge’ about once a week to stay in orbit,” Ethan Kayser, CAPSTONE mission design lead at Advanced Space, explained in a Reddit post. “CAPSTONE will be using the same strategy to design and execute these stationkeeping maneuvers, which occur once each revolution.” The eight propulsion thrusters built by Stella Exploration will be key to conducting these maneuvers.
CAPSTONE will arrive at its lunar orbit on November 13. After a roughly six-month orbital mission, NASA plans to crash the spacecraft into the moon at the end of its life. The launch is set to take place during an instantaneous launch window at 5:55 AM EDT on Tuesday, June 28, so be sure to follow TechCrunch for live coverage and reporting on the outocome of the mission launch.
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