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HIV: an innovative therapeutic breakthrough to optimize the immune system – Canada NewsWire

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Most people infected with HIV-1 require daily antiretroviral therapy to control the infection. These drugs cause significant side effects without fully restoring the normal functioning of the immune system. Yet, a specific group of patients, called “elite controllers”, are able to live with the infection without any drug intervention.

“They represent an incredible model for detecting, at the molecular level, what needs to be improved for other patients,” says Professor Julien van Grevenynghe. “That’s why the team of immunologists wanted to find out what differentiates them from conventionally treated patients to develop new weapons against infection.”

Scientists demonstrated that the strength of elite controllers comes from their energy metabolism within CD8 lymphocytes. “Cells require energy, produced in the mitochondria to protect the body and carry out their functions. However, this energy is not used effectively by treated patients. Due to a deregulation of the metabolism, the cells are weakened in their immune function,” explains Professor van Grevenynghe, who has worked on HIV for 15 years.

Re-educating cells

This energy deficiency is not permanent. Indeed, the research team demonstrated that CD8 lymphocytes can be “re-educated” using a soluble protein that optimizes their energy intake and immune function. “The protein, called interleukin-21 (IL-21), restores mitochondrial energy metabolism through a cell recycling process called autophagy. For elite controllers, the degradation of lipid reserves through autophagy, or lipophagy, is highly effective,” explains the Ph.D. student.

“These results have an undeniable therapeutic interest, as the protein already exists! Moreover, the mere fact that elite controllers exist is proof in itself that we will one day be able to survive the infection without aggressive treatment,” Professor van Grevenynghe enthusiastically points out. “We might ultimately be thinking about ending the treatment. The cells could also respond better to vaccination and treatment with better energy efficiency.”

All the immune protection associated with CD8 lymphocytes comes from the presence of CD4 lymphocytes. These cells act as orchestra conductors’ cells of the immune system. Therefore, the research team wants to determine if CD4 lymphocytes also have a metabolic advantage. Ultimately, the group wants to test their therapeutic approach in humanized mouse models and even macaques.

An additional benefit of this breakthrough is that the results of the study would not be limited to HIV-1 alone. “A comparison can be made with other pathologies associated with persistent inflammation, such as cancer, diabetes and even COVID-19 with lung inflammation,” notes Julien van Grevenynghe.

About the study
The article “Lipophagy confers a key metabolic advantage that ensures protective CD8A T-cell responses against HIV-1“, by Hamza Loucif, Xavier Dagenais-Lussier, Cherifa Beji, Léna Cassin, Hani Jrade, Roman Tellitchenko, Jean-Pierre Routy, David Olagnier, and Julien van Grevenynghe, was published on January 18, 2021 in the journal Autophagy. The study was financially supported by the Natural Sciences and Engineering Research Council of Canada (NSERC) and the Fonds de recherche du Québec – Santé.

About INRS

INRS is a university dedicated exclusively to graduate level research and training. Since its creation in 1969, INRS has played an active role in Quebec’s economic, social, and cultural development and is ranked first for research intensity in Quebec and in Canada. INRS is made up of four interdisciplinary research and training centres in Quebec City, Montreal, Laval, and Varennes, with expertise in strategic sectors: Eau Terre Environnement, Énergie Matériaux Télécommunications, Urbanisation Culture Société, and Armand-Frappier Santé Biotechnologie. The INRS community includes more than 1,400 students, postdoctoral fellows, faculty members, and staff.

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SOURCE Institut National de la recherche scientifique (INRS)

For further information: Audrey-Maude Vézina, Service des communications de l’INRS, 418 254-2156, [email protected]

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The Prime 2.0 skin bundle in Valorant set to portray more aggressiveness than its previous iteration – Sportskeeda

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Riot is set to launch the Prime 2.0 skin bundle in Valorant with the next patch update on March 2nd.

Ever since its release, the Prime 1.0 skin bundle has been one of the most favoured skin bundles to ever exist in Valorant. With its fluid exhausts, dynamic controls, FX, and audio, it instantly won the hearts of most of the community, if not all.

With the next iteration of the Prime skin bundle, Valorant developers wish to add more aggression to the previously existing design.


The aggressive design of the Prime 2.0 skin bundle in Valorant

This time around, the developers aim to add a bit of aggression to the design of the Prime 2.0 bundle. They are looking to make a skin bundle that would stand out, while still keeping the basics of the Prime 1.0 bundle intact. Upon being asked what their motive was, Chris Stone, Senior Weapon Artist for Valorant, answered that the upgrade would feel like the evolution from a luxury sportscar to a hypercar.

In order for them to succeed in this matter, they took inspiration from various hypercar designs showcased in the Geneva Motor Show. With the Prime 2.0 series, they added additional exhaust ports and FX, which itself were direct inspirations from the hypercar exhaust backfire.

<img class="lazy-img" width="800" height="306" data-img="https://staticg.sportskeeda.com/editor/2021/03/8ce76-16146037202244.png" alt="Image by Riot Games" data-img-low="https://staticg.sportskeeda.com/editor/2021/03/8ce76-16146037202244.png" src="data:image/svg+xml,”>
Image by Riot Games

The aggressive design is being brought upon by incorporating more angular shapes into the models and emissive systems spanning from the front to the back of the weapon. Even with the introduction of the karambit knife, they aim to bring aggression to the usual melee variant.

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Upon asking what their biggest constraint was in the face of the aggressive design, Chris Stone added,

“We want players who own the Prime Vandal to feel like the Prime 2.0 Phantom offers something new but still feels cohesive with their collection as they play. In terms of color, originally in development, Prime//2.0 was rich dark blue, gold, and white, but after looking at it with the team for a while, it didn’t feel premium enough. I ended up going back in to adjust the textures and I’m happy where it landed with black, gold, and white. We also made the decision to not include Prime’s signature purple accent color this time around.”

Published 01 Mar 2021, 20:00 IST

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OnePlus teases ‘moonshot’ announcement for March 8th – The Verge

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OnePlus CEO Pete Lau is teasing a “moonshot” announcement on March 8th, when the company expected to reveal details about its next flagship smartphone, the OnePlus 9. “Something new is on the horizon” a teaser site reads, alongside a photograph that looks an awful lot like the famous “Earthrise” photograph from the Apollo 8 mission. That photo was taken with a Hasselblad camera, the 180-year-old Swedish company rumored to be partnering with OnePlus on its upcoming phones.

In the past, manufacturers have also used photographs of the Moon to advertise the capabilities of their phones’ zoom cameras for astrophotography, indicating that this could be a key feature of the OnePlus 9 lineup.

The tease comes days after tipster Ishan Agarwal told 91Mobiles that the company would be announcing three new smartphones — the OnePlus 9, 9 Pro, and 9R — and a smartwatch in mid-March. According to tipster Max Jambor, the company will announce the launch date of the OnePlus 9 series on March 8th.

Other rumors about the upcoming OnePlus 9 Pro include wireless fast charging at 45W. The step-down OnePlus 9 is expected to have a flat 6.55-inch 120Hz 1080p display, according to Android Authority, while the 9 Pro will reportedly have a 6.78-inch 120Hz 1440p display. Both phones are expected to be powered by Qualcomm’s Snapdragon 888 processor. A third phone, rumored to be called either the OnePlus 9R or OnePlus 9 Lite, could also be announced with an older Snapdragon 865 processor, Android Central reports.

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OnePlus 9R, 9/Pro plus OnePlus Watch likely to be launched in mid-March – 9to5Google

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It looks as though the OnePlus 9 series is set to arrive sooner than expected, with a likely mid-March launch event for the upcoming smartphone series plus the long-rumored OnePlus Watch.

New details have emerged alongside a dedicated page on the official OnePlus website stating that “Something new is on the horizon” with a further “Stay tuned, March 8” message dropping a huge hint that this is when the actual launch event for the OnePlus 9 series will be confirmed. It’s likely that OnePlus will simply confirm the event date on March 8 — something the firm has been known to do as they tease up the actual unveiling.

That’s not all though, as we have a greater insight into what will be unveiled at the OnePlus 9 launch event courtesy of tipster Ishan Agarwal and 91Mobiles. The latest information suggests that OnePlus will be lifting the covers off the OnePlus 9, OnePlus 9 Pro, and an affordable OnePlus 9R. These smartphones will be joined by the firms second wearable — after the recent OnePlus Band — the OnePlus Watch.

We previously were led to believe that the OnePlus 9R would be the “9E” and even the “9 Lite.” It looks as though it is now set to have the “9R” moniker, although it’s not entirely clear what that “R” stands for in this instance. This will be the first-ever extension of a mainline series with a more affordably focused device, which will supposedly come with the Qualcomm Snapdragon 690 chipset, 8GB of RAM, a 6.5-inch 90Hz display, plus a 5,000mAh battery according to Agarwal.

The OnePlus 9 and 9 Pro as you would expect are launching as the true flagship devices for the BBK-owned firm. We already know thanks to leaks that a Hasselblad co-developed lens setup will be present. While the rest of the specifications practically write themselves, we expect the Qualcomm Snapdragon 888 chipset, at least 8GB of RAM, a 120Hz display refresh rate, and 65W fast charging.

Naturally, the OnePlus 9 Pro will be the marquee smartphone and will launch with the highest specifications. That likely means a display resolution bump to QHD+ rather than FHD+ and some camera extras that are not yet known. An exact launch date for the OnePlus 9R, 9, and 9 Pro is uncertain, but we’d imagine it will be within a few weeks of the aforementioned teaser posts. We guess we’ll just have to wait until March 8 to learn more.

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