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Study shows that living in space makes your brain grow larger – Digital Trends

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A new study of astronauts who worked on the International Space Station (ISS) shows that spending time in space caused their brains to grow in size. But if you’re hoping that spending some time in space could boost your IQ, afraid not. A person’s intelligence is not related to the volume of their brain. In fact, changes to brain volume can indicate that a brain is unhealthy in some way.

In the case of the astronauts, the increase in brain volume was likely caused by the way microgravity affects fluid in the body. Normally, on Earth, our heart and other systems have to push fluids like blood up against the force of gravity. So blood will naturally flow down into your legs, but it has to be given a helping push to get it up to your upper body and head.

In an environment like the ISS where there is no gravity, blood and other fluids are not naturally drawn to the lower body. But our bodily systems continue to push fluids into our upper body. This results is fluids pooling in the upper body and head, which has a range of known side effects including the development of a puffy face and worsening eyesight.

The latest study indicates that this pooling affects the brain too. “That movement of fluid toward your head may be one of the mechanisms causing changes we are observing in the eye and intracranial compartment,” lead author of the study, Professor Larry Kramer from the University of Texas Health Science Center, explained in a statement.

An MRI scan of an astronaut’s brain before (left) and after (right) spending time on the International Space Station. Changes are marked by the arrows. Kramer et al, doi: 10.1148/radiol.2020191413

The experiment looked at 11 astronauts, using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) to capture an image of their brains before and after they spent time on the ISS. They found that not only were there increases in the astronauts’ brain and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) volume after spending time in space, but also that these changes persisted for a year after they returned to Earth. This suggests the changes may be permanent.

“What we identified that no one has really identified before is that there is a significant increase of volume in the brain’s white matter from preflight to postflight,” Professor Kramer said. “White matter expansion in fact is responsible for the largest increase in combined brain and cerebrospinal fluid volumes postflight.”

The findings are published in the journal Radiology.

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Tesla's Musk earns $770M in stock options, company confirms – Medicine Hat News

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By The Associated Press on May 28, 2020.

FILE – In this Sunday, Jan. 19, 2020, file photo, Elon Musk founder, CEO, and chief engineer/designer of SpaceX speaks during a news conference after a Falcon 9 SpaceX rocket test flight to demonstrate the capsule’s emergency escape system at the Kennedy Space Center in Cape Canaveral, Fla. Tesla confirmed Thursday, May 28, that CEO Musk will get the first tranche worth nearly $770 million of a stock-based compensation package triggered by the company meeting several financial metrics. (AP Photo/John Raoux, File)

DETROIT – Tesla confirmed Thursday that CEO Elon Musk will get the first tranche worth nearly $770 million of a stock-based compensation package triggered by the company meeting several financial metrics.

The electric car and solar panel maker’s board certified that Musk earned the big payout, according to a filing with the U.S. Securities and Exchange Commission. The filing says Musk can buy 1.69 million shares of Tesla stock for $350.02 each, but it wasn’t clear whether he had exercised the stock options. His payout is based on the difference between the option price and Thursday’s closing share price of $805.81.

Musk earned the options as part of an audacious compensation package approved by the board in 2018.

According to the filing, the board certified that Tesla had reached the milestones by hitting $20 billion in total revenue for four previous quarters and a total market value of $100 billion. The company also reached $1.5 billion in adjusted pretax earnings, but that must still be certified by the board, the filing said.

Musk has to hold the stock for a minimum of five years, under the terms of the compensation package.

Musk can afford to wait before cashing in on his latest windfall, given his wealth is estimated at $39 billion by Forbes magazine.

All told, the incentives approved by Tesla’s board in 2018 consist of 20.3 million stock options that will be doled out in 12 different bundles if the company is able to reach progressively more difficult financial goals. It’s one of the biggest corporate pay packages in U.S. history.

In order for Musk to receive all 20.3 million stock options, Tesla will have to generate adjusted annual earnings of $14 billion on annual revenue of $175 billion coupled with a market value of $650 billion. In the past four quarters, Tesla, which is based in Palo Alto, California, has reported adjusted earnings totalling $3.6 billion on revenue totalling $26 billion.

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Tesla’s Musk earns $770M in stock options, company confirms

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DETROIT — Tesla confirmed Thursday that CEO Elon Musk will get the first tranche worth nearly $770 million of a stock-based compensation package triggered by the company meeting several financial metrics.

The electric car and solar panel maker’s board certified that Musk earned the big payout, according to a filing with the U.S. Securities and Exchange Commission. The filing says Musk can buy 1.69 million shares of Tesla stock for $350.02 each, but it wasn’t clear whether he had exercised the stock options. His payout is based on the difference between the option price and Thursday’s closing share price of $805.81.

Musk earned the options as part of an audacious compensation package approved by the board in 2018.

According to the filing, the board certified that Tesla had reached the milestones by hitting $20 billion in total revenue for four previous quarters and a total market value of $100 billion. The company also reached $1.5 billion in adjusted pretax earnings, but that must still be certified by the board, the filing said.

Musk has to hold the stock for a minimum of five years, under the terms of the compensation package.

Musk can afford to wait before cashing in on his latest windfall, given his wealth is estimated at $39 billion by Forbes magazine.

All told, the incentives approved by Tesla’s board in 2018 consist of 20.3 million stock options that will be doled out in 12 different bundles if the company is able to reach progressively more difficult financial goals. It’s one of the biggest corporate pay packages in U.S. history.

In order for Musk to receive all 20.3 million stock options, Tesla will have to generate adjusted annual earnings of $14 billion on annual revenue of $175 billion coupled with a market value of $650 billion. In the past four quarters, Tesla, which is based in Palo Alto, California, has reported adjusted earnings totalling $3.6 billion on revenue totalling $26 billion.

Source: Tesla’s Musk earns

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Tesla's Musk earns $770M in stock options, company confirms – Business News – Castanet.net

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Tesla confirmed Thursday that CEO Elon Musk will get the first tranche worth nearly $770 million of a stock-based compensation package triggered by the company meeting several financial metrics.

The electric car and solar panel maker’s board certified that Musk earned the big payout, according to a filing with the U.S. Securities and Exchange Commission. The filing says Musk can buy 1.69 million shares of Tesla stock for $350.02 each, but it wasn’t clear whether he had exercised the stock options. His payout is based on the difference between the option price and Thursday’s closing share price of $805.81.

Musk earned the options as part of an audacious compensation package approved by the board in 2018.

According to the filing, the board certified that Tesla had reached the milestones by hitting $20 billion in total revenue for four previous quarters and a total market value of $100 billion. The company also reached $1.5 billion in adjusted pretax earnings, but that must still be certified by the board, the filing said.

Musk has to hold the stock for a minimum of five years, under the terms of the compensation package.

Musk can afford to wait before cashing in on his latest windfall, given his wealth is estimated at $39 billion by Forbes magazine.

All told, the incentives approved by Tesla’s board in 2018 consist of 20.3 million stock options that will be doled out in 12 different bundles if the company is able to reach progressively more difficult financial goals. It’s one of the biggest corporate pay packages in U.S. history.

In order for Musk to receive all 20.3 million stock options, Tesla will have to generate adjusted annual earnings of $14 billion on annual revenue of $175 billion coupled with a market value of $650 billion. In the past four quarters, Tesla, which is based in Palo Alto, California, has reported adjusted earnings totalling $3.6 billion on revenue totalling $26 billion.

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