A Superior Court judge has authorized a lawsuit brought by Quebec parents who allege their children became addicted to the popular online video game Fortnite.
Justice Sylvain Lussier issued the ruling on Wednesday after hearing arguments in July regarding the class-action request from three parents who described how their children had symptoms of severe dependence after playing the game.
“The court concludes that there is a serious issue to be argued, supported by sufficient and specific allegations as to the existence of risks or even dangers arising from the use of Fortnite,” the judge ruled, noting that the action “does not appear frivolous or manifestly ill-founded.”
The firm that brought the suit, Montreal-based Calex Legal, has drawn parallels to a landmark civil suit mounted against the tobacco industry in Quebec, which alleged an intent to create something addictive without proper warning.
“Our motion was heavily inspired by the tobacco motion just in terms of what we were alleging,” lawyer Alessandra Esposito Chartrand said in an interview. The manufacturer’s legal responsibility is “basically the same,” she added.
The parents alleged the game was deliberately made highly addictive and has had a lasting effect on their children, but the court did not go that far.
“The court finds that there is no evidence for these allegations of the deliberate creation of an addictive game,” the judge noted. “This does not exclude the possibility that the game is in fact addictive and that its designer and distributor are presumed to know it.”
One of the parents, identified by initials in the filings, said their son had played 6,923 games and got angry when his parents tried to limit his game time, including by putting a lock on the computer. Another child played more than 7,700 times in two years playing a minimum of three hours a day. All reported behavioural issues.
The judge authorized the lawsuit for any players residing in Quebec since Sept. 1, 2017, who have become addicted after playing Fortnite Battle Royale, made by U.S.-based Epic Games Inc., exhibiting a host of repercussions on activities including family, social, educational or professional.
There is no dollar figure attached to the lawsuit, with any potential compensation to be determined by the court.
A second category in the class action will look at in-game purchases, with the court declaring purchasers under the age of 18 could be eligible for restitution and a refund of their money.
As of Wednesday, Esposito Chartrand said 200 people have come forward.
Epic Games did not respond to a message seeking comment on Thursday. The defendants have 30 days to seek permission to appeal.
The company’s lawyers had argued before the court that the evidence provided was insufficient and that video game dependence is not a recognized condition in Quebec, adding that the American Psychiatric Association says there is insufficient evidence to classify it as a unique mental disorder.
The judge said those issues would be argued on the merits, but noted the World Health Organization in 2018 declared video game addiction, or “gaming disorder,” a disease.
“The fact that American psychiatrists have requested more research or that this diagnosis has not yet been officially recognized in Quebec does not make the claims in question ‘frivolous’ or ‘unfounded,”’ Lussier wrote.
“The harmful effect of tobacco was not recognized or admitted overnight,” he added.
A Quick Guide to Better CMM Maintenance
A coordinate-measuring machine, also known as a CMM, is a specialized piece of equipment common in high-precision manufacturing. It uses coordinate technology to measure and replicate the dimensions of particular objects.
CMMs are a lot more accurate than regular measurement gauges. This characteristic makes them the equipment of choice for quality assurance in certain industries, like aerospace, defense, and medical manufacturing.
Despite being a powerful piece of equipment and the most versatile measuring tool in the metrology industry, CMMs can also be quite delicate. They require the right environment and proper maintenance practices to maintain accuracy and reliability.
The Importance of Proper CMM Maintenance
It’s essential to clean and inspect each part of your machine to ensure it stays efficient and accurate. Preventative maintenance ensures that your CMM remains accurate and performs at its best. It also improves your machine’s longevity.
Without proper CMM maintenance, you could risk damaging your CMM. Repairs would involve operational delays and additional costs.
CMM Preventative Maintenance Tips
Preventative maintenance practices are ones your team could do by yourselves. It’s best to schedule regular maintenance checks for your CMM daily, weekly, monthly, or quarterly. These checks can alert you immediately to possible problems with your CMM.
Remove dust and dirt regularly
Clean and well-maintained air bearings ensure your CMM works as it should. These frictionless and stable bearings help ensure accuracy and efficiency. Dust and dirt can clog your machine’s air bearings, affecting its overall performance.
Aside from your machine’s air bearings, dust could also get into other surfaces and crevices. These tiny particles could affect your machine’s accuracy.
Handle Stylus Tips Properly
The stylus is the tip that makes contact with the object you want to measure with your CMM. Despite this significant role, the stylus can be fragile and require careful handling. Too much force could cause it to bend or break.
Clean your stylus with a cleaning agent and a lint-free cloth. Make sure to remove any residue from workplace materials.
Ensure Good Air Quality
Most CMMs use air bearings, and good air quality is essential to keep them running smoothly. Various air quality issues could affect machine performance and even burn out machine motors.
For air quality maintenance, ask and address the following questions:
- Do the lines have condensation, oil, or other contaminants?
- Is the airflow constant?
- Are you using the proper pressure?
When To Call a Professional
Most preventative maintenance practices are simple enough to be performed internally. However, some issues require professional attention. You can also conduct regular professional maintenance checks to ensure you don’t miss anything.
Below are some procedures that require professional assistance. Many CMM suppliers also offer maintenance services alongside their machinery.
Conducting CMM Training
CMMs are highly specialized pieces of equipment. To handle them properly, your staff needs professional training.
Training courses allow you to get trained by CMM experts on the tools and knowledge necessary within your industry. Regular training sessions also help keep you updated on industry trends and standards.
CMM sensors are critical to your machine’s speed and accuracy. They should be professionally inspected and calibrated annually.
Routine sensor maintenance can significantly improve the efficiency and accuracy of your machine. CMM sensors include the following:
- Scanning probe
- Single point laser
- Line laser
- Electronic touch trigger probe
- Video camera
Neglected air bearings could cause them to falter in their accuracy and stability. Properly maintained air bearings ensure a smooth, stable, and accurate measurement process.
A professional metrology company can thoroughly inspect your air bearings to prevent further machine damage.
A CMM is a significant investment for any business. Good maintenance practices help your machine last and perform at its best, thus making the most out of this investment.
Nintendo’s discounted Switch game vouchers are back
Nintendo’s Switch Online service has become a better deal over time, offering more perks than just the ability to play games online. On top of getting access to SNES and NES classics, and cloud save backups (for most games, save a couple dozen), Nintendo announced an even bigger perk yesterday: discounted game vouchers.
All subscribers can buy a two-pack of these vouchers for $99.98, and a huge range of first-party (in other words, typically discount-averse) Nintendo games are looped in. I encourage you to check out the full list, but some highlights include the brand-new Fire Emblem Engage, Kirby’s Return to Dream Land Deluxe, Bayonetta Origins: Cereza and the Lost Demon, Metroid Dread, Splatoon 3, The Legend of Zelda: Breath of the Wild, and Pokémon Scarlet and Violet. Important note: you both have to be a subscriber to buy and use these vouchers.
It’s great that this list is more expansive than Nintendo’s first swing at this deal in 2019. But this perk could actually turn Switch Online into a must-have service because it allows you to pre-purchase up to four sets of vouchers (totaling eight games), and keep them for 12 months from the date of purchase. With $20 in savings with each pair of vouchers, buying four bundles will save you up to $80, assuming that each title normally costs $59.99. If you buy a lot of games, this is a smart way to save a little bit of money on every forthcoming purchase.
I know what you might be thinking: “Can I use one on The Legend of Zelda: Tears of the Kingdom?” Nintendo has not currently listed the deliriously anticipated sequel to Breath of the Wild, which is set to release on May 12th, 2023. Polygon has reached out to Nintendo to see if it’ll eventually become eligible, but did not hear back in time for publication.
You can get a free seven-day trial for Switch Online here, and you can easily subscribe to the service directly from the Switch’s eShop (it costs $3.99 per month, $7.99 for three months, or $19.99 per year). However, you can purchase (or gift) a one-year subscription with a digital code via Best Buy for $19.99. With a family subscription that costs $34.99 per year, up to eight Switch accounts can reap the perks of Switch Online.
For players who want all the perks, access to Goldeneye 007 and other N64 and Sega Genesis games, and complimentary DLC for some Switch games like Mario Kart 8 Deluxe, you’ll need Nintendo’s Switch Online plus the Expansion Pack tier, which costs $49.99 per year for one account, or $79.99 per year for a family subscription.
Canadian discovery could help batteries last longer
A chance discovery in a Canadian laboratory could help extend the life of laptop, phone and electric car batteries.
According to scientists from Dalhousie University in Halifax, common adhesive tape in batteries may be the reason many devices lose some of their power while off or not being used, which is a phenomenon known as self-discharge.
“In our laboratory we do many highly complex experiments to improve batteries, but this time we discovered a very simple thing,” Michael Metzger, an assistant professor in Dalhousie University’s physics and atmospheric science department, said in a news release. “In commercial battery cells there is tape—like Scotch tape—that holds the electrodes together and there is a chemical decomposition of this tape, which creates a molecule that leads to the self-discharge.”
The solution is simple, too, Metzger says: replace the polyethylene terephthalate, or PET, plastic tape commonly used inside batteries with something more durable and stable.
“It’s a commercially relevant discovery,” Metzger said. “It’s a small thing but it can definitely help improve battery cells.”
Metzger and his team have been trying to understand why lithium-ion battery cells in inactive devices tend to lose some of their power and self-discharge, something that has long frustrated consumers and manufacturers alike.
“Every manufacturer of lithium-ion cells in the world wants to make self-discharge as small as possible,” Metzger told CTVNews.ca in a joint statement with graduate student Anu Adamson. “In every battery there is a small rate of self-discharge that slowly drains the battery. This is very inconvenient for users and a big headache for industry.”
The electrodes that power batteries are separated by an electrolyte solution that is usually a form of lithium. After exposing several battery cells to different temperatures, researchers were surprised to see that electrolyte solution had turned bright red when it normally should be clear, which was something they had never encountered. The discovery was made by Adamson and two other students.
Chemical analysis of the red electrolyte solution revealed that at higher temperatures, a new molecule had been created inside the battery through the decomposition of common PET adhesive tape, which is often used to hold components together inside batteries. Strong and lightweight, PET is also frequently used for plastic packaging, drink bottles, clothing fibres and more.
Researchers realized that the red molecule, dimethyl terephthalate, was acting as a redox shuttle, meaning that it can transport electrons between a battery’s positive and negative electrodes, creating self-discharge and depleting power even when a battery is not in use. Ideally, the shuttling of electrons within a battery should only happen when a device is on.
“It’s a very simple thing—it is in every plastic bottle and no one would have thought that this has such a huge impact on how the lithium-ion cells degrade,” Metzger said in the news release. “It’s something we never expected because no one looks at these inactive components, these tapes and plastic foils in the battery cell, but it really needs to be considered if you want to limit side-reactions in the battery cell.”
“Since the PET in the tape is the culprit that creates the redox shuttle, we need to replace it with a polymer that is more stable and does not decompose in the harsh chemistry of a lithium-ion battery,” Metzger and Adamson told CTVNews.ca. “So far, the results look very promising, and we plan to publish a new research paper on improved polymers for lithium-ion battery tapes soon.”
According to the researchers, their work has been attracting interest from “some of the world’s largest computer hardware companies and electric vehicle manufacturers,” which are eager to reduce self-discharge and improve battery performance.
“We visited some of these companies and they are planning to implement more stable polymers in their battery cells,” Metzger said.
In the release, Metzger noted: “One of the engineers said, ‘I heard you guys found out something is wrong with PET tape.’ So, I explained to him that it’s causing this self-discharge and asked him, ‘What are you using in your cells?’ He said, ‘PET tape.'”
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