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Increase in release of underground CO2 emissions in Italy tied to earthquakes – Phys.org

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The amount of CO2 dissolved in groundwater is so large that, in some cases, strong free CO2 emissions are associated with the water discharges. The emission in the picture is located at San Vittorino plain (Rieti) about 30 km far from the epicenter of the April 2009 L’Aquila earthquake. Credit: Giovanni Chiodini – INGV (first author)

A team of researchers affiliated with several institutions in Italy has found a possible link between increases in CO2 emissions from groundwater and earthquake occurrences in Italy’s Apennine Mountains. In their paper published in the journal Science Advances, the group describes their decade-long study of CO2 emissions in the area and what they learned about them.

Prior research has shown that dioxide in the air can become trapped in rocks—the resulting rocks are known as carbonates.Additionally, the carbon dioxide in those rocks can be released by heat from within the Earth and other tectonic forces. When the carbon is released, it tends to be sequestered in pockets belowground or in underground reservoirs. Carbon that makes its way into such reservoirs quite often ends up in the nearby water table, and can rise to the surface via springs. In this new effort, the researchers studied fluctuations in the amount of being released from at several sites in the Apennine Mountains near the site of the 2009 L’Aquila . They did so by collecting samples over the years 2009 to 2018.

As part of their study of the samples they collected, the researchers also looked at , which, in addition to normal seismic events, also showed occurrences of several small earthquakes. They found that levels of CO2 emissions from spring water in the area rose when there were earthquakes and then dropped again after the quakes were over. More specifically, they found that when quakes of magnitude 6 or higher struck, CO2 emission levels rose to an average of 600 metric tons per day. During quiet periods, CO2 emissions in the same area were typically between 400 and 500 metric tons per day.

The researchers suggest that pressure created by increases in CO2 gas underground might be the factor setting off the earthquakes. They further suggest that if CO2 does set off some earthquakes, measuring it might be a way of predicting some of them. They also note that their findings highlight a source of carbon emissions into the atmosphere that needs to be added to global warming models.

<div data-thumb="https://scx1.b-cdn.net/csz/news/tmb/2020/5f47921a41280.jpg" data-src="https://scx2.b-cdn.net/gfx/news/hires/2020/5f47921a41280.jpg" data-sub-html="In the Apennine mountains (Italy), the emission of CO2 of deep origin is well correlated with earthquakes occurrence during the last decade. In fact, during 2007-2019, the seismic events (including the destructive events of 2009 and 2016) were accompanied by evident peaks in the amount of deep CO2 dissolved and transported by the groundwaters in the area. In the diagram FCO2 (t d-1) indicates the total amount of CO2 discharged by the large springs in tons per day. Credit: Giovanni Chiodini – INGV (first author)”>

<img src="https://scx1.b-cdn.net/csz/news/800/2020/5f47921a41280.jpg" alt="Increase in release of underground CO2 emissions in Italy tied to earthquakes" title="In the Apennine mountains (Italy), the emission of CO2 of deep origin is well correlated with earthquakes occurrence during the last decade. In fact, during 2007-2019, the seismic events (including the destructive events of 2009 and 2016) were accompanied by evident peaks in the amount of deep CO2 dissolved and transported by the groundwaters in the area. In the diagram FCO2 (t d-1) indicates the total amount of CO2 discharged by the large springs in tons per day. Credit: Giovanni Chiodini – INGV (first author)”>
In the Apennine mountains (Italy), the emission of CO2 of deep origin is well correlated with earthquakes occurrence during the last decade. In fact, during 2007-2019, the seismic events (including the destructive events of 2009 and 2016) were accompanied by evident peaks in the amount of deep CO2 dissolved and transported by the groundwaters in the area. In the diagram FCO2 (t d-1) indicates the total amount of CO2 discharged by the large springs in tons per day. Credit: Giovanni Chiodini – INGV (first author)


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More information:
G. Chiodini et al. Correlation between tectonic CO2 Earth degassing and seismicity is revealed by a 10-year record in the Apennines, Italy, Science Advances (2020). DOI: 10.1126/sciadv.abc2938

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Citation:
Increase in release of underground CO2 emissions in Italy tied to earthquakes (2020, August 27)
retrieved 27 August 2020
from https://phys.org/news/2020-08-underground-co2-emissions-italy-tied.html

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New study suggests icebergs may not have sunk the Titanic eventually – haveeruonline

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<p class="canvas-atom canvas-text Mb(1.0em) Mb(0)–sm Mt(0.8em)–sm" type="text" content="From Popular Mechanics” data-reactid=”32″>From popular mechanics

  • The new paper has solar flare activity Contribute to sinking of giant.
  • Sun Emits a huge solar storm It can even cut off power on Earth.
  • The correct (wrong) type of solar flare may have hindered your navigation. and Radio, affecting giantTrajectory and structure correspondence.

<p class="canvas-atom canvas-text Mb(1.0em) Mb(0)–sm Mt(0.8em)–sm" type="text" content="Just when we think we know everything there is to know about the Titanic—unsinkable ship, giant iceberg, "I’m the king of the world," etc.—along comes fascinating new research that raises big questions about what really transpired on the fateful night of April 14, 1912. Did a weather fluke from space actually cause the Titanic to sink?
” data-reactid=”37″>When you think you know everything we need to know giantIt comes with exciting new research that raises big questions about what really happened on the fateful night of April 14, 1912, including an irremovable ship, a huge iceberg, and “I’m the King of the World.” Weather coincidence from space in reality giant Sinking?

<p class="canvas-atom canvas-text Mb(1.0em) Mb(0)–sm Mt(0.8em)–sm" type="text" content="🚢 You love badass ships. So do we. Let’s nerd out over them together.” data-reactid=”38″>🚢 You like bad belly. We do too. Let’s bother them together.

<p class="canvas-atom canvas-text Mb(1.0em) Mb(0)–sm Mt(0.8em)–sm" type="text" content="The new study's key finding is that the northern hemisphere was in the grips of a “moderate to severe” magnetic storm that night, which could have altered the Titanic’s navigational readings, affecting both its planned course and the information the crew shared about their location during SOS signals.” data-reactid=”43″>The key finding of the new study was that the Northern Hemisphere was in the grip of a “middle to severe” magnetic storm that night. giantExplore readings of affecting all planned courses and Information shared by the crew about their location during the SOS signal.

The idea is very simple. The sun is covered with sunspots, powered by an innate nuclear generator that burns at millions of degrees. These, in turn, are distinguished by massive explosions over the size of the Earth, i.e. solar flares.

<p class="canvas-atom canvas-text Mb(1.0em) Mb(0)–sm Mt(0.8em)–sm" type="text" content="“In a matter of just a few minutes they heat material to many millions of degrees and release as much energy as a billion megatons of TNT,” NASA explains. These flares are often caused by magnetic changes or crashes, and their explosions cause magnetic ripples through the solar system.” data-reactid=”45″>“In just a few minutes, it heats the material to millions of degrees and releases as much energy as billions of megatons of TNT.” NASA explains. These flares are often caused by magnetic changes or collisions, and explosions cause magnetic ripples through the solar system.

It is intuitively understandable that the hottest things in the solar system swirl and experience extreme responses to a changing magnetic field. One of the reasons Earth is a successful habitat for life is that humans have a protective magnetic field that reflects huge amounts of solar radiation and cosmic winds. Otherwise, it will blow us to the surface of a planet like the bald, lifeless Mars.

<p class="canvas-atom canvas-text Mb(1.0em) Mb(0)–sm Mt(0.8em)–sm" type="text" content="This magnetic field also shifts and changes over time, especially as the magnetic poles move around Earth’s surface. Both animals and humans have learned to rely on the magnetic poles, in the form of manmade devices like compasses as well as animals’ sense for migration and navigation. Compasses, like clocks, must be adjusted to the correct units—like accounting for magnetic north as it moves around in a normal way.” data-reactid=”47″>This magnetic field moves and changes over time, especially as the stimulus moves around the Earth’s surface. Both animals and humans have learned to rely on stimuli in the form of artificial devices such as compasses. Animal sense of movement and navigation. A compass like a watch should be adjusted in the correct units as follows: Explain magnetic north It moves in the normal way.

<p class="canvas-atom canvas-text Mb(1.0em) Mb(0)–sm Mt(0.8em)–sm" type="text" content="It’s here that we rejoin the Titanic. Paper author Mila Zinkova has published four previous papers about the Titanic in the journal RMetS Weather, exploring a theory that mirages or other visual distortions played a part in the sinking. Now, Zinkova is using weather and space data to explore a different theory.” data-reactid=”48″>Here we are again giant. Paper author Mila Zinkova said Published 4 previous papers on giant In the journal RMetS Weather, A mirage, or other visual distortion contributed to the sinking. Now Zinkova is exploring other theories using weather and space data.

<p class="canvas-atom canvas-text Mb(1.0em) Mb(0)–sm Mt(0.8em)–sm" type="text" content="If a solar flare is severe enough, marked on that historic night by the telltale Aurora Borealis, it can skew the Earth’s magnetic field and wreak havoc with magnetic instruments like compasses. Even today, solar flares interfere with the electrical grid and space traffic, and truly precious file backups may be kept in protective Faraday cages.” data-reactid=”49″>If the solar flare is severe enough, and marked by Aurora Borealis on that historic night, it can distort the Earth’s magnetic field and cause confusion with magnetic devices like compasses. Even today, solar flares disrupt power grids and space traffic, and prevent valuable file backups. Can be stored in a protective Faraday cage..

Photo courtesy: Paramount-20th Century Fox

Photo courtesy: Paramount-20th Century Fox

<p class="canvas-atom canvas-text Mb(1.0em) Mb(0)–sm Mt(0.8em)–sm" type="text" content="Zinkova posits that the impact on compasses affected the coordinates reported in distress signals. “The Titanic’s Fourth Officer Joseph Boxhall worked out the ship’s SOS position. Boxhall’s position was around 13 nautical miles (24 km) off their real position,” Zinkova writes.” data-reactid=”70″>Zinkova assumes that the effect on the compass affects the coordinates reported in the distress signal. “that much Titanic 4th Joseph Box Hall located the ship’s SOS. Boxhall’s location was about 24 kilometers (13 nautical miles) from its actual location,” wrote Zinkova.

<p class="canvas-atom canvas-text Mb(1.0em) Mb(0)–sm Mt(0.8em)–sm" type="text" content="But the rescue ship Carpathia likely had the same wrong information. “The compasses of the Carpathia could have been under the influence of the geomagnetic storm for 5.5 hours, before and after she received the Titanic’s SOS, and until she reached the lifeboats,” Zinkova continues. “Therefore, a possible combined compass error could have been one of the factors that contributed to the successful rescue of the Titanic survivors.”” data-reactid=”71″>But the rescue ship Carpathian You probably have the exact same misinformation. “Carpathia’s compass may have been affected by a geomagnetic storm. giantUntil she gets to the lifeboat, Zinkova continues. So the possible combined compass error could be one of the factors that contributed to the successful rescue of the Titanic survivors.”

<p class="canvas-atom canvas-text Mb(1.0em) Mb(0)–sm Mt(0.8em)–sm" type="text" content="This also points to how localized the solar flare phenomenon was. Ships in a certain radius received scrambled radio calls or missed them altogether. Back on land or even outside of the affected radius, everything seemed normal except when trying to contact or be contacted by the Titanic and other ships near it.” data-reactid=”72″>This also indicates how localized the solar flare phenomenon is. Vessels in a certain radius receive scrambled cordless calls or missed them all. Everything seemed normal, even when returning to land or outside the affected radius. giant And other ships nearby.

<p class="canvas-atom canvas-text Mb(1.0em) Mb(0)–sm Mt(0.8em)–sm" type="text" content="You Might Also Like” data-reactid=”73″>You may also like

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Northern municipalities put support behind satellite internet service – ElliotLakeToday.com

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The Federation of Northern Ontario Municipalities (FONOM) has cast its attention skyward in joining other Northern Ontario stakeholders calling for better access to high-speed internet.

At its recent board meeting, the municipal advocacy group passed a resolution indicating its support for Starlink, a satellite internet service being developed by SpaceX, the company founded by U.S.-based innovator Elon Musk.

“We know today our citizens require greater connectivity than 50/10 megabits per second,” said FONOM president Danny Whalen in a Sept. 16 news release.

“FONOM believes that the Starlink program is our best option.”

According to a report released by Blue Sky Net earlier this year, the average download speed of participants in a study of northern internet users was just below 9 megabits per second (Mbps) and the average upload speed was just above 5 Mbps.

But for the average user that relies on fast internet speeds for business, education and more, download speeds of 50 Mbps and upload speeds of 10 Mbps are required as the bare minimum to participate in those activities.

In 2018, the federal government’s Canadian Radio-television and Telecommunications Commission (CRTC) set a new target to have 90 per cent of Canadian households with services that deliver download speeds of 50 Mbps and upload speeds of 10 Mbps by 2021. But that goal is still far from being achieved.

Starlink is aiming to deliver high-speed broadband internet, via satellite, to locations where access has been unreliable, expensive, or completely unavailable.

It’s targetting the northern U.S. and Canada for its initial release in 2020, and has plans to reach “near global coverage” in 2021.

The FONOM resolution calls on the CRTC to provide Starlink with a basic international telecommunications licence, which would allow the company to conduct international telecommunications activities.

FONOM said it would also seek support from its partners for the Starlink program.

FONOM, which represents 100 communities in northeastern Ontario, works to better municipal government in Northern Ontario and improve legislation respecting local government in the North.

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Venus is a Russian planet — say the Russians – CTV News

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No longer confined to territories here on Earth, Russia has now staked its claim on Venus, saying it is a “Russian planet.”

This week, Dmitry Rogozin, head of the Russian space corporation Roscosmos, revealed that the country plans to send its own mission to Venus in addition to “Venera-D,” the planned joint mission with the US, the Russian state news agency TASS reported.

Rogozin was addressing reporters at the HeliRussia 2020 exhibition, an international expo of the helicopter industry in Moscow.

“Resuming Venus exploration is on our agenda,” he told reporters Tuesday.

“We think that Venus is a Russian planet, so we shouldn’t lag behind,” he said.

“Projects of Venus missions are included in the united government program of Russia’s space exploration for 2021-2030.”

The statement came the day after scientists revealed that a gas on Earth called phosphine had also been detected in the atmosphere of Venus.

Venus is similar in size to Earth and is our closest planetary neighbour, but it spins backward compared to other planets.

The study authored by Cardiff University professor Jane Greaves and her colleagues was published Monday in the journal Nature Astronomy.

The discovery of phosphine on Venus elevates it to an area of interest worth exploring in our solar system alongside the ranks of Mars and “water world” moons like Enceladus and Europa, Seager said.

“Our hoped-for impact in the planetary science community is to stimulate more research on Venus itself, research on the possibilities of life in Venus’ atmosphere, and even space missions focused to find signs of life or even life itself in the Venusian atmosphere,” Seager said.

According to the European Space Agency, the Russians do have significant experience when it comes to Venus.

Its website states: “Between 1967-1984 Venusian studies carried out in Russia were at the forefront of international research into this planet.

“Since then, Russia has still preserved its unique expertise in designing and developing landing craft for Venus and continues to define scientific tasks for those craft.”

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