NASA said Wednesday it had successfully trialed the fueling process for its new rocket, after technical issues a few weeks ago halted two attempts to get the behemoth off the ground and headed towards the Moon.
“All of the objectives that we set out to do we were able to accomplish today,” said Charlie Blackwell-Thompson, launch director of the program called Artemis 1.
The unmanned mission hopes to test the new 30-story SLS rocket as well as the unmanned Orion capsule that sits atop it, in preparation for future Moon-bound journeys with humans aboard.
The last attempt in early September to launch NASA’s most powerful rocket yet had to be aborted because of a leak while its cryogenic fuels—liquid hydrogen and oxygen—were being pumped into the rocket’s tanks.
Repairs were carried out and Wednesday’s test involved filling those tanks again.
Though a small hydrogen leak was detected during the test, NASA engineers were able to get it under control.
Last week NASA said it is now aiming for September 27 as the next date for liftoff. October 2 was set as a backup date.
“Teams will evaluate the data from the test, along with weather and other factors, before confirming readiness to proceed into the next launch opportunity,” NASA said.
Asked about the timing of the next launch attempt, Blackwell-Thompson declined to comment, though she said she was “extremely encouraged by the test today.”
US officials are also keeping a close eye on Hurricane Fiona’s trajectory off the coast in the Atlantic.
For the September 27 date to be possible, NASA must receive a waiver to avoid retesting the batteries on a detonation system used to destroy the rocket if it strays uncontrollably off course.
The next mission, Artemis 2, would take astronauts to the Moon without landing on its surface, while the third—set for the mid-2020s—would see the first woman and person of color on lunar soil.
NASA wants to build a lunar space station called Gateway and keep a sustained presence on the Moon to gain insight into how to survive very long space missions, ahead of a mission to Mars in the 2030s.
© 2022 AFP
NASA says delayed Moon rocket passed fueling test (2022, September 22)
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‘Planetary defence’: NASA targets asteroid in space collision – Al Jazeera English
After NASA deliberately smashes a car-sized spacecraft into an asteroid next week, it will be up to the European Space Agency’s Hera mission to investigate the “crime scene” and uncover the secrets of these potentially devastating space rocks.
NASA’s Double Asteroid Redirection Test (DART) aims to collide with the asteroid moonlet Dimorphos on Monday night, hoping to slightly alter its trajectory – the first time such an operation has been attempted.
While Dimorphos is 11 million kilometres (6.8 million miles) away and poses no threat to Earth, the mission is a test run in case the world someday needs to deflect an asteroid from heading our way.
Astronomers around the world will watch DART’s impact and its effect will be closely followed to see if the mission passed the test.
The European Space Agency’s Hera mission, named after the ancient Greek queen of the gods, will follow in its footsteps.
The Hera spacecraft is planned to launch in October 2024, aiming to arrive at Dimorphos in 2026 to measure the exact impact DART had on the asteroid.
Scientists are not only excited to see DART’s crater, but also to explore an object very much out of this world.
‘A new world’
Dimorphos, which orbits a larger asteroid Didymos as they hurtle together through space, provides not only a “perfect testing opportunity for a planetary defence experiment, but it is also a completely new environment”, Hera Mission Manager Ian Carnelli said.
Hera will be loaded with cameras, spectrometers, radars and even toaster-sized nano-satellites to measure the asteroid’s shape, mass, chemical composition and more.
NASA’s Bhavya Lal said it was critically important to understand the size and composition of such asteroids.
“If an asteroid is made up of, for example, loose gravel, approaches to disrupt it may be different than if it was metal or some other kind of rock,” she told the International Astronautical Congress in Paris this week.
So little is known about Dimorphos that scientists will discover “a new world” at the same time as the public on Monday, Hera mission Principal Investigator Patrick Michel said.
“Asteroids are not boring space rocks – they are super exciting because they have a great diversity” in size, shape and composition, Michel said.
Because they have low gravity compared with Earth, matter there could behave completely differently than expected. “Unless you touch the surface, you cannot know the mechanical response,” he said.
‘Behaved almost like fluid’
For example, when a Japanese probe dropped a small explosive near the surface of the Ryugu asteroid in 2019, it was expected to make a crater of two to three metres. Instead, it blasted a 50-metre hole.
“There was no resistance,” Michel said. “The surface behaved almost like a fluid [rather than solid rock]. How weird is that?”
One way the Hera mission will test Dimorphos will be to land a nano-satellite on its surface, in part to see how much it bounces.
Binary systems such as Dimorphos and Didymos represent about 15 percent of known asteroids, but have not yet been explored.
With a diameter of just 160 metres – around the size of the Great Pyramid of Giza – Dimorphos will also be the smallest asteroid ever studied.
Learning about the impact of DART is not only important for planetary defence, Michel said, but also for understanding the history of our solar system, where most cosmic bodies were formed through collisions and are now riddled with craters.
That is where DART and Hera could shine a light not just on the future but on the past.
Approaching storm may delay launch try for NASA moon rocket – CP24
Marcia Dunn, The Associated Press
Published Friday, September 23, 2022 5:01PM EDT
Last Updated Friday, September 23, 2022 6:13PM EDT
CAPE CANAVERAL, Fla. (AP) – An approaching storm threatens to delay NASA’s next launch attempt for its new moon rocket, already grounded for weeks by fuel leaks.
A tropical depression in the southern Caribbean is moving toward Florida and could become a major hurricane.
Managers on Friday declared that the rocket is now ready to blast off on its first test flight, after overcoming more hydrogen leaks during a fueling test earlier in the week. It will be the first time a crew capsule orbits the moon in 50 years; the spacecraft will carry mannequins but no astronauts.
Teams will keep monitoring the forecast and decide no later than Saturday whether to not only delay the test flight, but haul the rocket off the pad and back to the hangar. It’s unclear when the next launch attempt would be – whether October or even November – if the rocket must seek shelter indoors.
The preference is to remain at the launch pad and try for a Tuesday liftoff, “but there are still some uncertainties in the forecast,” said NASA’s Tom Whitmeyer, deputy associate administrator for exploration systems.
It takes three days of preparations to get the rocket back into Kennedy Space Center’s mammoth Vehicle Assembly Building, a 4-mile (6.4-kilometer) trip lasting several hours.
“I don’t think we’re cutting it close,” Whitmeyer told reporters. “We’re just taking it a step at a time.”
The 322-foot (98-meter) rocket can withstand gusts of 85 mph (137 kph) at the pad, but only 46 mph (74 kph) once it’s on the move.
This would be the third launch attempt for the Space Launch System rocket, the most powerful ever built by NASA. Fuel leaks and other technical problems scrapped the first two tries, in late August and early September.
Although hydrogen fuel seeped past newly installed seals during Wednesday’s dress rehearsal, the launch team got the leakage down to acceptable levels by slowing the flow and reducing the pressure in the lines. That gave the launch team the confidence to proceed with a Tuesday launch attempt, officials said.
Managers said that the 30-year space shuttle program also saw plenty of hydrogen fuel leaks and hurricane-related rollbacks. The moon rocket’s main engines are actually upgraded versions of what flew on shuttles.
Also, the Space Force has extended the certification of on-board batteries that are part of the flight safety system – at least through the beginning of October.
NASA has just two chances to launch the rocket – Tuesday and Oct. 2 – before a two-week blackout period begins. The next launch period would open Oct. 17.
Astronauts would climb aboard for the second test flight around the moon in 2024. The third mission, targeted for 2025, would see a pair of astronauts landing on the moon.
Neptune and its rings come into focus with Webb telescope – Kathimerini English Edition
No spacecraft has visited Neptune since 1989, when the NASA probe Voyager 2 flew past on its way out of the solar system. Neptune, which is four times as wide as Earth, is the most distant planet of our solar system. Voyager 2’s observations whetted the appetites of astronomers, who were eager to learn more about the ice giant.
Now we’ve returned. Sort of.
On Wednesday, the James Webb Space Telescope cast its powerful gold-plated eye onto this remote world. The power of this infrared machine, the largest and most advanced telescope ever sent to space, has provided some of our best views of Neptune in 30 years.
“I have been waiting so long for these images of Neptune,” said Heidi Hammel, an interdisciplinary scientist at the Space Telescope Science Institute in Baltimore, which runs the Webb telescope. “I’m so happy that it has worked.”
Ground-based observatories and the Hubble Space Telescope have taken many images of Neptune in the past three decades. But the Webb’s views of Neptune, taken in July, provide an unprecedented glimpse at the planet in infrared light.
It took just a few minutes for the telescope to image Neptune close up, and an additional 20 to take a wider view, revealing not just the planet but myriad galaxies behind it stretching into the cosmos. “It’s aesthetically fascinating to see those distant galaxies and get a sense for how small the ice giant appears,” said Klaus Pontoppidan, Webb project scientist at the Space Telescope Science Institute.
Most prominent in the telescope’s view are Neptune’s rings, seen encircling the planet at a slight tilt given its orientation to Earth. The Webb telescope will allow astronomers to measure the reflectivity of the rings, offering an unmatched insight into this remote spectacle. New images could reveal the size and composition of these thin bands, which are probably made of ice and other debris.
“The ring system was absolutely mind-boggling to me,” Hammel said. “I have not seen it in that level of detail since the Voyager encounter in 1989. It just pops right out.”
Across the planet there are bright spots believed to be clouds of methane ice, which rise high into the planet’s skies and can persist for days.
“Nobody really knows what these things are,” said Patrick Irwin, a planetary physicist at Oxford University. “They seem to come and go, a bit like cirrus clouds on Earth.” The Webb telescope’s future observations could uncover how they form and what they are made of.
Webb images also show seven of Neptune’s 14 moons. The brightest is Triton, the planet’s largest moon, which scientists suspect was captured by Neptune’s gravity early in the solar system’s history. In infrared images, Triton’s frozen nitrogen surface makes it shine like a star, brighter than Neptune itself, because methane dims the planet in infrared light. NASA recently declined to send a mission to study Triton, and not much can be gleaned about it from this image. But future Webb observations should hint at the composition of Triton’s surface and could show changes indicating geological activity.
“Triton is a geologically active world,” Hammel said. “When Voyager 2 flew by, it saw cryovolcanoes erupting. So there is a possibility that there are changes in the surface chemistry over time. We will be looking for that.”
Hammel also thinks a glimpse of Hippocampus, an eighth Neptunian moon, is pictured just above the planet. “It’s very faint, but it’s in the right location,” she said.
These images of Neptune are just the latest in Webb’s tour of the solar system. This week we were treated to the telescope’s first glimpses of Mars, while over the summer we saw amazing views of Jupiter. Much more of our solar system will come under the observatory’s roaming eye, including Saturn, Uranus and even remote icy objects beyond Neptune — such as the dwarf planet Pluto.
“It illustrates that we are an all-purpose observatory,” said Mark McCaughrean, a Webb telescope scientist and a senior scientific adviser at the European Space Agency. “We can observe very bright things like Mars and Neptune, but also very faint things. Everybody now sees that it works.”
This article originally appeared in The New York Times.
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